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Thermostable Proteins: Structural Stability and Design provides a comprehensive, updated account of the physical basis of enhanced stability of thermophilic proteins and the design of tailor-made thermostable proteins, paving the way for their possible industrial applications. This book is devoted to understanding the survival mechanisms of "thermophilic life forms" at the molecular level with an emphasis on design strategies.
The review chapters presented in Thermostable Proteins span a wide range of protein thermostability research. Basic structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic principles are explained and molecular strategies for the adaptation to high temperatures are delineated. In addition, this book covers:
Understanding the molecular basis of how thermostable and hyperthermostable proteins gain and maintain their stability and biological function at high temperatures remains an important scientific challenge. A more detailed knowledge of protein stability not only deepens our understanding of protein structure but also helps in obtaining insights into processes that drive protein activities folding, unfolding, and misfolding essential to biological function.
As a companion to the undergraduate textbook "Physical Chemistry from a Different Angle", this workbook offers an excellent opportunity to deepen the understanding of the concepts presented in the textbook by addressing specific problems. The workbook is divided into two parts: a first part with nearly 200 exercises and a second part providing the corresponding detailed solutions with helpful comments, enabling students to learn independently.
Ernest William Brown (1866 1938) was a prominent British mathematician and astronomer renowned for his contribution to the study of lunar motion. Originally published in 1932, this concise volume was based on a series of lectures given at the Rice Institute during April 1931. It consists of an attempt to describe and analyse the phenomena which are peculiar to resonance in an elementary manner. Although of fundamental importance to many mechanical problems, this subject had received comparatively little attention in textbooks at the time of publication. Treatment consists of an investigation of the changes which take place in the amplitude and phase of a vibrating element under certain types of forces. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in Brown's writings and the theorization of resonance.
In this first biography of the physicist Sir James Prescott Joule (1818-1889), his friend and collaborator Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912), Professor of Engineering at Owens College, Manchester, is keen to show how Joule, the son of a prosperous Salford brewer, was an 'ordinary' boy, enjoying regular walking trips to Snowdon, the Peaks and the Lakes; at the same time, he was greatly influenced by two years of tuition by John Dalton. His later experiments, observations and published papers are discussed and quoted at length. Reynolds stresses the influence Joule's work on heat and thermodynamics had on his contemporaries, but also that this 'amateur' scientist was often so far ahead of his time that his work was misunderstood or dismissed. Since publication of this book in 1892, only one other biography of Joule has appeared, and so it remains a vital source of first-hand information on his life and work.
Thermodynamics: Fundamentals and Applications is a 2005 text for a first graduate course in Chemical Engineering. The focus is on macroscopic thermodynamics; discussions of modeling and molecular situations are integrated throughout. Underpinning this text is the knowledge that while thermodynamics describes natural phenomena, those descriptions are the products of creative, systematic minds. Nature unfolds without reference to human concepts of energy, entropy, or fugacity. Natural complexity can be organized and studied by thermodynamics methodology. The power of thermodynamics can be used to advantage if the fundamentals are understood. This text's emphasis is on fundamentals rather than modeling. Knowledge of the basics will enhance the ability to combine them with models when applying thermodynamics to practical situations. While the goal of an engineering education is to teach effective problem solving, this text never forgets the delight of discovery, the satisfaction of grasping intricate concepts, and the stimulation of the scholarly atmosphere.
This volume compiles eight recent surveys that present state-of-the-art results in the field of active matter at different scales, modeled by agent-based, kinetic, and hydrodynamic descriptions. Following the previously published volume, these chapters were written by leading experts in the field and accurately reflect the diversity of subject matter in theory and applications. Several mathematical tools are employed throughout the volume, including analysis of nonlinear PDEs, network theory, mean field approximations, control theory, and flocking analysis. The book also covers a wide range of applications, including: Biological network formation Social systems Control theory of sparse systems Dynamics of swarming and flocking systems Stochastic particles and mean field approximations Mathematicians and other members of the scientific community interested in active matter and its many applications will find this volume to be a timely, authoritative, and valuable resource.
Sir James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) became one of the most significant physicists of the nineteenth century, although his original interest in science was as a hobby and for practical business purposes. The son of a brewer, he began studying heat while investigating how to increase the efficiency of electric motors. His discovery of the relationship between heat and energy contributed to the discovery of the conservation of energy and the first law of thermodynamics. Volume 1 of Joule's scientific papers was published in 1884. It is organised chronologically and reveals the range of Joule's interests and the development of his thought. The topics of the papers include the measurement of heat, voltaic batteries, electromagnets, specific heat, meteorology and thermodynamics. Joule's careful experiments in these areas were fundamental to the development of significant areas of twentieth-century physics, although he was slow to gain recognition from his contemporaries.
Sir James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) became one of the most significant physicists of the nineteenth century, although his original interest in science was as a hobby and for practical business purposes. The son of a brewer, he began studying heat while investigating how to increase the efficiency of electric motors. His discovery of the relationship between heat and energy contributed to the discovery of the conservation of energy and the first law of thermodynamics. Volume 2 of his collected papers, published in 1887, contains those which he co-authored with other noted physicists, such as Scoresby, Playfair and William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin. Because he was based in Manchester, and was not an academic, Joule's work was at first ignored by the scientific establishment, but Thomson's approval helped him gain acceptance. His joint work with Thomson on thermodynamics was fundamental to the development of significant areas of twentieth-century physics.
Develop a fundamental understanding of heat transfer analysis techniques as applied to earth based spacecraft with this practical guide. Written in a tutorial style, this essential text provides a how-to manual tailored for those who wish to understand and develop spacecraft thermal analyses. Providing an overview of basic heat transfer analysis fundamentals such as thermal circuits, limiting resistance, MLI, environmental thermal sources and sinks, as well as contemporary space based thermal technologies, and the distinctions between design considerations inherent to room temperature and cryogenic temperature applications, this is the perfect tool for graduate students, professionals and academic researchers.
Differential geometry plays an increasingly important role in modern theoretical physics and applied mathematics. This 2006 textbook gives an introduction to geometrical topics useful in theoretical physics and applied mathematics, covering: manifolds, tensor fields, differential forms, connections, symplectic geometry, actions of Lie groups, bundles, spinors, and so on. Written in an informal style, the author places a strong emphasis on developing the understanding of the general theory through more than 1000 simple exercises, with complete solutions or detailed hints. The book will prepare readers for studying modern treatments of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, electromagnetism, gauge fields, relativity and gravitation. Differential Geometry and Lie Groups for Physicists is well suited for courses in physics, mathematics and engineering for advanced undergraduate or graduate students, and can also be used for active self-study. The required mathematical background knowledge does not go beyond the level of standard introductory undergraduate mathematics courses.
The standard cosmological picture of our Universe emerging from a 'big bang' leaves open many fundamental questions which string theory, a unified theory of all forces of nature, should be able to answer. This 2007 text was the first dedicated to string cosmology, and contains a pedagogical introduction to the basic notions of the subject. It describes the possible scenarios suggested by string theory for the primordial evolution of our Universe. It discusses the main phenomenological consequences of these scenarios, stresses their differences from each other, and compares them to the more conventional models of inflation. The book summarises over 15 years of research in this field and introduces advances. It is self-contained, so it can be read by astrophysicists with no knowledge of string theory, and high-energy physicists with little understanding of cosmology. Detailed and explicit derivations of all the results presented provide a deeper appreciation of the subject.
Originally published in 1991, this book, based on the 1989 Beg-Rohu summer school, contains six sets of pedagogical lectures by internationally respected researchers on the statistical physics of crystal growth. Providing a course in which the phenomena of shape and growth are viewed from a fresh vantage point, the lectures cover a variety of developments in the field and reflect on problems that have received inadequate attention. Statistical physicists, condensed matter physicists, metallurgists, and applied mathematicians will find this a stimulating and valuable book on an important topic.
This textbook on atmospheric thermodynamics is for students of meteorology or atmospheric science. It also serves as a reference text for working professionals in meteorology and weather forecasting. It is unique because it provides complete, calculus-based derivations of basic physics from first principles, and connects mathematical relationships to real-world, practical weather forecasting applications. Worked examples and practice problems are included throughout.
Striving to explore the subject in as simple a manner as possible, this book helps readers understand the elusive concept of entropy. Innovative aspects of the book include the construction of statistical entropy from desired properties, the derivation of the entropy of classical systems from purely classical assumptions, and a statistical thermodynamics approach to the ideal Fermi and ideal Bose gases. Derivations are worked through step-by-step and important applications are highlighted in over 20 worked examples. Around 50 end-of-chapter exercises test readers' understanding. The book also features a glossary giving definitions for all essential terms, a time line showing important developments, and list of books for further study. It is an ideal supplement to undergraduate courses in physics, engineering, chemistry and mathematics.
Knowledge of the renormalization group and field theory is a key part of physics, and is essential in condensed matter and particle physics. Written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, this textbook provides a concise introduction to this subject. The textbook deals directly with the loop-expansion of the free-energy, also known as the background field method. This is a powerful method, especially when dealing with symmetries, and statistical mechanics. In focussing on free-energy, the author avoids long developments on field theory techniques. The necessity of renormalization then follows.
Examining important results and analytical techniques, this graduate-level textbook is a step-by-step presentation of the structure and function of complex networks. Using a range of examples, from the stability of the internet to efficient methods of immunizing populations, and from epidemic spreading to how one might efficiently search for individuals, this textbook explains the theoretical methods that can be used, and the experimental and analytical results obtained in the study and research of complex networks. Giving detailed derivations of many results in complex networks theory, this is an ideal text to be used by graduate students entering the field. End-of-chapter review questions help students monitor their own understanding of the materials presented.
This book presents the first experiment revealing several unexplored non-equilibrium properties of quantum many-body states, and addresses the interplay between the Kondo effect and superconductivity by probing shot noise. In addition, it describes in detail nano-fabrication techniques for carbon nanotube quantum dots, and a measurement protocol and principle that probes both equilibrium and non-equilibrium quantum states of electrons. The book offers various reviews of topics in mesoscopic systems: shot noise measurement, carbon nanotube quantum dots, the Kondo effect in quantum dots, and quantum dots with superconducting leads, which are relevant to probing non-equilibrium physics. These reviews offer particularly valuable resources for readers interested in non-equilibrium physics in mesoscopic systems. Further, the cutting-edge experimental results presented will allow reader to catch up on a vital new trend in the field.
Disordered magnetic systems enjoy non-trivial properties which are different and richer than those observed in their pure, non-disordered counterparts. These properties dramatically affect the thermodynamic behaviour and require specific theoretical treatment. This book deals with the theory of magnetic systems in the presence of frozen disorder, in particular paradigmatic and well-known spin models such as the Random Field Ising Model and the Ising Spin Glass. This is a unified presentation using a field theory language which covers mean field theory, dynamics and perturbation expansion within the same theoretical framework. Particular emphasis is given to the connections between different approaches such as statics vs. dynamics, microscopic vs. phenomenological models. The book introduces some useful and little-known techniques in statistical mechanics and field theory. This book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in statistical physics and basic field theory.
Functional integration successfully entered physics as path integrals in the 1942 PhD dissertation of Richard P. Feynman, but it made no sense at all as a mathematical definition. Cartier and DeWitt-Morette have created, in this book, a fresh approach to functional integration. The book is self-contained: mathematical ideas are introduced, developed, generalised and applied. In the authors' hands, functional integration is shown to be a robust, user-friendly and multi-purpose tool that can be applied to a great variety of situations, for example: systems of indistinguishable particles; Aharonov-Bohm systems; supersymmetry; non-gaussian integrals. Problems in quantum field theory are also considered. In the final part the authors outline topics that can be profitably pursued using material already presented.
Critical phenomena is one of the most exciting areas of modern physics. This 2007 book provides a thorough but economic introduction into the principles and techniques of the theory of critical phenomena and the renormalization group, from the perspective of modern condensed matter physics. Assuming basic knowledge of quantum and statistical mechanics, the book discusses phase transitions in magnets, superfluids, superconductors, and gauge field theories. Particular attention is given to topics such as gauge field fluctuations in superconductors, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, duality transformations, and quantum phase transitions - all of which are at the forefront of physics research. This book contains numerous problems of varying degrees of difficulty, with solutions. These problems provide readers with a wealth of material to test their understanding of the subject. It is ideal for graduate students and more experienced researchers in the fields of condensed matter physics, statistical physics, and many-body physics.
Concise yet thorough, accessible, authoritative, and affordable. These are the hallmarks of books in the remarkable Physics and its Applications series. Thermodynamics is an essential part of any physical sciences education, but it is so full of pitfalls and subtleties, that many students fail to appreciate its elegance and power. In Thermal Physics, the author emphasizes understanding the basic ideas and shows how the important thermodynamics results can be simply obtained from the fundamental relations without getting lost in a maze of partial differentials. In this second edition, the author incorporated new sections on scales of temperature, availability, the degradation of energy, and lattice defects. The text contains ample illustrations and examples of applications of thermodynamics in physics, engineering, and chemistry.
Combustion Theory delves deeper into the science of combustion than most other texts and gives insight into combustions from a molecular and a continuum point of view. The book presents derivations of the basic equations of combustion theory and contains appendices on the background of subjects of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics, and transport processes. Diffusion flames, reactions in flows with negligible transport and the theory of pre-mixed flames are treated, as are detonation phenomena, the combustion of solid propellents, and ignition, extinction, and flamibility pehnomena.
The book is aimed at undergraduate students in their senior year and first year graduate students. It elucidates the basis of thermodynamics and provides a basis for the understanding of, not only the thermodynamic properties of a microscopic system, but also their fluctuations, correlations and close-to-equilibrium properties.
Quantum field theory in curved spacetime has been remarkably fruitful. It can be used to explain how the large-scale structure of the universe and the anisotropies of the cosmic background radiation that we observe today first arose. Similarly, it provides a deep connection between general relativity, thermodynamics, and quantum field theory. This book develops quantum field theory in curved spacetime in a pedagogical style, suitable for graduate students. The authors present detailed, physically motivated, derivations of cosmological and black hole processes in which curved spacetime plays a key role. They explain how such processes in the rapidly expanding early universe leave observable consequences today, and how in the context of evaporating black holes, these processes uncover deep connections between gravitation and elementary particles. The authors also lucidly describe many other aspects of free and interacting quantized fields in curved spacetime.
Professor Buchdahl presents a systematic exposition of classical thermodynamics, against a background of general physical theory and on a purely phenomenological (i.e. non-statistical) level. Although particular attention is paid to the meaning of the various concepts introduced, Professor Buchdahl is not afraid of making simplifications where these are likely to enhance the reader's understanding of the subject and the relationships between the principal and ancillary laws. The emphasis throughout is on meaning and physical significance. Specific applications of the general theory are discussed in two final chapters. This book, first published in 1966, is intended for the student who has taken a first course in analytical, though not axiomatic, development of the subject. It will supplement rather than replace, the many familiar introductory treatments of thermodynamics.
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