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An account of the concepts and intellectual structure of classical thermodynamics that reveals the subject's simplicity and coherence. Students of physics, chemistry, and engineering are taught classical thermodynamics through its methods-a "problems first" approach that neglects the subject's concepts and intellectual structure. In Thermodynamic Weirdness, Don Lemons fills this gap, offering a nonmathematical account of the ideas of classical thermodynamics in all its non-Newtonian "weirdness." By emphasizing the ideas and their relationship to one another, Lemons reveals the simplicity and coherence of classical thermodynamics. Lemons presents concepts in an order that is both chronological and logical, mapping the rise and fall of ideas in such a way that the ideas that were abandoned illuminate the ideas that took their place. Selections from primary sources, including writings by Daniel Fahrenheit, Antoine Lavoisier, James Joule, and others, appear at the end of most chapters. Lemons covers the invention of temperature; heat as a form of motion or as a material fluid; Carnot's analysis of heat engines; William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin) and his two definitions of absolute temperature; and energy as the mechanical equivalent of heat. He explains early versions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics; entropy and the law of entropy non-decrease; the differing views of Lord Kelvin and Rudolf Clausius on the fate of the universe; the zeroth and third laws of thermodynamics; and Einstein's assessment of classical thermodynamics as "the only physical theory of universal content which I am convinced will never be overthrown."
In this introductory textbook, thermodynamics is presented as a natural extension of mechanics, so that the laws and concepts learned in mechanics serve to get acquainted with the theory. The foundations of thermodynamics are presented in the first part. The second part covers a wide range of applications, which are of central importance in the fields of physics, chemistry and engineering, including calorimetry, phase transitions, heat engines and chemical reactions. In the third part, devoted to continuous media, Fourier and Fick's laws, diffusion equations and many transport effects are derived using a unified approach. Each chapter concludes with a selection of worked examples and several exercises, to reinforce key concepts under discussion. A full solutions manual is available at the end of the book. It contains more than 150 problems based on contemporary issues faced by scientists and engineers that are solved in detail for undergraduate and graduate students.
This diagram is based on the newest Industrial Standard IAPWS-IF97 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam, which replaces the previous industrial formulation IFC-67.
The fifth edition of "Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Fluids" incorporates two new tables: other material is being retained essentially as in the fourth edition, although tables beyond p.11 will be on different pages.
The new tables are as follows: Data of Refrigerant 134a (tetrafluoroethane - CH2F-CF3) are being added because this refrigerant is environmentally more acceptable than Refrigerant 12 which it replaces. The table of R12 is being retained, however, because R12 will survive in much equipment for a long time. At present it is still uncertain whether R134a is a medium-term substitute, or will be used for much longer than a decade.
Figure 15.11 from "Engineering Thermodynamics, Work and Heat Transfer" (Rogers & Mayhew, Longman 1992) is being included. The table contains, for selected substances, molar enthalpies and molar Gibbs functions of formation, and Equilibrium constants of formation, as well as molar heat capacities and absolute entropies.
This concise text provides an essential treatment of thermodynamics and a discussion of the basic principles built on an intuitive description of the microscopic behavior of matter. Aimed at a range of courses in mechanical and aerospace engineering, the presentation explains the foundations valid at the macroscopic level in relation to what happens at the microscopic level, relying on intuitive and visual explanations which are presented with engaging cases. With ad hoc, real-word examples related also to current and future renewable energy conversion technologies and two well-known programs used for thermodynamic calculations, FluidProp and StanJan, this text provides students with a rich and engaging learning experience.
This text is an ideal introductory for 1st year mechanical engineering students. Written in competency-based terms, the text focuses on two national modules; Thermodynamics 1 (EA714) and Fluid Mechanics 1 (EA70 6). Each chapter reflects the learning outcomes for the modules. Numer ous worked examples and self-test problems are provided.
Combustion is a fascinating phenomenon coupling complex chemistry to transport mechanisms and nonlinear fluid dynamics. This book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive presentation of the nonlinear dynamics of combustion waves and other non-equilibrium energetic systems. The major advances in this field have resulted from analytical studies of simplified models performed in close relation with carefully controlled laboratory experiments. The key to understanding the complex phenomena is a systematic reduction of the complexity of the basic equations. Focusing on this fundamental approach, the book is split into three parts. Part I provides physical insights for physics-oriented readers, Part II presents detailed technical analysis using perturbation methods for theoreticians, and Part III recalls the necessary background knowledge in physics, chemistry and fluid dynamics. This structure makes the content accessible to newcomers to the physics of unstable fronts in flows, whilst also offering advanced material for scientists who wish to improve their knowledge.
An entertaining mathematical exploration of the heat equation and its role in the triumphant development of the trans-Atlantic telegraph cable Heat, like gravity, shapes nearly every aspect of our world and universe, from how milk dissolves in coffee to how molten planets cool. The heat equation, a cornerstone of modern physics, demystifies such processes, painting a mathematical picture of the way heat diffuses through matter. Presenting the mathematics and history behind the heat equation, Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons tells the remarkable story of how this foundational idea brought about one of the greatest technological advancements of the modern era. Paul Nahin vividly recounts the heat equation's tremendous influence on society, showing how French mathematical physicist Joseph Fourier discovered, derived, and solved the equation in the early nineteenth century. Nahin then follows Scottish physicist William Thomson, whose further analysis of Fourier's explorations led to the pioneering trans-Atlantic telegraph cable. This feat of engineering reduced the time it took to send a message across the ocean from weeks to minutes. Readers also learn that Thomson used Fourier's solutions to calculate the age of the earth, and, in a bit of colorful lore, that writer Charles Dickens relied on the trans-Atlantic cable to save himself from a career-damaging scandal. The book's mathematical and scientific explorations can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of high school calculus and physics, and MATLAB code is included to aid readers who would like to solve the heat equation themselves. A testament to the intricate links between mathematics and physics, Hot Molecules, Cold Electrons offers a fascinating glimpse into the relationship between a formative equation and one of the most important developments in the history of human communication.
This practical, user-friendly reference book of common mechanical engineering concepts is geared toward makers who don't have (or want) an engineering degree but need to know the essentials of basic mechanical elements to successfully accomplish their personal projects. The book provides practical mechanical engineering information (supplemented with the applicable math, science, physics, and engineering theory) without being boring like a typical textbook. Most chapters contain at least one hands-on, fully illustrated, step-by-step project to demonstrate the topic being discussed and requires only common, inexpensive, easily sourced materials and tools. Some projects also provide alternative materials and tools and processes to align with the reader's individual preferences, skills, tools, and materials-at-hand. Linked together via the authors' overarching project -- building a kid-sized tank -- the chapters describe the thinking behind each mechanism and then expands the discussions to similar mechanical concepts in other applications. Written with humor, a bit of irreverence, and entertaining personal insights and first-hand experiences, the book presents complex concepts in an uncomplicated way. Highlights include: Provides mechanical engineering information that includes math, science, physics and engineering theory without being a textbook Contains hands-on projects in each chapter that require common, inexpensive, easily sourced materials and tools All hands-on projects are fully illustrated with step-by-step instructions Some hands-on projects provide alternative materials and tools/processes to align with the reader's individual preferences, skills, tools and materials-at-hand Includes real-world insights from the authors like tips and tricks ("Staying on Track") and fail moments ("Lost Track!") Many chapters contain a section ("Tracking Further") that dives deeper into the chapter subject, for those readers that are interested in more details of the topic Builds on two related Make: projects to link and illustrate all the chapter topics and bring individual concepts together into one system Furnishes an accompanying website that offers further information, illustrations, projects, discussion boards, videos, animations, patterns, drawings, etc. Learn to effectively use professional mechanical engineering principles in your projects, without having to graduate from engineering school!
This textbook on atmospheric thermodynamics is for students of meteorology or atmospheric science. It also serves as a reference text for working professionals in meteorology and weather forecasting. It is unique because it provides complete, calculus-based derivations of basic physics from first principles, and connects mathematical relationships to real-world, practical weather forecasting applications. Worked examples and practice problems are included throughout.
Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces.utilizing principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. Discusses the second law of thermodynamics-considering entropy as the indicator of energy quality. Principles of Thermodynamics provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using MathcadT and MathematicaT a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods and examines the basic ideas of energy, entropy, and free energy chemical reactions neutral and ionic solutions and electrochemical systems phase diagrams for binary and ternary systems surface effects in single component and multicomponent systems the thermodynamics of steady-state systems polymers and nonequilibrium systems Principles of Thermodynamics is an authoritative text suitable for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry, physics, geosciences, and engineering.
The marvellous complexity of the Universe emerges from several deep laws and a handful of fundamental constants that fix its shape, scale, and destiny. There is a deep structure to the world which at the same time is simple, elegant, and beautiful. Where did these laws and these constants come from? And why are the laws so fruitful when written in the language of mathematics? Peter Atkins considers the minimum effort needed to equip the Universe with its laws and its constants. He explores the origin of the conservation of energy, of electromagnetism, of classical and quantum mechanics, and of thermodynamics, showing how all these laws spring from deep symmetries. The revolutionary result is a short but immensely rich weaving together of the fundamental ideas of physics. With his characteristic wit, erudition, and economy, Atkins sketches out how the laws of Nature can spring from very little. Or arguably from nothing at all.
With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer.
Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phenomena and manmade applications. These new resources and methods help theoretical, computational, and experimental researchers synergistically interact to better understand the physical phenomena being studied. This book explores how inverse analysis can be used to increase understanding of interactions between technological systems and nature, by bridging the gap between data derived from measurements and information from theoretical predictions.
Assembled in three parts?Modeling and Measurements in Heat Transfer, Inverse Heat Transfer Problems, and Applications?this self-contained resource:
Written by international experts, this book assumes basic heat transfer knowledge, presenting a balanced approach suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, as well as practicing engineers and academic and industrial researchers. With coverage of modeling at the micro- and nanoscales, this book covers classic and novel approaches to help readers understand and solve heat transfer problems of all kinds.
For more than 50 years, the Springer VDI Heat Atlas has been an indispensable working means for engineers dealing with questions of heat transfer. Featuring 50% more content, this new edition covers most fields of heat transfer in industrial and engineering applications. It presents the interrelationships between basic scientific methods, experimental techniques, model-based analysis and their transfer to technical applications.
This book provides the reader with some thermochemistry notes. The intention is to provide a simple, easy to understand text which serves as a complimentary material to more complex books. It also provide students and those beginning in the field with several application examples used in different areas of materials processing. The book presents fully solved problems, some quite often found in major metallurgical operations.
This book introduces the detonation phenomenon in explosives. It is ideal for engineers and graduate students with a background in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. The material is mostly qualitative, aiming to illustrate the physical aspects of the phenomenon. Classical idealized theories of detonation waves are presented first. These permit detonation speed, gas properties ahead of and behind the detonation wave, and the distribution of fluid properties within the detonation wave itself to be determined. Subsequent chapters describe in detail the real unstable structure of a detonation wave. One-, two-, and three-dimensional computer simulations are presented along with experimental results using various experimental techniques. The important effects of confinement and boundary conditions and their influence on the propagation of a detonation are also discussed. The final chapters cover the various ways detonation waves can be formed and provide a review of the outstanding problems and future directions in detonation research.
This textbook provides an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous introduction to the thermodynamics and thermal physics of planetary processes. It demonstrates how the workings of planetary bodies can be understood in depth by reducing them to fundamental physics and chemistry. The book is based on two courses taught by the author for many years at the University of Georgia. It includes 'Guided Exercise' boxes; end-of-chapter problems (worked solutions provided online); and software boxes (Maple code provided online). As well as being an ideal textbook on planetary thermodynamics for advanced students in the Earth and planetary sciences, it also provides an innovative and quantitative complement to more traditional courses in geological thermodynamics, petrology, chemical oceanography and planetary science. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is also of great interest to researchers looking for a 'one stop' source of concepts and techniques that they can apply to their research problems.
Quantum Thermodynamics is a novel research field which explores the emergence of thermodynamics from quantum theory and addresses thermodynamic phenomena which appear in finite-size, non-equilibrium and finite-time contexts. Blending together elements from open quantum systems, statistical mechanics, quantum many-body physics, and quantum information theory, it pinpoints thermodynamic advantages and barriers emerging from genuinely quantum properties such as quantum coherence and correlations. Owing to recent experimental efforts, the field is moving quickly towards practical applications, such as nano-scale heat devices, or thermodynamically optimised protocols for emergent quantum technologies. Starting from the basics, the present volume reviews some of the most recent developments, as well as some of the most important open problems in quantum thermodynamics. The self-contained chapters provide concise and topical introductions to researchers who are new to the field. Experts will find them useful as a reference for the current state-of-the-art. In six sections the book covers topics such as quantum heat engines and refrigerators, fluctuation theorems, the emergence of thermodynamic equilibrium, thermodynamics of strongly coupled systems, as well as various information theoretic approaches including Landauer's principle and thermal operations. It concludes with a section dedicated to recent quantum thermodynamics experiments and experimental prospects on a variety of platforms ranging from cold atoms to photonic systems, and NV centres.
Offering all aspects of humidity measurement and instrumentation, this work includes rudiments and theory, common applications, advantages and limitations of frequently-used sensors and techniques, and guidelines for installation, maintenance and calibration. The disk is intended for easy conversions of humidity parameters and units.
This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-of-chapter exercise problems are supplemented with stepwise answers. Primarily designed to serve as a complete textbook for undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical engineering, the book will also be useful for students of chemical, automobile, production, and industrial engineering streams. The book fully covers the topics of heat transfer coursework and can also be used as reference for students preparing for competitive graduate examinations.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product.A practical, illustrated guide to thermal scienceA practical, illustrated guide to thermal scienceWritten by a subject-matter expert with many years of academic and industrial experience, Thermal Science provides detailed yet concise coverage of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. The laws of thermodynamics are discussed with emphasis on their real-world applications. This comprehensive resource clearly presents the flow-governing equations of fluid mechanics, including those of mass, linear momentum, and energy conservation. Flow behavior through turbomachinery components is also addressed. The three modes of heat transfer--conduction, convection, and radiation--are described along with practical applications of each. Thermal Science covers: Properties of pure substances and ideal gases First and second laws of thermodynamics Energy conversion by cycles Power-absorbing cycles Gas power cycles Flow-governing equations External and internal flow structures Rotating machinery fluid mechanics Variable-geometry turbomachinery stages Prandtl-Meyer flow Internal flow, friction, and pressure drop Fanno flow process for a viscous flow field Rayleigh flow Heat conduction and convection Heat exchangers Transfer by radiation Instructor material available for download fromcompanion website
This book explores the Energy Minimization Multi-scale (EMMS) theory and the drag model for heterogeneous gas-solid fluidized flows. The results show that the cluster density plays a critical role with regard to drag. A novel cluster model is proposed and indicates that the profile of cluster density is single-peaked with the maximum value located at solid concentrations of 0.1~0.15. The EMMS theory is improved with the cluster model and an accurate drag model is developed. The model's universality is achieved by investigating the relationship between the heterogeneity and flow patterns. The drag model is subsequently verified numerically and experimentally.
CONGRATULATIONS TO HERBERT KROEMER, 2000 NOBEL LAUREATE FOR PHYSICS
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