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This work discusses the latest innovations in the manufacture of wood adhesives, and shows how to test their composition. Methods of varying parameters to obtain particular effects are explained, and background summaries of each class of adhesives are provided.
This book offers a broad range of options for technically adapting, handling and processing wood with specific wood characteristics. It starts by discussing wood anatomy and the general factors leading to the formation of wood characteristics. The individual characteristics are then categorized into four groups: 1. Wood characteristics inherent in a tree s natural growth. 2.Biotically-induced wood characteristics. 3.Abiotically-induced wood characteristics. 4. Types and causes of cracks.
New to this English edition is a comparison of wood characteristics found in trees from the boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones. The results show a clear relationship between the effects of sunshine duration, the vertical and horizontal angle of radiation, and crown coverage and the way wood characteristics form.
The book addresses all those who work with wood professionally: foresters, gardeners and arborists who want to be able to observe a living tree and identify its internal features and the causes of its prominent wood characteristics. Based on the findings described in this book they can determine how to avoid certain undesirable characteristics, or alternatively how to promote favorable ones as the tree and stand grow. Botanists and dendrologists will learn how wood characteristics arise, and how they affect living trees and wood products. The needs of wood technologists seeking to prevent adverse wood characteristics from influencing wood processing, or to enhance favorable wood characteristics, are also addressed.
This book is intended for use both in the industry and the academia. It introduces the physical, chemical and the mechanical properties as well as the characterization of bamboo. Novel industrial applications in structural, non-structural, reinforcement, afforestation, land reclamation, environmental significance, textile, medical, geotechnical, hydraulic, food, pulp and the paper industries are addressed in detail. Bamboo has been used for centuries as a structural material as well as in diverse engineering applications, food and medicinal purposes, especially in Asia. As a natural fiber composite, bamboo has the potential for many developments in academic and industrial research. Current literature on composites tends to focus on bamboo as a plant or solely as a structural engineering material. This book seeks to bring together these two extremes and provides a holistic resource on the subject.
Concentrating on pieces of treen related to eating and drinking, this book celebrates the range and richness of the turner's art from 1600 to 1900. It covers a wide range of objects for everyday use - goblets to nutcrackers, platters to lemon squeezers, and wassail bowls to egg cups. The book discusses the work of the "jobbing" village turner or "bodger", the skilled craftsman's workshop and the grand Court turner producing complex rose engine turning. It illustrates pieces only to be found in museums and examples you can find today in local antiques markets or fairs. Information is given on where treen may be seen and found and there is practical advice on pitfalls for the collector, dating and cleaning, as well as a chapter dealing with surfaces and patina and one asking for reader's help in identifying the purpose of some curious objects.
The book is a fundamental reference source on reaction wood for wood scientists and technologists, plant biologists, silviculturists, forest ecologists, and anyone involved in the growing of trees and the processing of wood. It brings together our current understanding of all aspects of reaction wood, and is the first book to discuss both compression wood and tension wood.
Trees produce reaction wood to maintain the vertical orientation of their stems and the optimum angle of each branch. They achieve this by laying down fibre cell walls in which differences in physical and chemical structure from those of normal fibres are expressed as differential stresses across the stem or branch. This process, while of obvious value for the survival of the tree, causes serious problems for the utilisation of timber. Timber derived from trees containing significant amounts of reaction wood is subject to dimensional instability on drying, causing twisting, bending and splitting. It is also difficult to work as timber, and for the pulp and paper industry the cost of removing the increased amount of lignin in compression wood is substantial. This has both practical and economic consequences for industry.
Understanding the factors controlling reaction wood formation and its effect on wood structure is therefore fundamental to our understanding of the adaptation of trees to their environment and to the sustainable use of wood.
The topics covered include:
-Morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of reaction wood
-Cell-wall polymers in reaction wood and their biosynthesis
-Changes in tree proteomes during reaction wood formation
-The biomechanical action and biological functions of reaction wood
-Physical and mechanical properties of reaction wood from the scale of cell walls to planks
-The detection and characterisation of compression wood
-Effects of reaction wood on the performance of wood and wood-based products
-Commercial implications of reaction wood and the influence of forest management on its formation
In the agriculture, forestry, the primary and secondary wood working industry there are considerable resources of raw materials which can only be used in a rational manner for energetic purposes. Due to requirements from the users. one of the most retinal way of utilization is to make pellets with high density and specific energy content. Making pellets of 6-8 mm diameter, their utilization in furnaces allows an almost fully automated operation with high thermal efficiency. This book describes both the theoretical and practical aspects of pellet production including material requirements and preparation, pressing technologies, quality requirements, burning properties, investments and the overall economy of pellet production.
With a naked eye or microscope you will be able to identify 180 hardwoods, softwoods amd tropical woods by following the straightforward techniques described in this text.
This book comprehensively summarizes important aspects of research in the active field of lignocellulosic (polymer) composites, including polymer materials from or containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It describes how these materials can be produced from forest products and natural fibers from sources such as jute, flax, sisal, and many more, and even from agricultural residues (like wheat straw, corn stover, or sugarcane bagasse). In times of high demand for renewable green materials, lignocellulosic materials from organic matter produced by trees, shrubs and agricultural crops present a highly attractive feedstock. The international authors explain different treatment and fabrication methods for the production of lignocellulosic materials. Other chapters address the properties of these green materials or illustrate specific applications, ranging from food packaging and household products to adsorbents and even conductive polymer composites. In this way, this book offers a broad and comprehensive overview over the entire field of lignocellulosic composite materials.
The book provides fundamental chemistry and properties of near-critical water (NCW) and supercritical water (SCW), criteria and challenges/solutions in reactor design for NCW and SCW processes, and up-to-date reviews and practice of a wide range of their applications in bio refineries including: production of hydrochars from biomass, SCW oxidation (SCWO) for waste treatment, SCW gasification (SCWG) of biomass and waste for hydrogen and methane production, hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass, production of chemicals and SCWO of biofuels for energy. It also presents techno-economic analysis of hydrogen production via SCWG of biomass. The book will be highly essential for both academic researchers and industrial practitioners for developing novel bio refinery technologies and processes employing NCW or SCW for treatment of various organic waste streams and production of bio-energy and bio-based chemicals from bio-renewable resources.
Prof. Dr. Zhen Fang is leader and founder of biomass group, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
Dr.Chunbao (Charles) Xu is currently an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering and NSERC/FP Innovations Industrial Research Chair in Forest Bio refinery at Western University, Canada."
This text provides technical and economic information on alternative paper-making technologies and describes the characteristics of various types and grades of paper products, offering guidance in the choice of paper machines. The information relates mostly to small-scale paper mills with a capacity of 30 tonnes of paper per day or less. The raw materials suggested for such mills include straw, bagasse, waste paper, rags and cotton waste, as well as other agricultural residues and imported wood pulp. The book is not a technical introduction to paper-making in general, nor is it a basic textbook on the subject. Instead it provides people already in possession of the necessary bacground knowledge with criteria for choosing amongst various methods of paper-making; it is not sufficient for the establishment or operation of the small-scale production facilities outlined. Established or would-be paper manufacturers will need to obtain additional information and equipment from equipment suppliers, engineering firms or specialized institutions. For this purpose, the names and addresses of some of these are provided in separate appendices. The text also provides information on the various socio-economic effects of alternative paper-making technologies and scales of production, including employment generation, foreign exchange savings, rural industrialization, and so on. It also gives some guidelines for government action in support of appropriate paper-making technologies.
This volume emphasizes the growing need for wood products with advanced engineering properties. It details the fundamental principles of cellulose technology and presents current techniques to modifying the basic chemistry of lignocellulosic materials. The work: discusses the cost-efficient use of cellulose derivatives in a variety of commodities; highlights the chemical modification of wood by methods such as etherification, esterification and thermoplasticization; considers recent progress in the lignocellulosic liquefaction of wood; and more.
This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.
The purpose of this monograph is to characterize and describe the quality of machined wood surfaces, whereas particular attention is given to the utility and to aesthetical values in product design. The approach employed by the authors involves an introductory overview and is then organized in three parts: first, the book deals with factors influencing surface stability, the second part describes the color and gloss properties of wood surfaces with many practical applications, and the third part covers roughness properties of surfaces related to machining. This is a highly informative and carefully presented book, providing valuable insight for both research experts and practitioners with an interest in machined wood surfaces.
For the past two millennia, the ability to produce paper in ever more efficient ways has supported the proliferation of literacy, media, religion, education, commerce and art. It has created civilisations, fostering the fomenting of revolutions and the stabilising of regimes. Now, on the cusp of "going paperless", Mark Kurlansky challenges common assumptions about technology's influence, affirming that paper is here to stay.
While sheets of paper are disappearing from our homes and offices, the medium is experiencing a renaissance in the worlds of art, design, and architecture. Suddenly, paper is everywhere-but not only in the old familiar places or forms. This fascinating book looks at every aspect of paper: its history, composition, production, application, and trade. Beginning with the anatomy of paper and its earliest forms, this book looks at paper as a symbol of political and economic importance and as a carrier of ideas, from literature to art, design, and music. It looks at the different surfaces, opacities, weights and volumes of paper and how it is used for printing, typography, graphics, and maps as well as a vehicle for origami, architecture, and fashion. Sumptuously illustrated with photographs and drawings, this book includes a variety of papers for readers to examine and feel, highlighting the sensual aspects of this seemingly ordinary product. Engaging, entertaining, and informative, this book contains a wealth of useful and surprising information on every printed, coloured, and textured page.
This book explores various digital representation strategies that could change the future of wooden architectures by blending tradition and innovation. Composed of 61 chapters, written by 153 authors hailing from 5 continents, 24 countries and 69 research centers, it addresses advanced digital modeling, with a particular focus on solutions involving generative models and dynamic value, inherent to the relation between knowing how to draw and how to build. Thanks to the potential of computing, areas like parametric design and digital manufacturing are opening exciting new avenues for the future of construction. The book's chapters are divided into five sections that connect digital wood design to integrated approaches and generative design; to model synthesis and morphological comprehension; to lessons learned from nature and material explorations; to constructive wisdom and implementation-related challenges; and to parametric transfigurations and morphological optimizations.
The first of Deutsche Bank Collection's new exhibition series, presented at 'PalaisPopulair' in Berlin, is dedicated to the fascinating artistic medium of paper. The World on Paper shows how the everyday and at the same time sensual material paper opens up surprising possibilities, even in an era of innovative technologies. The publication also documents the fact that works on paper in particular give rise to connections with other media and hence visualise current art in all its breadth. Artists: Doug Aitken, Josef Albers, Georg Baselitz, Joseph Beuys, Hanne Darboven, Ellen Gallagher, Hermann Gloeckner, Katharina Grosse, Eva Hesse, Anish Kapoor, William Kentridge, Martin Kippenberger, Imi Knoebel, Maria Lassnig, Markus Lupertz, Heinz Mack, Helen Marten, Joan Mitchell, Takashi Murakami, Wangechi Mutu, Bruce Nauman, Blinky Palermo, Sigmar Polke, Neo Rauch, Gerhard Richter, James Rosenquist, Karin Sander, Kara Walker, Andy Warhol, Lawrence Weiner, et. al. Text in English and German.
This book presents detailed information on the production and properties of carbon fibers derived from lignin precursors. Focusing on future directions in the carbon fiber industry, it also introduces a novel process for obtaining high-purity lignin, a key aspect in the manufacture of high-quality carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is currently the most preferred lightweight manufacturing material and is rapidly becoming the material of choice for manufacturers around the world. Although more than 80% of commercial carbon fiber is estimated to use PAN (polyacrylonitrile) as a precursor, carbon fiber manufactured from PAN is expensive and therefore its application is limited to high-performance structural materials. Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose and offers a carbon-rich, renewable resource. As a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and the production of cellulosic ethanol, lignin is also available at low cost, making it an economically attractive alternative to PAN for the production of carbon fibers, as highlighted in this book. The information presented will be of interest to all those involved in the investigation of carbon fiber materials, carbon fiber manufacturers and carbon fiber users.
Over the past two decades, there has been a shift in research and industrial practice, and products traditionally manufactured primarily from wood are increasingly combined with other nonwood materials of either natural or synthetic origin. Wood and other plant-based fiber is routinely combined with adhesives, polymers, and other "ingredients" to produce composite materials.
"Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites" draws together widely scattered information concerning fundamental concepts and technical applications, essential to the manufacture of wood and natural fiber composites. The topics addressed include basic information on the chemical and physical composition of wood and other lignocellulosic materials, the behavior of these materials under thermocompression processes, fundamentals of adhesion, specific adhesive systems used to manufacture composite materials, and an overview of the industrial technologies used to manufacture major product categories. The book concludes with a chapter on the burgeoning field of natural fiber-plastic composites.
"Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites" is a valuable resource for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying forest products and wood science, as well as for practicing professionals working in operational areas of wood- and natural-fiber processing.
For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs
Topics covered include: Overview of lignocellulosic material, their chemical and physical compositionConsolidation behavior of wood and fiber in response to heat and pressureFundamentals of adhesionAdhesives used to bond wood and lignocellulosic compositesManufacturing technology of major product typesFiber/plastic composites
Wood has been used in a wide range of structural applications. When properly maintained, these structures can have a useful life from 50 years to several centuries. Thirty-seven unusual wood structures are described in detail. They include innovative structures like Tacoma Dome and the Air Force Trestle; atypical structures like U.S.S. Constitution and the Mosquito bomber; and very durable structures like Norwegian stave churches and covered bridges. The publication is intended to present both the history and design of these various structures. Thus, engineers and architects will encounter ideas that should help them use a significant renewable resource in a more efficient manner.
An authoritative guide to using timber culled from the UK's urban timber resource (street, park and urban woodland trees). This BRE Trust report provides guidance on the selection and identification of high value stems, processing, drying, transport, storage and the logistical problems associated with felled material. The report aims to promote the use of many common and exotic urban tree species for high-value solid wood products rather than processed for firewood, chipped to produce mulch or sent to landfill. The report provides guidance on how local authorities can maximize the value of timber produced in towns and cities and encourage them and other organisations to develop best practicable options for using solid wood produced during normal maintenance procedures.
This contributed volume provides 11 illustrative case studies of technological transformation in the global pulp and paper industry from the inception of mechanical papermaking in early nineteenth century Europe until its recent developments in today's business environment with rapidly changing market dynamics and consumer behaviour. It deals with the relationships between technology transfer, technology leadership, raw material dependence, and product variety on a global scale. The study itemises the main drivers in technology transfer that affected this process, including the availability of technology, knowledge, investments and raw materials on the one hand, and demand characteristics on the other hand, within regional, national and transnational organisational frameworks. The volume is intended as a basic introduction to the history of papermaking technology, and it is aimed at students and teachers as course material and as a handbook for professionals working in either industry, research centres or universities. It caters to graduate audiences in forestry, business, technical sciences, and history.
Since prehistoric times and throughout the course of human evolution, wood has been an integral part of all civilizations. Wooden Cultural Heritage can be found worldwide, providing valuable information on the social and economic context of human history. Nonetheless, as a natural cellulosic material, wood shows low resistance to biodeterioration and thus wooden Cultural Heritage often fails to escape decomposition in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This book provides a comprehensive overview on the biodeterioration of wooden Cultural Heritage and describes the decay mechanisms of key organisms and microorganisms encountered in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Cultural Heritage professionals, researchers and academics may explore within this book the associations between deteriogens, habitats and decay, which will assist them to understand wood biodeterioration and design effective prevention, mitigation and remediation strategies. The book presents case studies around the world to demonstrate the impact of biogenic deterioration on wooden Cultural Heritage and illustrates mechanisms and patterns in order to be a useful handbook of decay diagnosis. Lastly, by adopting a holistic approach to wood decay, basic concepts of wood technology, ecology, and deteriogens' biology are introduced, permitting readers of different scientific backgrounds to easily comprehend wood biodeterioration.
Papermaking is a fascinating art and technology. The second edition of this successful handbook provides a comprehensive view on the technical, economic, ecologic and social background of paper and board. It has been updated, revised and largely extended in depth and width including the further use of paper and board in converting and printing. A wide knowledge basis is a prerequisite in evaluating and optimizing the whole process chain to ensure efficient paper and board production. The same is true in their application and end use.
The 2 Volume Set covers a wide range of topics: Raw materials required for paper and board manufacturing such as fibers, chemical additives and fillersProcesses and machinery applied to prepare the stock and to produce the various paper and board grades including automation and trouble shootingPaper converting and printing processes, book preservationThe different paper and board grades as well as testing and analysing fiber suspensions, paper and board products, and converted or printed mattersEnvironmental and energy factors as well as safety aspects
The handbook provides professionals in the field, e. g. papermakers as well as converters and printers, laymen, students, politicians and other interested people with the most up-to-date and comprehensive information on the state-of- the-art techniques and aspects involved in paper making, converting and printing.
From the reviews of the previous edition:
.".".excellent and easily accessible to the non-engineer and... the general reader." "-CHOICE
.".".a one-of-a-kind text on paper production-a selection observed for its crisp and sharp efficiency." "-Electric Review
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