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Rich and strange from the tip of its title to its deep-sunk bones' Robert Macfarlane From the author of Leviathan, or, The Whale, comes a composite portrait of the subtle, beautiful, inspired and demented ways in which we have come to terms with our watery planet. In the third of his watery books, the author goes in pursuit of human and animal stories of the sea. Of people enchanted or driven to despair by the water, accompanied by whales and birds and seals - familiar spirits swimming and flying with the author on his meandering odyssey from suburbia into the unknown. Along the way, he encounters drowned poets and eccentric artists, modernist writers and era-defining performers, wild utopians and national heroes - famous or infamous, they are all surprisingly, and sometimes fatally, linked to the sea. Out of the storm-clouds of the twenty-first century and our restive time, these stories reach back into the past and forward into the future. This is a shape-shifting world that has never been certain, caught between the natural and unnatural, where the state between human and animal is blurred. Time, space, gender and species become as fluid as the sea. Here humans challenge their landbound lives through art or words or performance or myth, through the animal and the elemental. And here they are forever drawn back to the water, forever lost and found on the infinite sea.
Changes in climate and sea level are nothing new - over the last 700 million years, the Earth has been slowly but constantly changing from within. We now know that our planet's surface, far from being fixed or stable, is composed of tectonic plates in continual movement, drifting in oceans which themselves appear and disappear over millennia. Such insecurity lies at the heart of both the physical and the living world, providing the creative impetus for all life forms to confront change, adapt and evolve.
This exceptional book celebrates the inevitability of global change and highlights our need as human beings to recognize and adjust to it. Its entertaining and accessible text displays a remarkable breadth and diversity of knowledge, drawing upon discoveries in natural history, geology, geography and paleontology to unravel secrets of millions of years. Its unique structure offers the opportunity to pursue two distinct but parallel narratives in one volume - the first characterized by discrete photo-essay spreads, and the second by authoritative running text illustrated with clearly numbered icons. Designed either to be browsed through like a website or read in chronological sequence, each chapter provides a fascinating glimpse into the formation and development of our world.
Glorious panoramic photography by the author, a specialist in interpretive landscape, reveals the physical legacy of the Earth's distant past. This intriguing exploration of key sites, often remote and inaccessible, provides a clear and original perspective on the Earth as a dynamic, interactive planet. The compelling narrative by a bestselling science writer places the history of our planet in a challenging contemporary context in which human beings, like all living things, must embrace change or fail to survive.
As a science writer Ron Redfern has received a number of prestigious literary and academic awards, perhaps most notably the American Institute of Professional Geologists' Outstanding Achievement Award. This was presented to him before his permanent return to England in 1996. The award was in recognition of his contribution to the public understanding in science.
Time-series analysis is used to identify and quantify periodic features in datasets and has many applications across the geosciences, from analysing weather data, to solid-Earth geophysical modelling. This intuitive introduction provides a practical 'how-to' guide to basic Fourier theory, with a particular focus on Earth system applications. The book starts with a discussion of statistical correlation, before introducing Fourier series and building to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and related periodogram techniques. The theory is illustrated with numerous worked examples using R datasets, from Milankovitch orbital-forcing cycles to tidal harmonics and exoplanet orbital periods. These examples highlight the key concepts and encourage readers to investigate more advanced time-series techniques. The book concludes with a consideration of statistical effect size and significance. This useful book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in the Earth system sciences who are looking for an accessible introduction to time-series analysis.
This is a modern, introductory textbook on the dynamics of the atmosphere and ocean, with a healthy dose of geophysical fluid dynamics. It will be invaluable for intermediate to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology, oceanography, mathematics, and physics. It is unique in taking the reader from very basic concepts to the forefront of research. It also forms an excellent refresher for researchers in atmospheric science and oceanography. It differs from other books at this level in both style and content: as well as very basic material it includes some elementary introductions to more advanced topics. The advanced sections can easily be omitted for a more introductory course, as they are clearly marked in the text. Readers who wish to explore these topics in more detail can refer to this book's parent, Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation, now in its second edition.
Half of the world's population today lives in coastal regions lapped by tidal waters. But the tide rises and falls according to rules that are a mystery to almost all of us. In The Tide, celebrated science writer Hugh Aldersey-Williams weaves together centuries of scientific thinking with the literature and folklore the tide has inspired to explain the power and workings of this most remarkable force. Here is the epic story of the long search to understand the tide from Aristotle, to Galileo and Newton, to classic literary portrayals of the tide from Shakespeare to Dickens, Melville to Jules Verne. Throughout, Aldersey-Williams whisks the reader along on his travels: He visits the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia, where the tides are the strongest in the world; arctic Norway, home of the raging tidal whirlpool known as the maelstrom; and Venice, to investigate efforts to defend the city against flooding caused by the famed acqua alta.
When, as a young man in the 1880s, Benjamin Lundy signed up for duty aboard a square-rigged commercial sailing vessel, he began a journey more exciting, and more terrifying, than he could have ever imagined: a treacherous, white-knuckle passage around that notorious "graveyard of ships," Cape Horn.
A century later, Derek Lundy, author of the bestselling "Godforsaken Sea" and an accomplished amateur seaman himself, set out to recount his forebear's journey. "The Way of a Ship" is a mesmerizing account of life on board a square-rigger, a remarkable reconstruction of a harrowing voyage through the most dangerous waters. Derek Lundy's masterful account evokes the excitement, romance, and brutality of a bygone era -- "a fantastic ride through one of the greatest moments in the history of adventure" ("Seattle Times").
Notable advances of the last quarter-century have deepened our appreciation of the three-dimensional nature of the ocean's large-scale circulation. This circulation has important implications for ocean chemistry and biology, atmospheric science, and climate. Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions surveys both observations and theories of the time-mean circulation, enabling readers to see the relevance and limitations of leading theories, as well as the patterns linking the behavior of different oceans. The book covers "classical" topics of horizontal circulation, and expands them to include shallow wind-driven overturning, the deep global "conveyer belt", high latitudes, the role of eddies, and the ocean's role in heat transport. Solutions to exercises are available online for instructor use. This textbook is ideal for students of physical oceanography, chemical oceanography and climate. It is also suitable for readers from related fields as it includes a summary of introductory topics.
Rivers and streams occupy a fundamental place within the British landscape. They are central and focal features of the natural landscape, helping to shape the very landforms of the country, as well as providing a range of habitats for flora and fauna. Few places in Britain are far from running water, and human society interacts with rivers in a wide range of ways. Most towns and cities grew up on riverbanks, and rivers play a vital role in economic, social and cultural life. They have provided power for industry; water for industrial use and human consumption; rivers have often been used for communication and the transport of goods; and they are sites of leisure and recreation. Most people are attracted to water; and rivers have featured prominently in literature and art over the centuries. Rivers can also pose threats, from flooding or pollution, and therefore have to be managed and regulated. Whereas there are many books which deal with specific aspects of rivers, "Rivers and the British Landscape" provides the first fully integrated analysis of British rivers exploring the physical formation of rivers; the characteristics of environments; analysis of the social, economic and cultural uses and associations of rivers; and examination of the problems of river management. These themes are explored through historical and contemporary examples, with case studies drawn from all parts of Britain. The book is lavishly illustrated and includes an appendix of key facts about British rivers. Written by experts on each aspect of British rivers, "Rivers and the British Landscape" is aimed at anyone with a general interest in rivers and the British landscape. The authors aim to highlight the holistic nature of river environments, and to explore the ways in which physical, economic, cultural and management characteristics interact to create the distinctive personalities of British rivers. It is hoped that material in this volume may help you to view your local river in a new light.
In this stunning book, nature photographer and ecologist David Blevins offers an inspiring visual journey to North Carolina's barrier islands as you have never seen them before. These islands are unique and ever-changing places with epic origins, surprising plants and animals, and an uncertain future. From snow geese mid-flight to breathtaking vistas along otherworldly dunes, Blevins has captured the incredible natural diversity of North Carolina's coast in singular detail. His photographs and words reveal the natural character of these islands, the forces that shape them, and the sense of wonder they inspire. Featuring over 150 full-color images from Currituck Banks, the Cape Hatteras and Cape Lookout National Seashores, and the islands of the southern coast, North Carolina's Barrier Islands is not only a collection of beautiful images of landscapes, plants, and animals, but also an appeal for their conservation.
Katrina's arrival on the Gulf Coast was a long time in coming. But it was assured. Since 1965, when Hurricane Betsy struck New Orleans, breached a levee, and flooded part of the city, everyone was waiting and talking about when the Big One would strike and do even more damage. Katrina was that hurricane, predictedand imagined before she struck, but so much worse in her reality.
Holding Back the Sea is about the consequences of ignoring the warning signs that nature provides and the struggle to convince the rest of the country that South Louisiana lay in the path of destruction. The signs were not subtle; there were Hurricanes Andrew in 1992, George and Mitch in 1998, and Ivan in 2004, among others. At one time or another in their journeys north, they all threatened New Orleans. Some had headed right for the city before veering to the east and west, sparing the Big Easy and reinforcing the nickname. But the Big Easy ended -- at least in reputation -- on August 29, 2005, when the Big One came ashore as Katrina.
This new and completely updated edition gives a detailed description of radiative transfer processes at a level accessible to advanced students. The volume gives the reader a basic understanding of global warming and enhanced levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation caused by ozone depletion. It teaches the basic physics of absorption, scattering and emission processes in turbid media, such as the atmosphere and ocean, using simple semi-classical models. The radiative transfer equation, including multiple scattering, is formulated and solved for several prototype problems, using both simple approximate and accurate numerical methods. In addition, the reader has access to a powerful, state-of-the-art computational code for simulating radiative transfer processes in coupled atmosphere-water systems including snow and ice. This computational code can be regarded as a powerful educational aid, but also as a research tool that can be applied to solve a variety of research problems in environmental sciences.
The World Ocean Assessment - or, to give its full title, The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment - is the outcome of the first cycle of the United Nations' Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects. The Assessment provides vital, scientifically-grounded bases for the consideration of ocean issues, including climate change, by governments, intergovernmental agencies, non-governmental agencies and all other stakeholders and policymakers involved in ocean affairs. Together with future assessments and related initiatives, it will support the implementation of the recently adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, particularly its ocean-related goals. Moreover, it will also form an important reference text for marine science courses.
Groundwater mechanics is the study of fluid flow in porous media. Focusing on applications and case studies, this book explains the basic principles of groundwater flow using mathematical expressions to describe a wide range of different aquifer configurations. Emphasis is placed throughout on the importance of developing simplified models that can be solved analytically to provide insight into complex groundwater flow scenarios and to allow better interpretation of the full numerical solution. Focusing first on identifying the important features of a problem, the book explains how to translate practical questions into mathematical form and discusses the interpretation of the results. Illustrated with numerous real-world examples and graphical results, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate Earth science, geological engineering, and environmental engineering courses, as well as a useful reference for researchers and professionals.
London has many rivers, but they are often hidden under centuries of development. Rivers like the Walbrook, the Fleet or the Westbourne have left their mark on the city, and still form an important part of our subterranean world. David Fathers traces the course of twelve hidden rivers in a series of detailed guided walks, illustrating the traces they have left and showing the ways they have shaped the city. Each walk starts at the tube or rail station nearest to the source of the river, and then follows it down to the Thames through parkland, suburbia, historic neighbourhoods and the vestiges of our industrial past. Along the way there are encounters with such extraordinary Londoners as William Blake, Judy Garland, Paul Robeson, Terence Donovan, Bradley Wiggins, Nelson, Lenin, Freud, and the great Victorian engineer Joseph Bazalgette. Hidden Rivers of London contains over 120 km of walks, both north and south of the Thames. Winding through the hills, valleys and marshes that underlie the city, every page is a revelation.
Exam board: AQA, Edexcel, OCR, WJEC/Eduqas Level: A-level Subject: Geography First teaching: September 2016 First exams: Summer 2017 (AS); Summer 2018 (A-level) Master the in-depth knowledge and higher-level skills that A-level Geography students need to succeed; this focused topic book extends learning far beyond your course textbooks. Blending detailed content and case studies with questions, exemplars and guidance, this book: - Significantly improves students' knowledge and understanding of A-level content and concepts, providing more coverage of The Water and Carbon Cycles than your existing resources - Strengthens students' analytical and interpretative skills through questions that involve a range of geographical data sources, with guidance on how to approach each task - Demonstrates how to evaluate issues, with a dedicated section in every chapter that shows how to think geographically, consider relevant evidence and structure a balanced essay - Equips students with everything they need to excel, from additional case studies and definitions of key terminology, to suggestions for further research and fieldwork ideas for the Independent Investigation - Helps students check, apply and consolidate their learning, using end-of-chapter refresher questions and discussion points, plus tailored advice for the AQA, Edexcel, OCR and WJEC/Eduqas specifications - Offers trusted and reliable content, written by a team of highly experienced senior examiners and reviewed by academics with unparalleled knowledge of the latest geographical theories
Winds, Waves, and Warriors examines the oceanographic conditions that U.S. military planners considered, or should have considered, when landing troops and vehicles on the beach at three historic amphibious assaults: Normandy, Tarawa, and Inchon. Oceanographer Thomas M. Mitchell brings welcome insight into a little-studied yet extraordinary aspect of ground warfare by explaining why certain tidal and weather conditions existed at those specific places and times, and how they affected the Army and Marine foot soldiers fighting to get ashore. Mitchell offers easy-to-understand descriptions of basic oceanographic concepts and applies them to actual amphibious operations. Winds and waves hampered the Allies' efforts on D-Day but less than they would have had the soldiers attempted storming the beach at Normandy the day before or after. Coral reefs and tides contributed to high Marine casualties at Tarawa Atoll in the Pacific. General Douglas MacArthur used the element of surprise by attacking the North Koreans at Inchon despite treacherous soft mud bottoms and unfavorable tidal conditions. Mitchell details how wartime necessity led to the development of clever methods to estimate such factors as water depth, beach slope, and underwater shoals, all of which affected troops' assaults and potentially changed the outcomes of key battles. An Army Air Corps lieutenant, for example, dug a hole on the beach at Normandy to help him predict tides more accurately. The Army's Beach Erosion Board and research groups such as the Scripps Institution of Oceanography exploited elementary principles of physical oceanography to develop crude but effective instruments and techniques for ocean remote sensing and forecasting. Indeed, soldiers, Marines, staff planners, commanders, oceanographers, meteorologists, and researchers all contributed to some of the largest and most important military invasions in history. Winds, Waves, and Warriors tells of the U.S. military's struggles with a foe that was sometimes just as formidable and unpredictable as the opposing army. When unheeded, unfavorable weather and ocean conditions could lead to tragic and avoidable deaths. The threat posed by the ocean at these three historic battles was an important factor not only in the outcomes of these operations but also to the survival of the troops who fought there.
This book explains clearly how and where groundwater occurs, how it is used and how it is at risk.
This textbook integrates classic principles of flow through porous media with recently developed stochastic analyses to provide new insight on subsurface hydrology. Importantly, each of the authors has extensive experience in both academia and the world of applied groundwater hydrology. The book not only presents theories but also emphasizes their underlying assumptions, limitations, and the potential pitfalls that may occur as a result of blind application of the theories as 'cookie-cutter' solutions. The book has been developed for advanced-level courses on groundwater fluid flow, hydraulics, and hydrogeology, in either civil and environmental engineering or geoscience departments. It is also a valuable reference text for researchers and professionals in civil and environmental engineering, geology, soil science, environmental science, and petroleum and mining engineering.
Multi-scale systems, involving complex interacting processes that occur over a range of temporal and spatial scales, are present in a broad range of disciplines. Several methodologies exist to retrieve this multi-scale information from a given time series; however, each method has its own limitations. This book presents the mathematical theory behind the stochastic analysis of scaling time series, including a general historical introduction to the problem of intermittency in turbulence, as well as how to implement this analysis for a range of different applications. Covering a variety of statistical methods, such as Fourier analysis and wavelet transforms, it provides readers with a thorough understanding of the techniques and when to apply them. New techniques to analyse stochastic processes, including empirical mode decomposition, are also explored. Case studies, in turbulence and ocean sciences, are used to demonstrate how these statistical methods can be applied in practice, for students and researchers.
In an age of unprecedented exploration and innovation, our oceans remain largely unknown, and endlessly fascinating: full of mystery, danger, beauty, and inspiration. Bill Streever-a longtime deep-sea diver himself-has masterfully woven together the science and history of Earth's last remaining frontier: the sea. In Oceans Deep celebrates the daring pioneers who tested the limits of what the human body can endure under water: free divers able to reach 300 feet on a single breath; engineers and scientists who uncovered the secrets of decompression; teenagers who built their own diving gear from discarded boilers and garden hoses in the 1930s; saturation divers who lived under water for weeks at a time in the 1960s; and the trailblazing men who voluntarily breathed experimental gases at pressures sufficient to trigger insanity.Tracing both the little-known history and exciting future of how we travel and study the depths, Streever's captivating journey includes seventeenth-century leather-hulled submarines, their nuclear-powered descendants, a workshop where luxury submersibles are built for billionaire clients, and robots capable of roving unsupervised between continents, revolutionizing access to the ocean. In this far-flung trip to the wild, night-dark place of shipwrecks, trapped submariners, oil wells, innovative technologies, and people willing to risk their lives while challenging the deep, we discover all the adventures our seas have to offer-and why they are in such dire need of conservation.
Lakes are changing rapidly, not because we are separate from nature but because we are so much a part of it. While many of our effects on the natural world today are new, from climate change to nuclear fallout, our connections to it are ancient, as core samples from lake beds reveal. In Still Waters, Curt Stager introduces us to the worlds hidden beneath the surfaces of our most remarkable lakes, leading us on a journey from the wilds of Siberia to the Sea of Galilee. Through decades of first-hand investigations, Stager examines the significance of our impact on some of the world's most iconic inland waters. Along the way he discovers the stories these lakes contain about us. For him, lakes are not only mirrors reflecting our place in the natural world but also windows into our history, culture and the primal connections we share with all life.
Surface, intermediate, and deep-water processes and their interaction in time and space drive the major ocean circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. All major forcing mechanisms, such as surface wind forcing, buoyancy fluxes, lateral mass exchange, and deep convection determining the global oceanic circulation are present in this body of water. Deep and intermediate water masses are formed in different areas of the ocean layers and they drive the Mediterranean thermohaline cell, which further shows important analogies with the global ocean conveyor belt. "The Mediterranean Sea: Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns "is a comprehensive volume that investigates the temporal and spatial variability patterns in the ocean basin.
Volume highlights include: Discussions of state-of-the-art physical and biogeochemical properties of the Mediterranean SeaMultiple physical ocean circulation processes, both in time and spatial scales (basin, sub-basin, and mesoscale)How different regional phenomena in the sea influence the biogeochemistry of the basin and the ocean dynamicsSpatio-temporal variability of the surface circulation in the western MediterraneanDeep-water variability and inter-basin interactions in the eastern Mediterranean SeaUnderstanding the link between global ocean circulation patterns and the global climate
"The Mediterranean Sea "will be a valuable resource for geoscientists, oceanographers, and meteorologists.
Until a few decades ago, the ocean depths were almost as mysterious and inaccessible as outer space. Oceans cover two-thirds of the earth's surface with an average depth of more than two miles--yet humans had never ventured more than a few hundred feet below the waves. One of the great scientific and archaeological feats of our time has been finally to cast light on the "eternal darkness" of the deep sea. This is the story of that achievement, told by the man who has done more than any other to make it possible: Robert Ballard. Ballard discovered the wreck of the Titanic. He led the teams that discovered hydrothermal vents and "black smokers"--cracks in the ocean floor where springs of superheated water support some of the strangest life-forms on the planet. He was a diver on the team that explored the mid-Atlantic ridge for the first time, confirming the theory of plate tectonics. Today, using a nuclear submarine from the U.S. Navy, he's exploring the ancient trade routes of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea for the remains of historic vessels and their cargo. In this book, he combines science, history, spectacular illustrations, and first-hand stories from his own expeditions in a uniquely personal account of how twentieth-century explorers have pushed back the frontiers of technology to take us into the midst of a world we could once only guess at. Ballard begins in 1930 with William Beebe and Otis Barton, pioneers of the ocean depths who made the world's first deep-sea dives in a cramped steel sphere. He introduces us to Auguste and Jacques Piccard, whose "Bathyscaph"descended in 1960 to the lowest point on the ocean floor. He reviews the celebrated advances made by Jacques Cousteau. He describes his own major discoveries--from sea-floor spreading to black smokers--as well as his technical breakthroughs, including the development of remote-operated underwater vehicles and the revolutionary search techniques that led to the discovery and exploration of the Titanic, the Nazi battleship Bismarck, ancient trading vessels, and other great ships. Readers will come away with a richer understanding of history, earth science, biology, and marine technology--and a new appreciation for the remarkable men and women who have explored some of the most remote and fascinating places on the planet.
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