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The textile industry is becoming an increasingly competitive
environment. Differentiating products by quality is particularly
important. Testing can be performed both to improve product quality
and achieve compliance to international, regional or retailer
specific standards. Fabric testing provides a comprehensive review
of the tests available for fabrics.
Bale o' Cotton: The Mechanical Art of Cotton Ginning offers a unique blend of fact and folklore about cotton ginning, the process that takes cotton from the field, separates fibers from seeds, and packages the lint into a bale for shipment to market. It traces the development of the industry, the equipment, and the techniques of this integral facet of American life from its English beginnings in 1793, through its heyday in the American South, to its present technological peak. Out of the long days spent in the gin plant, a rich oral tradition developed, which included a broad sense of general history and an understanding of worldwide markets, an appreciation for the music of the machine (especially the steam engine), legendary individuals, and a folklore based on practical jokes. But the language, traditions, and cultural practices that developed around the cotton gin are now rapidly becoming extinct as modern technology eliminates the risks, inventiveness, and close working relationships between ginners and machines. To document and preserve the memory of this way of life, Karen Gerhardt Britton has collected material from numerous interviews with ginners, inventors, laborers, and historians. The abundance of illustrations and the availability of never-before-published archival material, thanks to the generous cooperation of the ginning industry, make this a valuable and fascinating resource for historians and lay readers alike.
Archaeologists and textile historians bring together 16 papers to investigate the production, trade and consumption of textiles in Scandinavia and across parts of northern and Mediterranean Europe throughout the medieval period. Archaeological evidence is used to demonstrate the existence or otherwise of international trade and to examine the physical characteristics of textiles and their distribution in order to understand who was producing, using and trading them and what they were being used for. Historical evidence, mainly textual, is employed to link textile names to places, numbers and prices and thus provide an appreciation of changing economics, patterns of distribution and the organisation of trade. Different types and qualities of cloths are discussed and the social implications of their production and import/export considered against a developing background of urbanism and increasing commercial wealth.
"Quality Characterisation of Apparel" covers characterization of performance, durability, and color fastness of apparels along with mandatory regulations on flammability, fiber composition and care labels. The unique feature of this book is that the topics are oriented on actual practical way in which manufacturing units, buying agent and retailers are facing challenges on day-to-day basis in their business. This would help the apparel industry people to cut down quality-related rejections and also would be of an immense use for textile/garment manufacturers, buying offices, retailers and the educational cluster of garment/fashion.
"Fashion Supply Chain Management Using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies" looks at the application of RFID technologies in such areas as order allocation, garment manufacturing, product tracking, distribution and retail. As supply chains in the textiles and fashion industry become ever more complex and global, and as the shift to mass customization puts more pressure on a rapid and flexible response to customer needs, monitoring and improving supply chain efficiency in the industry becomes crucial. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies offer a unique opportunity to achieve these goals.
This book reviews the role of RFID technologies in the textiles and fashion supply chain to improve distribution, process management and product tracking, garment manufacturing, and assembly line operations. It also explores how RFID technologies can improve order allocation in the supply chain, and how these technologies can also be used for intelligent apparel product cross-selling. Its chapters also discuss measuring the impact of RFID technologies in improving the efficiency of the textile supply chain, and modeling the effectiveness of RFID technologies in improving sales performance in fashion retail outlets.
"Fashion Supply Chain Management Using Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) Technologies" is a comprehensive resource for
academic researchers, industry managers, and professionals within
the fashion industry.
One of the greatest challenges for the apparel industry is to produce garments that fit customers properly. "Anthropometry, Apparel Sizing and Design" addresses the need for improved characterization of our populations in order to tailor garments according to size, weight, and shape of consumers. This book reviews techniques in anthropometry, sizing system developments, and their applications to clothing design.
Part one considers a range of anthropometric methods. The text discusses the range of sizing systems, including data mining techniques, useful for bridging the gap between ergonomists and designers. Chapters examine three-dimensional anthropometric methods and multivariate and bivariate analysis for identifying key body dimensions. Part two then explains how to analyze anthropometric data to develop appropriate sizing systems. Here, the book discusses classification and clustering of human body shapes, the importance of national surveys, and using the data obtained to ensure inclusive design strategies. The book covers sizing systems developed for particular groups, apparel size designation, and the potential for international standardization. It considers the advantages of 3D body scanning and computer-aided design, and the use of body motion analysis to address ease allowance requirements of apparel.
With its distinguished editors and international contributors,
this work is an essential reference, particularly due to the
specific combination of aspects of anthropometry and the sizing of
clothing, for researchers, garment designers, students, and
manufacturers in the clothing and fashion industry.
In King Cotton in International Trade Meredith A. Taylor Black provides a comprehensive analysis of the WTO Cotton dispute and its significant jurisprudential and negotiating effect on disciplining and containing the negative effects of highly trade-distorting agricultural subsidies of developed countries. To that end, this work details the historic, economic, and political background leading up to Brazil's challenge of the US cotton subsidies and the main findings of the five WTO reports that largely upheld that challenge. It explores the impacts of the successful challenge in terms of political and negotiating dynamics involving agriculture subsidies and other trade-related issues in the WTO while examining the effects on domestic agriculture subsidy reforms in the United States and the European Union. Finally, this volume sets forth the possible impacts of the Cotton challenge on the negotiating end-game of the Doha Development Round.
By looking at the decline of the jute industry, this study assesses the successes and failures of Britain's managed economy. It also addresses broader arguments about the political economy of twentieth-century Britain.
The aim of this book is to track the historical origins of China's economic reforms. From the 1920s and 1930s strong ties were built between Chinese textile industrialists and foreign machinery importers in Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta. Despite the fragmentation of China, the contribution of these networks to the modernization of the country was important and longstanding. Facing the challenge of growing in a fragmented country, Chinese textile firms such as Dafeng, Dacheng and Lixin focused on urban markets and also on importing technology for upgrading their production. When the war against Japan blocked trade routes inside China, these networks were concentrated in Shanghai where they envisaged an export-oriented development strategy for China that was based on importing machinery and exporting manufactured products. However, this strategy was only implemented precariously in Shanghai, while the city stood as a neutral space in the first years of the Japanese occupation, but was only consolidated in Hong Kong in the late 1940s, where textile industrialist and most of the foreign importers migrated. These networks were thus reestablished in Hong Kong, where they contributed to the city's industrialization in the Cold War period. Meanwhile, the Chinese industrialists that stayed in Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta had to adapt to the Maoist regime and were progressively incorporated into the state-owned companies or the local government agencies such as the United Front or the Textile bureaus. However, from the early 1970s, the links between Hong Kong and Shanghai were reactivated and these networks played, again, a key role in the modernization of China, especially regarding the imports of technology and exports of manufactured goods. The book ends with the first joint-ventures between Hong Kong businessmen and Chinese local administrations that took place in the beginnings of China's economic reforms in 1979.
This book provides insight into the potential for the market to protect and improve labour standards and working conditions in global apparel supply chains. It examines the possibilities and limitations of market approaches to securing social compliance in global manufacturing industries. It does so by tracing the historic origins of social labelling both in trade union and consumer constituencies, considering industry and consumer perspectives on the benefits and drawbacks of social labelling, comparing efforts to develop and implement labelling initiatives in various countries, and locating social labelling within contemporary debates and controversies about the implications of globalization for workers worldwide. Scholars and students of globalisation, development, corporate social responsibility, human geography, labour and industrial relations, business ethics, consumer behaviour and fashion will find its contents of relevance. CSR practitioners in the clothing and other industries will also find this useful in developing policy with respect to supply chain assurance.
This guide is a reference book that provides a comprehensive view of all aspects of the cotton value chain from a market perspective, and an overview of the world cotton market. It outlines factors influencing supply and demand, and market trends; considers major issues of the sector, including trade policy and WTO issues; deals with textile processing of cotton, cotton quality and its determinants, and cotton contamination; covers various aspects of cotton trading and export marketing; looks at e-commerce, the ICE Futures U.S. and other futures markets for cotton; reviews the market for different types of cotton, including organic cotton; and, presents market profiles of the main importing countries in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Thailand) and Turkey, with recommendations on how to approach their cotton-consuming textile industries. Annexes contain a list of international cotton associations, as well as lists of useful addresses and web resources.
After the Revolutionary War, despite political independence, the United States still relied on other countries for manufactured goods. Francis Cabot Lowell, born in Massachusetts in 1775, was one of the principal investors in building the India Wharf and the shops and warehouses close to the harbor. His work was instrumental in establishing domestic industry for the United States and spurred the American industrial revolution. Francis Cabot Lowell's Method-a detailed investment plan, cheap raw materials and power, a motivated labor force, a sound marketing plan, and above all, modern technology-became the standard for the American factory of the nineteenth century.
Information Systems for the Fashion and Apparel Industry brings together trends and developments in fashion information systems, industrial case-studies, and insights from an international team of authors. The fashion and apparel industry is fast-growing and highly influential. Computerized information systems are essential to support fashion business operations and recent developments in social media, mobile commerce models, radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies, and ERP systems are all driving innovative business measures in the industry. After an introductory chapter outlining key decision points and information requirements in fast fashion supply chains, Part One focuses on the principles of fashion information systems, with chapters covering how decision making in the apparel supply chains can be improved through the use of fuzzy logic, RFID technologies, evolutionary optimization techniques, and artificial neural networks. Part Two then reviews the range of applications for information systems in the fashion and apparel industry to improve customer choice, aid design, implement intelligent forecasting and procurement systems, and manage inventory and returns.
Performance Testing of Textiles: Methods, Technology and Applications examines the developed and established methodology for testing performance textiles, also summarizing the material properties for advanced applications. This book emphasizes reproducible tests using commonly used experimental methods reported in scientific literature and internationally recognized testing standards to quantify textile material properties and performance. After an introductory explanation of key fiber and textile properties and testing methods, the book summarizes electronic testing theories, technologies, and instrumentation for performance textiles. Also covered are aspects of military textile, medical textile, sportswear, smart composites, and wearable textiles which, as examples, present the latest research and results related to performance textile testing and applications.
Consumers spend approximately $93 billion on denim products every year. This consumption comes at a great cost, with thousands of litres of fresh water, hazardous chemicals and energy contributing to just one pair of jeans, leaving the environment and the industry vulnerable to pollution and climate change. Using facts, figures, case studies and anecdotes, this book investigates why the industry has been so slow to adopt green technologies and offers practical solutions to designers and fashion executives who want to switch to cleaner manufacturing, including those working in the `fast fashion' sector. It also offers advice to the eco-conscious consumer who wants to purchase denim more sustainably. Considering the full lifecycle of a pair of jeans from the cotton crop to disposal, it presents examples of how to go green at different stages. This book will be of great interest to fashion students and researchers, as well as designers, fashion executives, policy-makers and anyone who comes into contact with the world of denim.
This detailed study is the first exploration of rural consumption of clothing in early nineteenth-century Britain. Drawing on evidence from a range of sources including newspapers, trade directories, court records, visual sources and surviving garments, Toplis investigates how the apparel of the mass of the British population was acquired.
In this book, Nina Sylvanus tells a captivating story of global trade and cross-cultural aesthetics in West Africa, showing how a group of Togolese women through the making and circulation of wax cloth became influential agents of taste and history. Traveling deep into the shifting terrain of textile manufacture, design, and trade, she follows wax cloth around the world and through time to unveil its critical role in colonial and postcolonial patterns of exchange and value production. Sylvanus brings wax cloth's unique and complex history to light: born as a nineteenth-century Dutch colonial effort to copy Javanese batik cloth for Southeast Asian markets, it was reborn as a status marker that has dominated the visual economy of West African markets. Although most wax cloth is produced in China today, it continues to be central to the expression of West African women's identity and power. As Sylvanus shows, wax cloth expresses more than this global motion of goods, capital, aesthetics, and labor it is a form of archive where intimate and national memories are stored, always ready to be reanimated by human touch. By uncovering this crucial aspect of West African material culture, she enriches our understanding of global trade, the mutual negotiations that drive it, and the how these create different forms of agency and subjectivity.
Paris, along with New York, was one of the main centres of the fashion industry in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. But although New York based garment workers were mobilized early in the twentieth century, Paris was the stage of vibrant revolutions and uprisings throughout the nineteenth century. As a consequence, French women workers were radicalized much earlier, creating a unique and unprecedented moment in both labour and feminist history. Seamstresses were central figures in the socio-political and cultural events of nineteenth and early twentieth century France but their stories and political writings have remained marginalized and obscured. Drawing on a wide range of published and unpublished documents from the industrial revolution, `Sewing, Fighting and Writing' is a foucauldian genealogy of the Parisian seamstress. Looking at the assemblage of radical practices in work, politics and culture, it explores the constitution of the self of the seamstress in the era of early industrialization and revolutionary events and considers her contribution to the socio-political and cultural formations in modernity.
How do retailers decide which colors and styles are featured in their stores? What factors influence the patterns, textiles and silhouettes designers show in their collections? These choices are all made with the help of fashion forecasting-a dynamic industry that identifies the trends that influence what people will be wearing in the future. This text provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the forecasting process, from studying fashion innovation and cultural influences to conducting consumer research, exploring how to identify the who, what, where, when and why driving fashion change in our lives. New co-author Divita has revised the structure of each chapter to streamline content and improve the flow of information while discussing timely examples and industry applications. Ultimately, students will learn how to prepare and present their own fashion forecast. Features - Includes 150 color photographs showing current examples - Industry Pro les illustrate the types of job opportunities that exist for students and ground theoretical concepts in real-world application - End-of-chapter summaries, activities, and discussion questions engage students in creative application of concepts New to this Edition - New Chapter 5, "Popular Culture and Forecasting", connects the influence of television, music, movies and social media to the rise of trends - Thoroughly updated Chapter 4, now entitled "Modern Forecasting Methods", features current forecasters such as Trend Tablet, Perclers Paris, and Nelly Rodi Lab - New You Be The Forecaster feature allows students to apply the skills in each chapter in scenarios that simulate real-world career situations Fashion Forecasting STUDIO - Study smarter with self-quizzes featuring scored results and personalized study tips - Review concepts with flashcards of essential vocabulary - Watch videos that bring chapter concepts to life Teaching Resources - Instructor's Guide with Test Bank provides suggestions for planning the course and using the text in the classroom, supplemental assignments, lecture notes, and sample test questions. - PowerPoint(R) presentations include images from the book and provide a framework for lecture and discussion PLEASE NOTE: Purchasing or renting this ISBN does not include access to the STUDIO resources that accompany this text. To receive free access to the STUDIO content with new copies of this book, please refer to the book + STUDIO access card bundle ISBN 9781501313172. STUDIO Instant Access can also be purchased or rented separately on BloomsburyFashionCentral.com.
Economic development that is environmentally, socially and ethically sound is at the forefront of contemporary debates all over the world. This is especially relevant to international trade where goods manufactured in least developed countries (LDCs) are being exported to developed countries (DCs) via international supply chains. This book looks at Bangladesh's ready-made garments (RMG) industry - the seventh largest in the world - facing demands for environmental and social management according to standards set by consumers in environmentally progressive societies. Apart from these concerns not having found cultural or institutional resonance in Bangladesh, the pressures for cost reduction, on-time delivery and cheap labour in a highly competitive international market make the problem that much more complex. In this book Selim uses the analytical framework provided by the ecological modernisation theory to examine the economic, communicative and social political aspects of ethical trade, and argues that the economy-ecology relationship can indeed be a positive sum game if nation-states and economic actors change their policymaking styles and greening behaviour to take advantage of scientific evidence and green technological opportunities.
Although mercers have long been recognised as one of the most influential trades in medieval London, this is the first book to offer a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the trade from the twelfth to the sixteenth century. The variety of mercery goods (linen, silk, worsted and small manufactured items including what is now called haberdashery) gave the mercers of London an edge over all competitors. The sources and production of all these commodities is traced throughout the period covered. It was as the major importers and distributors of linen in England that London mercers were able to take control of the Merchant Adventurers and the export of English cloth to the Low Countries. The development of the Adventurers' Company and its domination by London mercers is described from its first privileges of 1296 to after the fall of Antwerp. This book investigates the earliest itinerant mercers and the artisans who made and sold mercery goods (such as the silkwomen of London, so often mercers' wives), and their origins in counties like Norfolk, the source of linen and worsted. These diverse traders were united by the neighbourhood of the London Mercery on Cheapside and by their need for the privileges of the freedom of London. Extensive use of Netherlandish and French sources puts the London Mercery into the context of European Trade, and literary texts add a more personal image of the merchant and his preoccupation with his social status which rose from that of the despised pedlar to the advisor of princes. After a slow start, the Mercers' Company came to include some of the wealthiest and most powerful men of London and administer a wide range of charitable estates such as that of Richard Whittington. The story of how they survived the vicissitudes inflicted by the wars and religious changes of the sixteenth century concludes this fascinating and wide-ranging study.
This is the first full-length history of the Scottish cotton industry, from its beginnings in the late eighteenth century to its premature decline in the years leading up to the First World War. The book examines the industry chronologically and through themes such as precursors, technology, capital and employers, markets, labour and work, placed within their broader economic and scoial contexts. Its account of the cotton industry is set within important historiographical debates such as proto-industrialisation, the speed of industrial change, the diffusion of technology, the labour process, paternalism, workplace control, entrepreneurship and theories of industrial decline. Cotton was Scotland's premier industry during the Industrial Revolution and this book will be wlecomed by specialists, students and interested readers alike. -- .
This book explores the mechanics of rotor spinning machines. It discusses the open-end spinning machine rotor's vibrations and bearings as well as the kinematics of the rotor's drive as individual drive or central drive, both as a reducing drive and multiplying drive. It examines explanations for the rotor's power requirements through different techniques such as Shirley institute (UK) and Zurich Federal Institute. It also covers power distribution inside the machine, different mechanisms of the machine, and air flow inside the spinning machine.
First published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
How Are Textile Fabrics Formed? Principles of Fabric Formation is a treatise on the modern production systems of woven, knitted, braided, nonwoven, triaxial, multiaxial, and 3D fabrics. This book offers a basic understanding of the technicalities involved in the formation of different types of textile fabrics, and brings out the relative merits and limitations of each production process in one single volume. Gain Insight into the World of Textile Fabrics Providing readers with an appreciation of the technicalities involved in the formation of different types of textile fabrics, the author describes all major fabric formation methods, and explains each stage of formation in the text. He also addresses all major topics related to the formation of different classes of textile fabrics, including yarn winding, warping, yarn sizing, woven fabric construction, weaving, weft knitting, warp knitting, braiding, nonwovens, and triaxial, multiaxial and 3D fabrics. Comprised of 16 chapters, this multifaceted work: Provides a technical description of fabric formation systems Focuses on the diverse technicalities involved in each and every stage of formation Contains a comprehensive compilation of the major principles involved Principles of Fabric Formation is an exclusive junior/senior undergraduate-level textbook with a focus on the diverse technical principles involved in production of the entire gamut of textile fabrics.
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