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This is an introduction to the dynamics of fluids at small scales, the physical and mathematical underpinnings of Brownian motion, and the application of these subjects to the dynamics and flow of complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions and polymer solutions. It brings together continuum mechanics, statistical mechanics, polymer and colloid science, and various branches of applied mathematics, in a self-contained and integrated treatment that provides a foundation for understanding complex fluids, with a strong emphasis on fluid dynamics. Students and researchers will find that this book is extensively cross-referenced to illustrate connections between different aspects of the field. Its focus on fundamental principles and theoretical approaches provides the necessary groundwork for research in the dynamics of flowing complex fluids.
In this introductory textbook, thermodynamics is presented as a natural extension of mechanics, so that the laws and concepts learned in mechanics serve to get acquainted with the theory. The foundations of thermodynamics are presented in the first part. The second part covers a wide range of applications, which are of central importance in the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering, including calorimetry, phase transitions, heat engines and chemical reactions. In the third part, devoted to continuous media, Fourier and Fick's laws, diffusion equations and many transport effects are derived using a unified approach. Each chapter concludes with a selection of worked examples and several exercises, to reinforce key concepts under discussion. A full solutions manual is available at the end of the book. It contains more than 150 problems based on contemporary issues faced by scientists and engineers that are solved in detail for undergraduate and graduate students.
This special issue is a collection of papers presented during the topical workshop "Nucleon Resonances: From Photoproduction to High Photon Virtualities" which took place at the European Center for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas in Trento, Italy from October 12-16, 2015. Nucleon resonances are excited states of nucleon particles, often corresponding to one of the quarks having a flipped spin state, or with different orbital angular momentum when the particle decays. Due to their extraordinarily short lifetimes, many properties of these particles are still under investigation. The studies of the excited nucleon N* spectrum and the structure of these states offer unique information on many facets of the non-perturbative strong interaction in the generation of excited nucleon states of different quantum numbers. The workshop was devoted to the study of the spectrum and structure of N* states, as they become accessible through the electromagnetic excitation of the nucleon in exclusive meson production. The organizing committee consisted of R.W.Gothe (Chair,USC), V.I. Mokeev (Jefferson Lab), and E. Santopinto (INFN). Previously published as Topical Collection in the journal Few-Body Systems, volume 57, 2016
This concise text provides an essential treatment of thermodynamics and a discussion of the basic principles built on an intuitive description of the microscopic behavior of matter. Aimed at a range of courses in mechanical and aerospace engineering, the presentation explains the foundations valid at the macroscopic level in relation to what happens at the microscopic level, relying on intuitive and visual explanations which are presented with engaging cases. With ad hoc, real-word examples related also to current and future renewable energy conversion technologies and two well-known programs used for thermodynamic calculations, FluidProp and StanJan, this text provides students with a rich and engaging learning experience.
The best parts of physics are the last topics that our students ever see. These are the exciting new frontiers of nonlinear and complex systems that are at the forefront of university research and are the basis of many high-tech businesses. Topics such as traffic on the World Wide Web, the spread of epidemics through globally-mobile populations, or the synchronization of global economies are governed by universal principles just as profound as Newton's laws. Nonetheless, the conventional university physics curriculum reserves most of these topics for advanced graduate study. Two justifications are given for this situation: first, that the mathematical tools needed to understand these topics are beyond the skill set of undergraduate students, and second, that these are speciality topics with no common theme and little overlap. Introduction to Modern Dynamics dispels these myths. The structure of this book combines the three main topics of modern dynamics - chaos theory, dynamics on complex networks, and general relativity - into a coherent framework. By taking a geometric view of physics, concentrating on the time evolution of physical systems as trajectories through abstract spaces, these topics share a common and simple mathematical language through which any student can gain a unified physical intuition. Given the growing importance of complex dynamical systems in many areas of science and technology, this text provides students with an up-to-date foundation for their future careers.
The fifth edition of "Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids" incorporates two new tables: other material is being retained essentially as in the fourth edition, although tables beyond p.11 will be on different pages.
The new tables are as follows: Data of Refrigerant 134a (tetrafluoroethane - CH2F-CF3) are being added because this refrigerant is environmentally more acceptable than Refrigerant 12 which it replaces. The table of R12 is being retained, however, because R12 will survive in much equipment for a long time. At present it is still uncertain whether R134a is a medium-term substitute, or will be used for much longer than a decade.
Figure 15.11 from "Engineering Thermodynamics, Work and Heat Transfer" (Rogers & Mayhew, Longman 1992) is being included. The table contains, for selected substances, molar enthalpies and molar Gibbs functions of formation, and Equilibrium constants of formation, as well as molar heat capacities and absolute entropies.
This diagram is based on the newest Industrial Standard IAPWS-IF97 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam, which replaces the previous industrial formulation IFC-67.
"A Modern Course in Statistical Physics" is a textbook that illustrates the foundations of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics, and the universal nature of thermodynamic processes, from the point of view of contemporary research problems. The book treats such diverse topics as the microscopic theory of critical phenomena, superfluid dynamics, quantum conductance, light scattering, transport processes, and dissipative structures, all in the framework of the foundations of statistical physics and thermodynamics. It shows the quantum origins of problems in classical statistical physics. One focus of the book is fluctuations that occur due to the discrete nature of matter, a topic of growing importance for nanometer scale physics and biophysics. Another focus concerns classical and quantum phase transitions, in both monatomic and mixed particle systems. This fourth edition extends the range of topics considered to include, for example, entropic forces, electrochemical processes in biological systems and batteries, adsorption processes in biological systems, diamagnetism, the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation, memory effects in Brownian motion, the hydrodynamics of binary mixtures. A set of exercises and problems is to be found at the end of each chapter and, in addition, solutions to a subset of the problems is provided. The appendices cover Exact Differentials, Ergodicity, Number Representation, Scattering Theory, and also a short course on Probability.
With over half of the world's population now living in urban areas, the ability to model and understand the structure and dynamics of cities is becoming increasingly valuable. Combining new data with tools and concepts from statistical physics and urban economics, this book presents a modern and interdisciplinary perspective on cities and urban systems. Both empirical observations and theoretical approaches are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on derivations of classical models and results, along with analysis of their limits and validity. Key aspects of cities are thoroughly analyzed, including mobility patterns, the impact of multimodality, the coupling between different transportation modes, the evolution of infrastructure networks, spatial and social organisation, and interactions between cities. Drawing upon knowledge and methods from areas of mathematics, physics, economics and geography, the resulting quantitative description of cities will be of interest to all those studying and researching how to model these complex systems.
Providing a comprehensive introduction to quantum field theory, this textbook covers the development of particle physics from its foundations to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Its combination of clear physical explanations, with direct connections to experimental data, and mathematical rigor make the subject accessible to students with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. Assuming only an undergraduate-level understanding of quantum mechanics, the book steadily develops the Standard Model and state-of-the-art calculation techniques. It includes multiple derivations of many important results, with modern methods such as effective field theory and the renormalization group playing a prominent role. Numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems enable students to reproduce classic results and to master quantum field theory as it is used today. Based on a course taught by the author over many years, this book is ideal for an introductory to advanced quantum field theory sequence or for independent study.
Providing a broad review of many techniques and their application to condensed matter systems, this book begins with a review of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, before moving onto real and imaginary time path integrals and the link between Euclidean quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. A detailed study of the Ising, gauge-Ising and XY models is included. The renormalization group is developed and applied to critical phenomena, Fermi liquid theory and the renormalization of field theories. Next, the book explores bosonization and its applications to one-dimensional fermionic systems and the correlation functions of homogeneous and random-bond Ising models. It concludes with Bohm-Pines and Chern-Simons theories applied to the quantum Hall effect. Introducing the reader to a variety of techniques, it opens up vast areas of condensed matter theory for both graduate students and researchers in theoretical, statistical and condensed matter physics.
Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the broader fields of mathematical physics.
This unique book gives a modern account of particle physics and gravity based on supersymmetry and supergravity, two of the most significant developments in theoretical physics since general relativity. The book begins with a brief overview of the history of unification and then goes into a detailed exposition of both fundamental and phenomenological topics. The topics in fundamental physics include Einstein gravity, Yang-Mills theory, anomalies, the standard model, supersymmetry and supergravity, and the construction of supergravity couplings with matter and gauge fields, as well as computational techniques for SO(10) couplings. The topics of phenomenological interest include implications of supergravity models at colliders, CP violation, and proton stability, as well as topics in cosmology such as inflation, leptogenesis, baryogenesis, and dark matter. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers seeking to master the techniques for building grand unified models.
Research into the stability of matter has been one of the most successful chapters in mathematical physics, and is a prime example of how modern mathematics can be applied to problems in physics. A unique account of the subject, this book provides a complete, self-contained description of research on the stability of matter problem. It introduces the necessary quantum mechanics to mathematicians, and aspects of functional analysis to physicists. The topics covered include electrodynamics of classical and quantized fields, Lieb-Thirring and other inequalities in spectral theory, inequalities in electrostatics, stability of large Coulomb systems, gravitational stability of stars, basics of equilibrium statistical mechanics, and the existence of the thermodynamic limit. The book is an up-to-date account for researchers, and its pedagogical style makes it suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in mathematical physics.
Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background and the idealizations on which it rests, with detailed solutions of typical and illustrative problems. Topics include fundamentals of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, temperature effects in inelasticity theory, more. 1985 edition.
This authoritative text offers a complete overview on the statistical mechanics and electrodynamics of physical processes in dense plasma systems. The author emphasizes laboratory-based experiments and astrophysical observations of plasma phenomena, elucidated through the fundamentals. The coverage encompasses relevant condensed matter physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics, including such key topics as phase transitions, transport, optical and nuclear processes. This essential resource also addresses exciting, cutting edge topics in the field, including metallic hydrogen, stellar and planetary magnetisms, pycnonuclear reactions, and gravitational waves. Scientists, researchers, and students in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, materials science, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and astrophysics will benefit from this work. Setsuo Ichimaru is a distinguished professor at the University of Tokyo, and has been a visiting member at The Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), the Institute for Theoretical Physics at Johannes Kepler University, and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. He is a recipient of the Subramanyan Chandrasekhar Prize of Plasma Physics from the Association of Asia-Pacific Physical Societies and the Humboldt Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
This book covers the broad subject of equilibrium statistical mechanics along with many advanced and modern topics such as nucleation, spinodal decomposition, inherent structures of liquids and liquid crystals. Unlike other books on the market, this comprehensive text not only deals with the primary fundamental ideas of statistical mechanics but also covers contemporary topics in this broad and rapidly developing area of chemistry and materials science.
Networks are everywhere: networks of friends, transportation networks and the Web. Neurons in our brains and proteins within our bodies form networks that determine our intelligence and survival. This modern, accessible textbook introduces the basics of network science for a wide range of job sectors from management to marketing, from biology to engineering, and from neuroscience to the social sciences. Students will develop important, practical skills and learn to write code for using networks in their areas of interest - even as they are just learning to program with Python. Extensive sets of tutorials and homework problems provide plenty of hands-on practice and longer programming tutorials online further enhance students' programming skills. This intuitive and direct approach makes the book ideal for a first course, aimed at a wide audience without a strong background in mathematics or computing but with a desire to learn the fundamentals and applications of network science.
This clear and pedagogical text delivers a concise overview of classical and quantum statistical physics. Essential Statistical Physics shows students how to relate the macroscopic properties of physical systems to their microscopic degrees of freedom, preparing them for graduate courses in areas such as biophysics, condensed matter physics, atomic physics and statistical mechanics. Topics covered include the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, Liouville's Theorem, Kinetic Theory, non-interacting Fermi and Bose systems and phase transitions, and the Ising model. Detailed steps are given in mathematical derivations, allowing students to quickly develop a deep understanding of statistical techniques. End-of-chapter problems reinforce key concepts and introduce more advanced applications, and appendices provide a detailed review of thermodynamics and related mathematical results. This succinct book offers a fresh and intuitive approach to one of the most challenging topics in the core physics curriculum and provides students with a solid foundation for tackling advanced topics in statistical mechanics.
This book offers a unified perspective on the study of complex systems for scholars of various disciplines, including mathematics, physics, computer science, biology, economics and social science. The contributions, written by leading scientists, cover a broad set of topics, including new approaches to data science, the connection between scaling limits and conformal field theories, and new ideas on the Legendre duality approach in statistical mechanics of disordered systems. The volume moreover explores results on extreme values of correlated random variables and their connection with the Riemann zeta functions, the relation between diffusion phenomena and complex systems, and the Brownian web, which appears as the universal scaling limit of several probabilistic models. Written for researchers from a broad range of scientific fields, this text examines a selection of recent developments in complex systems from a rigorous perspective.
The marvellous complexity of the Universe emerges from several deep laws and a handful of fundamental constants that fix its shape, scale, and destiny. There is a deep structure to the world which at the same time is simple, elegant, and beautiful. Where did these laws and these constants come from? And why are the laws so fruitful when written in the language of mathematics? Peter Atkins considers the minimum effort needed to equip the Universe with its laws and its constants. He explores the origin of the conservation of energy, of electromagnetism, of classical and quantum mechanics, and of thermodynamics, showing how all these laws spring from deep symmetries. The revolutionary result is a short but immensely rich weaving together of the fundamental ideas of physics. With his characteristic wit, erudition, and economy, Atkins sketches out how the laws of Nature can spring from very little. Or arguably from nothing at all.
Entropy - the key concept of thermodynamics, clearly explained and carefully illustrated. This book presents an accurate definition of entropy in classical thermodynamics which does not "put the cart before the horse" and is suitable for basic and advanced university courses in thermodynamics. Entropy is the most important and at the same time the most difficult term of thermodynamics to understand. Many students are discontent with its classical definition since it is either based on "temperature" and "heat" which both cannot be accurately defined without entropy, or since it includes concepts such as "molecular disorder" which does not fit in a macroscopic theory. The physicists Elliott Lieb and Jakob Yngvason have recently developed a new formulation of thermodynamics which is free of these problems. The Lieb-Yngvason formulation of classical thermodynamics is based on the concept of adiabatic accessibility and culminates in the entropy principle. The entropy principle represents the accurate mathematical formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Temperature becomes a derived quantity whereas "heat" is no longer needed. This book makes the Lieb-Yngvason theory accessible to students. The presentation is supplemented by seven illustrative examples which explain the application of entropy and the entropy principle in practical problems in science and engineering.
This book explores the Energy Minimization Multi-scale (EMMS) theory and the drag model for heterogeneous gas-solid fluidized flows. The results show that the cluster density plays a critical role with regard to drag. A novel cluster model is proposed and indicates that the profile of cluster density is single-peaked with the maximum value located at solid concentrations of 0.1~0.15. The EMMS theory is improved with the cluster model and an accurate drag model is developed. The model's universality is achieved by investigating the relationship between the heterogeneity and flow patterns. The drag model is subsequently verified numerically and experimentally.
How can fundamental particles exist as waves in the vacuum? How can such waves have particle properties such as inertia? What is behind the notion of "virtual" particles? Why and how do particles exert forces on one another? Not least: What are forces anyway? These are some of the central questions that have intriguing answers in Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Unfortunately, these theories are highly mathematical, so that most people - even many scientists - are not able to fully grasp their meaning. This book unravels these theories in a conceptual manner, using more than 180 figures and extensive explanations and will provide the nonspecialist with great insights that are not to be found in the popular science literature.
The transverse field Ising and XY models (the simplest quantum spin models) provide the organising principle for the rich variety of interconnected subjects which are covered in this book. From a generic introduction to in-depth discussions of the subtleties of the transverse field Ising and related models, it includes the essentials of quantum dynamics and quantum information. A wide range of relevant topics has also been provided: quantum phase transitions, various measures of quantum information, the effects of disorder and frustration, quenching dynamics and the Kibble-Zurek scaling relation, the Kitaev model, topological phases of quantum systems, and bosonisation. In addition, it also discusses the experimental studies of transverse field models (including the first experimental realisation of quantum annealing) and the recent realisation of the transverse field Ising model using tunable Josephson junctions. Further, it points to the obstacles still remaining to develop a successful quantum computer.
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