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Mechanics, Motion Control, Sensing and Programming, Synthesis and Design, Legged Locomotion and Biomechanical Aspects of Robots and Manipulators - world view of the state of the art. Characterization: This volume presents the latest contribution to the theory and practice of modern robotics given by the world recognized scientists from Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan, Mexico, Singapore and USA.
This volume collects contributions to the workshop on "Turbulence Modeling and Vortex Dynamics, Istanbul," where engineers, physicists, and mathematicians discussed the statistical description of turbulence. They cover practical aspects as well as rigorous mathematics. This book will be a source of reference for many years for those working in this most fascinating field of scientific modeling.
Computer Aided Engineering may be defined as an approach to solving tech nological problems in which most or all of the steps involved are automated through the use of computers, data bases and mathematical models. The success of this ap proach, considering hot forming, is tied very directly to an understanding of material behaviour when subjected to deformation at high temperatures. There is general agreement among engineers that not enough is known about that topic -and this gave the initial impetus for the project described in the present study. The authors secured a research grant from NATO (Special Research Grant #390/83) with a mandate to study the "State-of-the-Art of Controlled Rolling." What follows is the result of that study. There are five chapters in this Monograph. The first one, entitled "State-of-the Art of Controlled Rolling" discusses industrial and laboratory practices and research designed to aid in the development of microalloyed steels of superior quality. Follow ing this is the chapter "Methods of Determining Stress-Strain Curves at Elevated Temperatures." The central concern here is the material's resistance to deformation or in other words, its flow strength, the knowledge of which is absolutely essential for the efficient and economical utilization of the computers controlling the rolling process."
The investigation of nonlinear wave phenomena has been one of the main direc tions of research in optics for the last few decades. Soliton concepts applied to the description of intense electromagnetic beams and ultrashort pulse propagation in various media have contributed much to this field. The notion of solitons has proved to be very useful in describing wave processes in hydrodynamics, plasma physics and condensed matter physics. Moreover, it is also of great importance in optics for ultrafast information transmission and storage, radiation propagation in resonant media, etc. In 1973, Hasegawa and Tappert made a significant contribution to optical soliton physics when they predicted the existence of an envelope soliton in the regime of short pulses in optical fibres. In 1980, Mollenauer et al. conducted ex periments to elucidate this phenomenon. Since then the theory of optical solitons as well as their experimental investigation has progressed rapidly. The effects of inhomogeneities of the medium and energy pumping on optical solitons, the interaction between optical solitons and their generation in fibres, etc. have all been investigated and reported. Logical devices using optical solitons have been developed; new types of optical solitons in media with Kerr-type nonlinearity and in resonant media have been described."
Thermodynamics includes thirteen independent volumes that define how to perform the selection and calculation of equipment involved in the thirteen basic operations of process engineering, offering reliable and simple methods. Throughout these concise and easy-to-use books, the author uses his vast practical experience and precise knowledge of global research to present an in-depth study of a variety of aspects within the field of chemical engineering. The main concepts of thermodynamics are presented in detail, and their importance is demonstrated through their various practical applications. In this volume, the author provides a general introduction into the study of thermodynamics. Across the five chapters, users will find different concepts involved in the study of energy, including systems, states, energy, laws, and their associated theorems. In addition, the author provides the methods needed for understanding the machinery used in applied thermodynamics to encourage students and engineers to build the programs they need themselves.
The use of thermodynamics in biological research can be equated to
an energy book-keeping system. While the structure and function of
a molecule is important, it is equally important to know what
drives the energy force. These methods look to answer: What are the
sources of energy that drive the function? Which of the pathways
are of biological significance? As the base of macromolecular
structures continues to expand through powerful techniques of
molecular biology, such as X-ray crystal data and spectroscopy
methods, the importance of tested and reliable methods for
answering these questions will continue to expand as well. This
volume presents sophisticated methods for estimating the
thermodynamic parameters of specific protein-protein, protein-DNA
and small molecule interactions.
* Elucidates the relationships between structure and energetics and their applications to molecular design, aiding researchers in the design of medically important molecules * Provides a "must-have" methods volume that keeps MIE buyers and online subscribers up-to-date with the latest research * Offers step-by-step lab instructions, including necessary equipment, from a global research community
In this thesis, quantum estimation theory is applied to investigate uncertainty relations between error and disturbance in quantum measurement. The author argues that the best solution for clarifying the attainable bound of the error and disturbance is to invoke the estimation process from the measurement outcomes such as signals from a photodetector in a quantum optical system. The error and disturbance in terms of the Fisher information content have been successfully formulated and provide the upper bound of the accuracy of the estimation. Moreover, the attainable bound of the error and disturbance in quantum measurement has been derived. The obtained bound is determined for the first time by the quantum fluctuations and correlation functions of the observables, which characterize the non-classical fluctuation of the observables. The result provides the upper bound of our knowledge obtained by quantum measurements. The method developed in this thesis will be applied to a broad class of problems related to quantum measurement to build a next-generation clock standard and to successfully detect gravitational waves.
The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Continua presents a unified treatment of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics that emphasises the universal status of the basic balances and the entropy imbalance. These laws are viewed as fundamental building blocks on which to frame theories of material behaviour. As a valuable reference source, this book presents a detailed and complete treatment of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics for graduates and advanced undergraduates in engineering, physics and mathematics. The chapters on plasticity discuss the standard isotropic theories and, in addition, crystal plasticity and gradient plasticity.
This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.
The authors of each chapter were chosen from a group of international scientists who are experts in the field and specialists on the subject matter covered in the chapter. A large number of references are included at the end of each chapter as a resource for those seeking a deeper or more detailed understanding.
This book is more than a practice guide, readers will gain in-depth knowledge in:
(1) the proper selection of the type of thermometer;
(2) the best practice in using the radiation thermometers;
(3) awareness of the error sources and subsequent appropriate procedure to reduce the overall uncertainty; and
(4) understanding of the calibration chain and its current
One of the open challenges in fundamental physics is to combine Einstein's theory of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechancis. In this thesis, the question is raised whether metric quantum gravity could be fundamental in the spirit of Steven Weinberg's seminal asymptotic safety conjecture, and if so, what are the consequences for the physics of small, possibly Planck-size black holes? To address the first question, new techniques are provided which allow, for the first time, a self-consistent study of high-order polynomial actions including up to 34 powers in the Ricci scalar. These novel insights are then exploited to explain quantum gravity effects in black holes, including their horizon and causal structure, conformal scaling, evaporation, and the thermodynamics of quantum space-time. Results indicate upper limits on black hole temperature, and the existence of small black holes based on asymptotic safety for gravity and thermodynamical arguments.
"Metastable Liquids" provides a comprehensive treatment of the properties of liquids under conditions where the stable state is a vapor, a solid, or a liquid mixture of different composition. It examines the fundamental principles that govern the equilibrium properties, stability, relaxation mechanisms, and relaxation rates of metastable liquids. Building on the interplay of kinetics and thermodynamics that determines the thermophysical properties and structural relaxation of metastable liquids, it offers an in-depth treatment of thermodynamic stability theory, the statistical mechanics of metastability, nucleation, spinodal decomposition, supercooled liquids, and the glass transition.
Both traditional topics--such as stability theory--and modern developments--including modern theories of nucleation and the properties of supercooled and glassy water--are treated in detail. An introductory chapter illustrates, with numerous examples, the importance and ubiquity of metastable liquids. Examples include the ascent of sap in plants, the strategies adopted by many living organisms to survive prolonged exposure to sub-freezing conditions, the behavior of proteins at low temperatures, metastability in mineral inclusions, ozone depletion, the preservation and storage of labile biochemicals, and the prevention of natural gas clathrate hydrate formation. All mathematical symbols are defined in the text and key equations are clearly explained. More complex mathematical explanations are available in the appendixes.
This new volume of the annual review "Advances in Transport Phenomena" series contains three in-depth review articles on the microfluidic fabrication of vesicles, the dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation for continuous-flow separation of particles and cells in microfluidic devices, and the thermodynamic analysis and optimization of heat exchangers, respectively.
In the past several years, there has been an explosion in the
ability of biologists, molecular biologists and biochemists to
collect vast amounts of data on their systems. This volume presents
sophisticated methods for estimating the thermodynamic parameters
of specific protein-protein, protein-DNA and small molecule
This thesis provides an introduction to the physics of the Standard Model and beyond, and to the methods used to analyse Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data. The 'hierarchy problem', astrophysical data and experiments on neutrinos indicate that new physics can be expected at the now accessible TeV scale. This work investigates extensions of the Standard Model with gravitons and gravitinos (in the context of supergravity). The production of these particles in association with jets is studied as one of the most promising avenues for researching new physics at the LHC. Advanced simulation techniques and tools, such as algorithms allowing the computation of Feynman graphs and helicity amplitudes are first developed and then employed.
This book focuses on the assembly, organization and resultant collective dynamics of soft matter systems maintained away from equilibrium by an energy flux. Living matter is the ultimate example of such systems, which are comprised of different constituents on very different scales (ions, nucleic acids, proteins, cells). The result of their diverse interactions, maintained using the energy from physiological processes, is a fantastically well-organized and dynamic whole. This work describes results from minimal, biomimetic systems and primarily investigates membranes and active emulsions, as well as key aspects of both soft matter and non-equilibrium phenomena. It is shown that these minimal reconstitutions are already capable of a range of complex behaviour such as nonlinear electric responses, chemical communication and locomotion. These studies will bring us closer to a fundamental understanding of complex systems by reconstituting key aspects of their form and function in simple model systems. Further, they may also serve as the first technological steps towards artificial soft functional matter.
This is a review written by leading specialists on the state of the art of computational methods in lattice field theory. They cover a wide range: computer-assisted proofs, algorithms for computer simulation of field theories, effective field theories, computer studies of finite size effects, simulation with fast algorithms, and computer applicationsin experimental particle physics. The book addresses researchers, engineers, and graduate students in particle physics.
Data analysis lies at the heart of every experimental science. Providing a modern introduction to statistics, this book is ideal for undergraduates in physics. It introduces the necessary tools required to analyse data from experiments across a range of areas, making it a valuable resource for students. In addition to covering the basic topics, the book also takes in advanced and modern subjects, such as neural networks, decision trees, fitting techniques and issues concerning limit or interval setting. Worked examples and case studies illustrate the techniques presented, and end-of-chapter exercises help test the reader's understanding of the material.
From Kinetic Models to Hydrodynamics serves as an introduction to the asymptotic methods necessary to obtain hydrodynamic equations from a fundamental description using kinetic theory models and the Boltzmann equation. The work is a survey of an active research area, which aims to bridge time and length scales from the particle-like description inherent in Boltzmann equation theory to a fully established "continuum" approach typical of macroscopic laws of physics.The author sheds light on a new method-using invariant manifolds-which addresses a functional equation for the nonequilibrium single-particle distribution function. This method allows one to find exact and thermodynamically consistent expressions for: hydrodynamic modes; transport coefficient expressions for hydrodynamic modes; and transport coefficients of a fluid beyond the traditional hydrodynamic limit. The invariant manifold method paves the way to establish a needed bridge between Boltzmann equation theory and a particle-based theory of hydrodynamics. Finally, the author explores the ambitious and longstanding task of obtaining hydrodynamic constitutive equations from their kinetic counterparts. The work is intended for specialists in kinetic theory-or more generally statistical mechanics-and will provide a bridge between a physical and mathematical approach to solve real-world problems.
Statistical Physics I discusses the fundamentals of equilibrium statistical mechanics, focussing on basic physical aspects. No previous knowledge of thermodynamics or the molecular theory of gases is assumed. Illustrative examples based on simple materials and photon systems elucidate the central ideas and methods.
The science of networks represented a substantial change in the way we see natural and technological phenomena. Now we have a better understanding that networks are, in most cases, networks of networks or multi-layered networks. This book provides a summary of the research done during one of the largest and most multidisciplinary projects in network science and complex systems (Multiplex). The science of complex networks originated from the empirical evidence that most of the structures of systems such as the internet, sets of protein interactions, and collaboration between people, share (at least qualitatively) common structural properties. This book examines how properties of networks that interact with other networks can change dramatically. The authors show that, dependent on the properties of links that interconnect two or more networks, we may derive different conclusions about the function and the possible vulnerabilities of the overall system of networks. This book presents a series of novel theoretical results together with their applications, providing a comprehensive overview of the field.
This text presents the two complementary aspects of thermal physics as an integrated theory of the properties of matter. Conceptual understanding is promoted by thorough development of basic concepts. In contrast to many texts, statistical mechanics, including discussion of the required probability theory, is presented first. This provides a statistical foundation for the concept of entropy, which is central to thermal physics. A unique feature of the book is the development of entropy based on Boltzmann's 1877 definition; this avoids contradictions or ad hoc corrections found in other texts. Detailed fundamentals provide a natural grounding for advanced topics, such as black-body radiation and quantum gases. An extensive set of problems (solutions are available for lecturers through the OUP website), many including explicit computations, advance the core content by probing essential concepts. The text is designed for a two-semester undergraduate course but can be adapted for one-semester courses emphasizing either aspect of thermal physics. It is also suitable for graduate study.
Gaining a theoretical understanding of the properties of ultra-relativistic dense matter has been one of the most important and challenging goals in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In this thesis, the author analyzes dense quark matter in QCD with gauge group SU(2) using low-energy effective theoretical techniques and elucidates a novel connection between statistical properties of the Dirac operator spectrum at high baryon chemical potential and a special class of random matrix theories. This work can be viewed as an extension of a similar correspondence between QCD and matrix models which was previously known only for infinitesimal chemical potentials. In future numerical simulations of dense matter the analytical results reported here are expected to serve as a useful tool to extract physical observables such as the BCS gap from numerical data on the Dirac spectrum.
This book takes the topic of H-infinity control as a point of departure, and pursues an improved controller design suggested in the mainstream of robust control. Using stochastic methods, the book is important to the circuits and systems community, alongside researchers in networking systems, operator theory and linear multivariable control.
The expression 'Neural Networks' refers traditionally to a class of mathematical algorithms that obtain their proper performance while they 'learn' from examples or from experience. As a consequence, they are suitable for performing straightforward and relatively simple tasks like classification, pattern recognition and prediction, as well as more sophisticated tasks like the processing of temporal sequences and the context dependent processing of complex problems. Also, a wide variety of control tasks can be executed by them, and the suggestion is relatively obvious that neural networks perform adequately in such cases because they are thought to mimic the biological nervous system which is also devoted to such tasks. As we shall see, this suggestion is false but does not do any harm as long as it is only the final performance of the algorithm which counts. Neural networks are also used in the modelling of the functioning of (sub systems in) the biological nervous system. It will be clear that in such cases it is certainly not irrelevant how similar their algorithm is to what is precisely going on in the nervous system. Standard artificial neural networks are constructed from 'units' (roughly similar to neurons) that transmit their 'activity' (similar to membrane potentials or to mean firing rates) to other units via 'weight factors' (similar to synaptic coupling efficacies)."
Imaging Heat and Mass Transfer Processes: Visualization and Analysis applies Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques to complex heat and mass transfer processes. Several applications are considered where thermal and concentration fields play a central role. These include vortex shedding and suppression from stationary and oscillating bluff bodies such as cylinders, convection around crystals growing from solution, and buoyant jets. Many of these processes are unsteady and three dimensional. The interpretation and analysis of images recorded are discussed in the text.
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