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Books > Medicine > Surgery > Transplant surgery

Articular Cartilage (Hardcover): Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, Eric M. Darling, Jerry C. Hu, Grayson D. Duraine, A. Hari Reddi Articular Cartilage (Hardcover)
Kyriacos A. Athanasiou, Eric M. Darling, Jerry C. Hu, Grayson D. Duraine, A. Hari Reddi
R3,355 Discovery Miles 33 550 Special order

Well-known for their inability to heal, articular cartilage injuries often degenerate inexorably to disastrous impairment. Multitudes of treatments have been devised for this problem, but no satisfactory long-term solutions have been established. Written by world-class experts, Articular Cartilage covers the latest research and advancements related to biology, development, pathology, clinical applications, and tissue engineering. This book is useful for rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, cartilage biologists, and cartilage engineers as well as for professionals working in the orthopaedic and other musculoskeletal industries. This book also belongs in the library of primary care physicians, gerontologists, physical therapists, kinesiologists, and chiropractors. Written at a level that allows accessibility to a wide audience, it provides an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science, and detailed methodologic approaches. The authors examine the major events and signaling molecules that lead to development of articular cartilage from precursor cells, and the changes in cartilage as it matures and ages. They focus on the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, and therapeutic approaches for cartilage injury and the major arthritides that affect cartilage and the synovial joints such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout. They supply an up-to-date overview of the field of tissue engineering as applied to articular cartilage repair. They examine a number of methods used to assess structure, composition, biology, and biomechanical function. Each chapter contains extensive references to enhance additional study. The book's comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other tissue engineering or developmental biology-based books available. It includes important discussions and perspectives on many of the remaining challenges and opportunities in the development and translation of new approaches for treating diseases of articular cartilage. It also provides detailed working protocols for many of the methods used to study articular cartilage, coverage of current treatment options, and business and regulatory aspects of the development of cartilage products. It provides a deeper understanding that will help with the development of new products and clinical applications.

A Gift of Life - Observations on Organ Transplantation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1970): R. y. Carne A Gift of Life - Observations on Organ Transplantation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1970)
R. y. Carne
R1,603 Discovery Miles 16 030 Special order

In the past few years the transplantation of organs in man has received publicity unprecedented in medical history. The first heart grafts were covered by press, radio, and television on a scal~ equiva- lent to the news of the outbreak of a major war. Unwarranted and extravagant optimism has been followed by bitter criticism. This has undermined public confidence in the medical profession and seriously impeded progress in an important endeavour aimed at reducing human suffering. This unfortunate situation has arisen from widespread ignorance amongst the public and the medical profession of the background, present achievements, and future potential of organ grafting. Short statements by experts, frequently misquoted or cut short by television interviewers, and misinformed derogatory pronouncements by prejudiced medically qualified men, with no knowledge of the field, have produced a sorry state of confusion. It is the purpose of this book to attempt to clarify organ transplantation. The principles of organ transplantation are common to all organs but I will confine most of the discussion to transplantation of four vital organs, namely the kidney, liver, heart, and lung. ROY CALNE Cambridge January 1970 CONTENTS Preface IX List of Illustrations Xlll Acknowledgements XVll I. THE IDEA I II. THE SURGERY 7 III. REJECTION 15 IV. PREVENTION OF REJECTION 23 v. TISSUEMATCHING 39 VI. ORGAN PRESERVATION 47 VII. SUITABLE DONORS 53 VIII. ORGAN TRANSPLANTS 57 IX. ETHICS AND THE LAW 81 X.

Saving Sarah - One Mother's Battle Against the Health Care System to Save Her Daughter's Life (Standard format, CD,... Saving Sarah - One Mother's Battle Against the Health Care System to Save Her Daughter's Life (Standard format, CD, Unabridged edition)
Janet Murnaghan; Narrated by Teri Barrington
R660 R505 Discovery Miles 5 050 Save R155 (23%) Special order
Informing Clinical Practice in Nephrology - The Role of RCTs (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015):... Informing Clinical Practice in Nephrology - The Role of RCTs (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015)
Mohsen El Kossi, Arif Khwaja, Meguid El Nahas
R1,873 Discovery Miles 18 730 Special order

Historically, clinical decisions in renal medicine have been challenged by the scarce availability of robust supportive evidence. Not only are the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Nephrology the third lowest amongst the medical specialties but in many instances the trials themselves are of poor quality. In addition, practice has been further influenced by extrapolation from the outcomes of general population clinical trials which exclude renal patients. The difference between the ideal trial participant and real complex cases encountered in daily practice is well recognized and further compounded in renal patients with complex pathophysiology - this ultimately makes decision making in this subset of patients a real challenge. Recently, there has been a growing interest in conducting well designed RCTs in different areas of renal medicine. However, though clinical guidelines are helpful in providing the clinicians with a frame of best available evidence for a clinical condition, it denies the unique nature of each individual patient. This book offers a thorough and critical appraisal and evaluation of the key published clinical trials that have shaped current practice in nephrology, dialysis and transplantation. It will help the practicing physician close the gap between the inflexible and generalized nature of clinical guidelines and the day-to-day clinical decision-making for individual patients. It will provide the clinician with the tools required to investigate and extract the appropriate guidance to apply to individual cases in daily practice. Moreover, it will help improve the ability of junior colleagues to appraise available evidence in a systematic way when there is lack of local guidelines or when the guidelines are difficult to apply due to logistic constraints or barriers. Lastly, this book will serve as a reference for key clinical trials in different areas of renal medicine together with literature and authors views of these trials and their impact on changing practice.

Organ Preservation and Transplant Surgery (Hardcover): Jean-Michel Dubernard, Marwan Dawahra, Paul McMaster Organ Preservation and Transplant Surgery (Hardcover)
Jean-Michel Dubernard, Marwan Dawahra, Paul McMaster
R2,700 Discovery Miles 27 000 Special order

This new book, edited by internationally renowned specialists Jean-Michel Dubernard, Marwan Dawahra and Paul McMaster, also pools the experience of consultants from both Europe and the US. It is divided into three main sections: Organ Preservation, Organ Harvesting and Surgical Techniques. Many different organs are covered including heart, kidneys, lungs, pancreas, intestine and bowel. The various aspects of preservation are discussed including cooling, and preservation solutions, the composition of which are currently being actively explored. Longer term preservation of the heart is still an unsolved problem and this is considered, as well as the pros and cons of organ donation from live or cadaveric donors.

Fully referenced and illustrated with over 50 line drawings, Organ Preservation and Transplant Surgery will be of particular interest to those involved in the often complex surgery of organ harvesting or trainees in transplantation surgery. It gives clear accounts of the techniques involved and a detailed update in the underlying science that determines and currently limits organ storage. It will also prove invaluable to the younger researcher who needs a clearer understanding of the scientific basis of organ preservation and the clinical need for better organ preservation.

Kidney & Pancreas Transplantation (Hardcover): Ernesto Pompeo Molmenti Kidney & Pancreas Transplantation (Hardcover)
Ernesto Pompeo Molmenti
R2,874 Discovery Miles 28 740 Special order

Kidney & Pancreas Transplantation is a comprehensive collection of considerations for organ transplantation, starting from candidate evaluation to surgical techniques and complications, and cutting-edge material on robotic surgical techniques. Divided into 22 sections, comprising 72 chapters, the book clearly illustrates the step-by-step surgical procedures of kidney and pancreas transplantation surgeries. Topics include islet cell transplantation, epigenetics, imaging complications, pathology, dermatologic manifestations, obesity and metabolic syndromes. The section `Operative Techniques: Donor' offers extensive coverage of live donor nephrectomy, methods for avoiding and managing hazards during live donor nephrectomies and deceased donor procurement. Kidney & Pancreas Transplantation has a multidisciplinary approach, comprised of contributions from internationally renowned nephrologists. It offers practical guidance and information relevant to a diverse audience of physicians. Key Points Contributions from multidisciplinary experts Edited by Professor Molmenti at the LIJ School of Medicine, New York 1230 (800 full colour) images, illustrations and tables

Hepatocyte Transplantation - Methods and Protocols (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017): Peggy Stock, Bruno Christ Hepatocyte Transplantation - Methods and Protocols (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017)
Peggy Stock, Bruno Christ
R2,988 Discovery Miles 29 880 Special order

This volume features up-to-date protocols for the isolation, preservation, and validation of various cell sources comprising large and small animal models, examining the impact of cell transplantation on acute and chronic liver diseases. Hepatocyte Transplantation: Methods and Protocols guides readers through laboratory protocols for the generation of humanized livers for the assessment of biological actions in vivo and techniques to monitor cell engraftment after cell transplantation in vivo are described and procedures for computational analyses of hepatocyte transplantation. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and practical, Hepatocyte Transplantation: Methods and Protocols is an essential resource for researchers and clinicians to assess the biological as well as the therapeutic potential of hepatocyte transplantation.

Atlas of Liver Transplantation (Hardcover, 2nd Revised edition): Eduardo de Santibanes, Martin de Santibanes Atlas of Liver Transplantation (Hardcover, 2nd Revised edition)
Eduardo de Santibanes, Martin de Santibanes
R6,302 Discovery Miles 63 020 Special order

This new edition is a comprehensive guide to the complete field of liver transplantation for practising transplant surgeons. Presented in a step by step format, the book begins with an overview and discussion on different types of liver disease. Pre- and post-transplant considerations and both deceased and live donor evaluation are examined in depth. The following sections describe operative technique, complications, pathology, radiology and much more. Topics have been fully revised to provide the most up to date information, and the atlas is highly illustrated with surgical images and figures. The book is authored by internationally recognised experts in the field of transplant surgery, led by Ernesto Molmenti from North Shore-LIJ Health System and School of Medicine, New York. Previous edition published in 2002. Key Points Second edition of comprehensive guide to liver transplantation Fully revised to provide the most up-to-date information Authored by internationally recognised experts led by Ernesto Molmenti Previous edition (9780721695518) published in 2002

Immunogenetics: Advances and Education - The First Congress of the Slovak Foundation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the... Immunogenetics: Advances and Education - The First Congress of the Slovak Foundation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1997)
J. Alexandro Madrigal; Adapted by Tibor Nanasi; Edited by Margita Bencova, Derek Middleton, Dominique Charron
R4,552 R4,294 Discovery Miles 42 940 Save R258 (6%) Special order

M. BENcovA Slovak Foundation Education in Immunogenetics Kopanice 25, 821 04 Bratislava Slovak Republic Short History of Slovakia After the end of the 5th century, the major part of Central Europe was dominated by Slavs (Slovaks). They had already in the 7th century settle- ments in the vicinity of towns Bratislava, Devin, Nitra to create the Slovak's state formation with the name "The Empire of Sam", territory of which corresponded to that of Slovakia of present. The Empire of Sam was also the first state formation in the Central Europe (as present states Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia etc. ) Very important town of this state was Nitra, with the biggest Castle in the Central Europe with his Duke Pribina. The first Church of the Central Europe was built here in the year 830, and it is now considered to be the "Slovak Bethlehem". In the year 880, Nitra also became the first Office of Bishops. Later, the Slovak Duke Pribina and Moravian Duke Mojmir (Moravia corresponded to eastern part of the present Czech Republic) joined their formations to common state "Greate Moravian Empire". The strongest King of the Great Moravian Empire was Svatopluk (864 A. D. ), who spread his empire over Czech Republic, Hungary and part of Poland, Ukraine and eastern Germany of present, which at that time still did not exist as state formations.

Cellular Transplantation - From Laboratory to Clinic (Hardcover, New): Craig Halberstadt, Dwaine Emerich Cellular Transplantation - From Laboratory to Clinic (Hardcover, New)
Craig Halberstadt, Dwaine Emerich
R3,511 R3,324 Discovery Miles 33 240 Save R187 (5%) Special order

There have been tremendous strides in cellular transplantation in recent years, leading to accepted practice for the treatment of certain diseases, and use for many others in trial phases. The long history of cellular transplantation, or the transfer of cells from one organism or region of the body to another, has been revolutionized by advances in stem cell research, as well as developments in gene therapy.
Cellular Transplants: From Lab to Clinic provides a thorough foundation of the basic science underpinning this exciting field, expert overviews of the state-of-the-art, and detailed description of clinical success stories to date, as well as insights into the road ahead. As highlighted by this timely and authoritative survey, scale-up technologies and whole organ transplantation are among the hurdles representing the next frontier.
The contents are organized into four main sections, with the first covering basic biology, including transplant immunology, the use of immunosuppressive drugs, stem cell biology, and the development of donor animals for transplantation. The next part looks at peripheral and reconstructive applications, followed by a section devoted to transplantation for diseases of the central nervous system. The last part presents efforts to address the key challenges ahead, such as identifying novel transplantable cells and integrating biomaterials and nanotechnology with cell matrices.
- Provides detailed description of clinical trials in cell transplantation
- Review of current therapeutic approaches
- Coverage of the broad range of diseases addressed by cell therapeutics
- Discussion of stem cell biology and its role in transplantation

Transplantation Immunology - Methods and Protocols (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 2nd ed. 2013): Andrea A.... Transplantation Immunology - Methods and Protocols (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 2nd ed. 2013)
Andrea A. Zachary, Mary S. Leffell
R3,108 Discovery Miles 31 080 Special order

After decades of research in clinical transplantation, new techniques have been developed that permit a further understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying immune recognition of allografts and a more accurate and thorough evaluation of compatibility between donors and recipients. The second edition of Transplantation Immunology: Methods and Protocols expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods in transplantation immunology. The new methods chapters cover four major areas that are being applied in compatibility evaluations and ongoing transplantation immunology research. Seven overview chapters provide reviews of the molecular basis for alloreactivity, current understanding of humoral and cellular mechanisms, as well as new developments in thoracic organ transplantation, composite tissue transplantation and in the transplantation of sensitized patients. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Transplantation Immunology: Methods and Protocol, Second Edition is devoted to transplantation immunology, both in the practice of compatibility testing and in transplantation research.

Handbook of Spine Technology (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2020): Boyle Cheng Handbook of Spine Technology (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2020)
Boyle Cheng
R9,821 R9,236 Discovery Miles 92 360 Save R585 (6%) Special order

This handbook is the most authoritative and up-to-date reference on spine technology written for practitioners, researchers, and students in bioengineering and clinical medicine. It is the first resource to provide a road map of both the history of the field and its future by documenting the poor clinical outcomes and failed spinal implants that contributed to problematic patient outcomes, as well as the technologies that are currently leading the way towards positive clinical outcomes. The contributors are leading authorities in the fields of engineering and clinical medicine and represent academia, industry, and international government and regulatory agencies. The chapters are split into five sections, with the first addressing clinical issues such as anatomy, pathology, oncology, trauma, diagnosis, and imaging studies. The second section, on biomechanics, delves into fixation devices, the bone implant interface, total disc replacements, injury mechanics, and more. The last three sections, on technology, are divided into materials, commercialized products, and surgery. All appropriate chapters will be continually updated and available on the publisher's website, in order to keep this important reference as up-to-date as possible in a fast-moving field.

Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells, and Gene Therapies - Proceedings of BIOMED 2002-The 9th International Symposium on Biomedical... Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells, and Gene Therapies - Proceedings of BIOMED 2002-The 9th International Symposium on Biomedical Science and Technology, held September 19-22, 2002, in Antalya, Turkey (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2003)
Elcin Y. Murat
R2,662 R2,523 Discovery Miles 25 230 Save R139 (5%) Special order

In recent years cell-based technologies have gained significant scientific attention, and have become a matter of intense public debate as well. Namely, (i) tissue engineering, the construction of tissues and whole organs using molecularly-designed resorbable biomaterials to create new tissue de novo with or without transplanting cells; (ii) the potential use of human embryonic stem cells for transplantation and regenerative medicine (with similar potential for adult-derived stem cells); (iii) and gene therapy, in relation with cell transplantation, have taken their places as the most discussed biomedical issues of the day. New findings in biomimetic materials, cell signalling pathways, extracellular matrix receptors and ligands, growth factors, and the human genome project are motivating the developments in these challenging research areas. This book includes manuscripts on tissue engineering, stem cells and gene therapies authored by world-renowned scientists of the field. The first section of the volume consists of four chapters giving perspectives for the current status and potential future of tissue engineering and stem cell technologies. The second section of the volume includes five chapters based on experimental and clinical data. In this section, the role of stem cells in liver tissue engineering, cell-based therapies in diabetes mellitus, and chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, and adult-derived stem cell therapies are discussed. The two chapters of the third section focus on the biomarkers for tissue-engineered products, namely for tissue-engineered skin. The eight chapters of the fourth section discuss novel biomaterials developed for neural-, vascular-, aortic-, bone-, cartilage- and endocrine pancreas-tissue engineering applications. The last section of the book includes chapters on practical gene targeting applications, controlled release in gene therapy and tissue engineering, antibodies in cancer, acute-phase genes and phage-displayed peptide libraries. Proceedings of BIOMED 2002 The 9th International Symposium on Biomedical Science and Technology, held September 19-22, 2002, in Antalya, Turkey.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Experimental Models and Research Designs (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st... Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery - Experimental Models and Research Designs (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015)
Maria Z. Siemionow
R3,807 R3,598 Discovery Miles 35 980 Save R209 (5%) Special order

There is a paradigm shift in plastic and reconstructive surgery from the interest of developing new surgical techniques into the application of new technologies via research based studies on stem cells, tissue engineering and new field of reconstructive transplantation such as e.g. face, hand or larynx transplants. This approach is relatively novel and introduced to plastic surgery within past decade. Thus there is an urgent need to facilitate access to this new knowledge which was not traditionally a part of plastic surgery curriculum. The most efficient way of introducing these new approaches is via presentation of pertinent to different fields (stem cell, transplantation, nerve regeneration, tissue engineering) experimental models which can be used as a tool to develop technologies of interest by different groups of surgeons. These surgical specialities which will be interested and benefit from the book include: plastic and reconstructive surgeons, microsurgeons, hand surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons and transplant surgeons.

Contemporary Pancreas Transplantation (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2019): James W. Lim Contemporary Pancreas Transplantation (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2019)
James W. Lim
R4,120 R3,890 Discovery Miles 38 900 Save R230 (6%) Special order

This reference work provides a comprehensive review of the most crucial and provocative aspects of pancreas transplantation. It represents a unique source of information and guidance for the current generation of transplant surgeons that evolved from being pure clinicians into savvy administrators knowledgeable in every regulatory aspect governing transplantation. The book contains 15 chapters covering every single aspect of the surgical operation in the donors as well as the recipients of pancreas transplants. The pre-operative workup, as well as the post-operative immunosuppression management, and the treatment of recurrent diseases are addressed in detail. In addition, the book further expands the role of islet cell transplant with its ever increasing prominence, which includes the role of autologous islet cell transplant. The impact of increasing regulatory burdens from the federal government coupled with the economic and health burden of Diabetes mellitus is discussed.

The Ethics of Organ Transplantation (Hardcover, 1st ed): John A. Balint, Wayne N. Shelton, Rem B. Edwards, Edward Bittar The Ethics of Organ Transplantation (Hardcover, 1st ed)
John A. Balint, Wayne N. Shelton, Rem B. Edwards, Edward Bittar
R2,274 Discovery Miles 22 740 Special order

Since the 1970s, we have witnessed astonishing scientific and technical progress in the field of organ transplantation. Patients who suffer organ failure can now often have their lives greatly improved both in terms of quality and quantity of years. The success of transplantation techniques has created an enormous demand for donor organs. Unfortunately, donor organs are in short supply, relative to the number of patients who could greatly benefit from them. Therefore, donor organs are a scarce and valuable resource that must be thoughtfully and fairly allocated among waiting patients. Not surprisingly, this situation raises many pressing ethical questions, each requiring careful consideration. This volume presents a systematic and balanced treatment of some of the most pressing ethical questions including: what is our ethical obligation to become organ donors and who should be allowed to donate?; to what extent can markets facilitate the fair allocation of organs and how should we most fairly determine who should be recipients?; how do we determine death when the donor is not brain dead?; should non-human donor organs be used to save human lives and should we use organs from anencephalic infants and tissue from embryos? ; and what is the role of the news media in covering stories about organ transplantation? Many of the leading authorities in medical ethics come together in this volume to develop extensive analyses and arguments. The reader is provided with a sound understanding of the ethical, as well as many of the broader issues in organ donation and transplantation.

Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease (Paperback, 2010 ed.): Thomas Dittmar, Kurt S. Zanker Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease (Paperback, 2010 ed.)
Thomas Dittmar, Kurt S. Zanker
R3,099 R2,932 Discovery Miles 29 320 Save R167 (5%) Special order

Stem Cell Biology in Health and Disease presents an up-to-date overview about the dual role of stem cells in health and disease. The Editors have drawn together an international team of experts providing chapters which, in this fully-illustrated volume, discuss: - the controversial debate on the great expectations concerning stem cell based regeneration therapies raised by the pluripotency of various stem cells. - the advantages and concerns about embryonic stem cells (ES cells), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and adult stem cells, such as bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs). - the type of stem cells, which has become of interest in the past decade, namely so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are now in the focus of cancer research since the eradication of tumour initiating cells would raise the changes of definitely cure cancer. Professor Dittmar and Professor Zanker have edited a must-read book for researchers and professionals working in the field of regenerative medicine and/or cancer.

The U.S. Organ Procurement System - A Prescription for Reform (Paperback): David L. Kaserman, A.H. Barnett The U.S. Organ Procurement System - A Prescription for Reform (Paperback)
David L. Kaserman, A.H. Barnett
R360 R331 Discovery Miles 3 310 Save R29 (8%) Special order

The organ procurement system in the United States has failed patients awaiting transplants, as evidenced by years-long waiting lists, with many patients declining in health or dying before a suitable organ donor is found. The cadaveric organ shortage can be remedied by allowing for organ purchases and sales, to encourage families of the deceased to donate the organs. This monograph is part of AEI's Evaluative Studies Series. The series aims to enhance understanding of government programs and to prompt continual review of their performance. David L. Kaserman is the Torchmark Professor and chairman of the Department of Economics at Auburn University. A. H. Barnett is a professor in, as well as the chairman of, the Department of Economics, International Studies, and Public Administration at the American University of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates. A summary of the book follows. The first successful human organ transplant in the United States was performed on December 23, 1954, when a kidney was transplanted from a living donor who was an identical twin of the recipient. Since then, the ability to use organ transplants to save the lives and improve the health of thousands of patients suffering from kidney, heart, liver, and other organ failures has improved dramatically. New immunosuppressive drugs and advanced surgical techniques have allowed the successful use of cadaveric donor organs and, thereby, expanded the set of organs for which transplantation is a viable treatment. As a result, the number of organ transplants performed in this country has now grown to approximately 22,000 each year. Despite the tremendous successes that have been achieved, transplantation technology has failed to realize its full promise because of a chronic shortage of cadaveric organs that are made available for that use. The sad fact is that every year for the past three decades the number of cadaveric organs supplied has fallen well short of the number demanded. As a consequence, many patients are denied timely access to this life-saving treatment modality. Those who are deemed medically suitable candidates for transplantation are placed on organ waiting lists, where they often remain for one or more years before an acceptable organ becomes available. While they wait, these patients' health declines, making successful treatment increasingly problematic. Indeed, many of them die before a suitable donor organ is found. As of June 25, 2001, more than 77,000 patients were waiting for an organ transplant. Approximately 7,000 patients died in the preceding year as still more were added to the lists. And as the shortage continues, the length of the lists grows, waiting times increase, and the death toll rises. Importantly, the cadaveric organ shortage is not attributable to an inadequate number of potential organ donors. Of the 2 million or so deaths that occur in the United States each year, estimates indicate that somewhere between 13,000 and 29,000 occur under circumstances that would allow the organs of the deceased to be transplanted. Of these, only 5,843 (or 28 percent of the midrange of the estimates of the number of potential donors) yielded organ donations in 1999. Given the number of potential donors, then, organ collections could easily double or perhaps even triple without exhausting the existing potential supply. Thus, the organ shortage is the product of an ill-conceived public policy that fails to achieve higher collection rates from the available pool of donors. That policy, often referred to as the "altruistic system" of organ procurement, operates (as this name implies) entirely on the basis of unpaid donors. In the typical situation, the families of recently deceased accident or stroke victims who have been declared brain dead are asked for permission to remove the organs of the deceased for use in transplantations. Under the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, any payment or other form of compensation to encourage the family to donate the organs is strictly proscribed by federal law. As a result, while the suppliers of all other inputs used in a transplant operation are paid market-determined prices, the parties who hold the key that makes transplantation possible cannot be paid. History of the Transplant System Notably, this system has evolved more by historical accident than conscious design. It grew out of a public policy that was intended for use with living, related kidney donors only. Because the earliest transplants were performed exclusively with kidneys donated by the recipients' living relatives, all organ transplant candidates brought the necessary donor with them when they checked into the hospital. If there was no acceptable living donor, there could be no transplant operation. As a result, there were no waiting lists and no apparent shortage. Moreover, under the living related donor system, there was no obvious need for any payment to encourage donor cooperation. The affection associated with the kinship between the donor and recipient was generally thought to be sufficient to motivate the requisite organ supply. And, where it was not, any necessary payment (or coercion) between family members could easily be arranged without resorting to the sort of middlemen generally required for market exchange. Such intrafamily cajoling by emotional pressure or outright payment also remained out of sight of the transplant centers and attending physicians. Therefore, a system of "altruistic" supply seemed to make sense in this setting, and reliance upon such a system did not seriously impede the use of this emerging medical technology. Indeed, it seemed to work quite well. That situation gradually changed, however, as new drugs began to allow the use of cadaveric donor organs and transplant success rates improved. Apparently, sometime during the 1970s, organ waiting lists began to arise as transplant candidates formed queues for needed cadaveric organs. The existing organ procurement system, however, was never altered to meet the needs of the greatly expanded pool of potential recipients created by the new technological opportunities. While some minor modifications have been implemented and considerable sums spent to educate the public regarding the virtues of organ donation, the basic system of complete reliance upon altruism to motivate supply has not changed. As a result, we have come to the current tragic situation in which thousands of patients die each year for lack of a suitable donor organ. These deaths have sparked considerable debate about how best to reform the U.S. organ procurement system to increase cadaveric donations. That debate, in turn, is reflected in a large and growing literature in which a variety of alternative policy proposals have been advanced. These proposals are surveyed in Chapter 3 of this monograph. While some authors have argued for continued reliance upon the current system with, perhaps, an appeal for increased educational expenditures, most now recognize that more fundamental policy change is required. The five most common proposals that have appeared in the literature are: (1) presumed consent, (2) conscription, (3) required request, (4) compensation, and (5) cadaveric organ markets. The first three of these proposals have, to varying degrees, been implemented either in the United States or abroad. In Chapter 3, we describe how each of these policies operates. We then demonstrate that, under reasonable assumptions regarding cadaveric organ supply and demand curves, the proposal to allow cadaveric organ markets to form clearly dominates all other policy options on social welfare grounds. Indeed, the organ market proposal appears to be the only alternative likely to eliminate the organ shortage entirely. Moreover, we estimate that, relative to the current system, creation of a market for procurement of cadaveric kidneys alone would, conservatively estimated, increase social welfare by over USD 300 million per year. Expanding the market system of procurement to other solid organs, then, would be likely to expand these welfare gains to well over USD 1 billion per year. And these welfare gains would be accompanied by several thousand lives saved annually. Despite the likelihood of such superior performance, however, the organ market proposal is not ubiquitously supported by those writing in this area. Both ethical and economic objections have been raised against the use of this most promising policy option. Upon inspection, however, these objections are found to be attributable, to a large degree, to: (1) some rather dubious ethical positions that have, in fact, been shown to be either logically weak or outright specious; (2) some fundamental misconceptions about how markets in general and organ markets in particular might operate in practice; and (3) several implicit (and empirically unlikely) assumptions regarding underlying structural parameters of cadaveric organ supply and demand curves. Chapter 4 addresses the first two sources of opposition, while Chapter 6 attempts to shed some light on the third. Importantly, we demonstrate in these chapters that none of the objections that have been raised in the literature to date is supported by either straightforward economic theory or empirical evidence. A dispassionate, objective analysis of the relevant arguments reveals no sound basis for rejecting the cadaveric organ market proposal. That is not to say, however, that sound economic reasons do not exist for particular interest groups to oppose this policy option. As with any policy change, there are parties likely to win and parties likely to lose from the formation of organ markets and resolution of the shortage. Chapter 5 focuses on the possibility that suppliers of transplant-related services - including, among other things, UNOS (an organization that maintains the nation's organ transplant waiting lists), organ procurement organizations, and transplant centers - could, in theory, suffer a decline in profits or a reduction in (or elimination of) the demand for their services if the organ market proposal were adopted. In addition, other parties providing substitutable services, such as dialysis clinics, could experience financial losses as well. While the economic stakes that a group holds in the outcome of this policy debate are not necessarily determinative of the positions adopted, they at least tend to temper each party's receptiveness to the options presented and the arguments used to support them. Consequently, while the case for adoption of the cadaveric organ market proposed is compelling, one should not expect to observe ubiquitous support for that proposal, particularly among suppliers of transplant services and organizations responsible for managing the shortage. The Case for Change The economic analysis and empirical evidence presented in this monograph support the following significant conclusions: 1. The shortage of cadaveric organs for transplantation has persisted for more than three decades. It is large, growing, and responsible for at least several thousand deaths each year. 2. The organ shortage is not caused by an insufficient number of potentially transplantable cadaveric organs. Rather, it is the direct result of a public policy that proscribes organ purchases and sales. 3. Economic theory strongly suggests that this shortage can be resolved by changing that policy to allow cadaveric organs markets to form. Such markets would permit cadaveric organ prices to rise and fall as necessary to equilibrate supply and demand, thereby eliminating the shortage. The social welfare gains achievable through implementation of the organ market proposal appear to be quite substantial, probably exceeding USD 1 billion per year. 4. Ethical objections to cadaveric organ markets appear to be either logically specious or generally unconvincing. Indeed, the alleged moral superiority of any policy that leads to unnecessary deaths along with higher expenditures must be viewed as inherently suspect. It seems, to us, indefensible to argue that one group of people should be denied lifesaving transplants simply because another group (who neither supplies nor demands cadaveric organs) prefers altruistic supply over market exchange. 5. Initial empirical evidence (though limited) suggests that adoption of organ markets would completely resolve the shortage at surprisingly low equilibrium prices. Our data suggest that payments on the order of USD 1,000 per donor would encourage an increase in the number of donors that would be sufficient to clear the market. These data also suggest that the alleged public opposition to such markets has been grossly exaggerated. It appears that it is the medical community, not the public, that is opposed to organ markets. We believe that these findings conclusively demonstrate the desirability, on social welfare grounds, of repealing the ban on cadaveric organ purchases contained in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984. That ban has caused the unnecessary deaths of tens of thousands of patients and prolonged the suffering of many thousands more. And, ironically, it has done this while actually increasing federal and state expenditures on the affected programs. Thus, our current cadaveric organ procurement policy simultaneously causes unnecessary deaths and increased costs. And all of this is done for the high moral purpose of preventing the families of recently deceased accident and stroke victims from receiving any payment for their agreement to allow removal of their loved ones' organs.

State Organs - Transplant Abuse in China (Paperback): David Matas, Torsten Trey State Organs - Transplant Abuse in China (Paperback)
David Matas, Torsten Trey
R404 Discovery Miles 4 040 Special order

China's organ transplant numbers are second only to the United States. Unlike any other country, virtually all Chinese organs for transplants come from prisoners. Many of these are prisoners of conscience. The killing of prisoners for their organs is a plain breach of the most basic medical ethics. "State Organs" explores the involvement of Chinese state institutions in this abuse. The book brings together authors from four continents who share their views and insights on the ways to combat these violations. "State Organs" aims to inform the reader and hopes to influence change in China to end the abuse.

Biopsychosocial Perspectives on Transplantation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2001): James R. Rodrigue Biopsychosocial Perspectives on Transplantation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2001)
James R. Rodrigue
R1,585 Discovery Miles 15 850 Special order

The field of transplantation has grown exponentially over the last few decades, and leaders in the field may argue that we have seen only the tip of the iceberg. Perhaps in no other discipline is there a need for multidisciplinary dialogue, debate, and approaches to patient care. In preparing this book, we have attempted to introduce readers to a few of the key clinical and ethical issues confronting the field of transplantation today. In so doing, we recognize that the face of transplantation may change dramatically in the years to come. Nevertheless, the issues raised throughout this book will serve as a useful introduction to important clinical issues and as a catalyst for clinicians and researchers to expand the horizons of transplantation. Health professionals involved in evaluating and treating transplant patients must be knowledgeable of the indications for transplantation and patient outcomes and the process of evaluation and management. Chapters 1 and 2, focusing on solid organ transplantation and blood/marrow transplantation, provide this important contextual information. The next two chapters address what is often considered the most significant issue facing the field of transplantation - organ donation. While the number of patients needing transplantation has risen dramatically in recent years, the rate of organ donation has remained relatively stable. Chapter 3 highlights the many ethical issues surrounding the more general concept of organ donation, while Chapter 4 focuses specifically on the burgeoning interest in living organ donation.

Organ Transplantation in Religious, Ethical, and Social Context - No Room for Death (Hardcover): Organ Transplantation in Religious, Ethical, and Social Context - No Room for Death (Hardcover)
R2,509 Discovery Miles 25 090 Special order

Enter the world of organ transplantation and develop a new understanding of processes and techniques for working effectively with patients in this increasing medical population. This multidisciplinary overview of organ transplantation contains chapters by major figures in the medical arena, internationally known bioethics writers, and experienced chaplains from the clinical setting of transplantation, as well as respected pastoral theologians. The authors, who include Art Caplan, Donald Capps, and Jack Copeland, explain transplantation completely for the nonmedical person and delve into the myriad ethical and religious issues and controversies surrounding organ donation and transplantation. Enlightening chapters clarify issues and help readers better understand the transplantation process, making them more effective in their work with transplant patients. Organ Transplantation in Religious, Ethical and Social Context is divided into three sections. The first emphasizes transplantation as a team effort. Chapters focus on the various roles of chaplains and other team members.Section two addresses ethical questions which arise from transplantation and organ donation and includes interfaith perspectives. The third section is dedicated to theological and pastoral views concerning transplantation. Some specific topics discussed in this book include: a surgeon's perspective of the role of the chaplain influence of psychosocial factors in the heart transplantation decision process ministry to organ recipients and their families the special relationship between the transplant coordinator and the transplant patient Catholic and interfaith perspectives on organ donation using the Psalms as a pastoral resource with transplant patients Hospital chaplains, transplant social workers, transplant coordinators, and other professionals interested or involved in the process of organ transplantation will find this book to be full of interesting and thought-provoking insights and information.

Scientific Basis Of Tissue Transplantation, The (Hardcover): G.O. Philips, Aziz Nather Scientific Basis Of Tissue Transplantation, The (Hardcover)
G.O. Philips, Aziz Nather
R3,235 Discovery Miles 32 350 Special order

This important book contains in one volume various subjects, including anatomy, physiology, microbiology, radiation sciences, biology of healing of allografts, biomechanics of allografts and transplantation immunology. It is intended for easy and comprehensive use by practitioners in the field of tissue banking and tissue transplantation. It can also serve as a textbook for a course in tissue banking.

Transplant Infections - Fourth Edition (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2016): Per Ljungman, David R. Snydman, Michael Boeckh Transplant Infections - Fourth Edition (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2016)
Per Ljungman, David R. Snydman, Michael Boeckh
R4,839 Discovery Miles 48 390 Special order

As the number of patients undergoing hematotopoietic or solid organ transplantation increases, a deep understanding of the field of transplant infectious diseases grows increasingly vital. With its extensively revised and updated review of surgical infections, treatment, prevention, and practice, this book is the ultimate guide to advances in the field of transplant infections that are rapidly implemented into practice both in diagnostic technologies, new therapies, new transplant practices, and challenges such as the threat of multiresistant bacteria and the increasing use of transplantation in the developing parts of the world. Written by experts in their fields, this book is the only comprehensive source of cutting-edge information on transplant infections and has been a trusted guide to medical professionals worldwide for nearly two decades. Transplant Infections is of paramount value to infectious disease specialists, transplant physicians, medical students, fellows, residents, and all medical professionals working with surgical patients.

The Science of Reconstructive Transplantation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015): Gerald Brandacher The Science of Reconstructive Transplantation (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015)
Gerald Brandacher
R2,892 R2,739 Discovery Miles 27 390 Save R153 (5%) Special order

This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in basic and translational research in the field of reconstructive transplantation and its potential therapeutic implications. Dr. Thomas E. Starzl and Dr. Raimund Margreiter, both pioneers in the field of transplantation, have written the foreword for the book. The volume spans such topics as skin rejection, immune monitoring, stem cell-based immunomodulatory strategies, costimulatory blockade, tolerance induction, chronic rejection, ischemia reperfusion injury, nerve regeneration, cortical reintegration, and small and large animal models for reconstructive transplantation. The book is intended for biomedical researchers and basic scientists in the field of reconstructive transplantation, transplant immunology and regenerative medicine, as well as clinicians, surgeons and multidisciplinary specialists, who are practicing or interested in this novel and exciting field. Postgraduate fellows and students will also find it a valuable reference.

Stem Cell Transplantation and Tissue Engineering (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2002): Axel Haverich, H.... Stem Cell Transplantation and Tissue Engineering (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2002)
Axel Haverich, H. Graf
R1,605 Discovery Miles 16 050 Special order

As dogmas in stem cell research are losing their impact and recent findings regarding the use and cultivation of stem cells and tissue transplantation have opened up new therapeutic avenues, this Ernst Schering Research Foundation Workshop was initiated to highlight current and future approaches in this field. The only stem cells that have been used clinically for a long time is the hematopoietic stem cell as a source for bone marrow transplantation. Recent findings now indicate that hematopoietic stem cells, under certain conditions, are able to differentiate into endothelial, neural or muscle cells, providing exciting new therapeutic possibilities. They represent a future source for tissue engineering replacing defective cells or tissues and allowing diseased organs to regain their functions. Both reconstitution techniques are paving the way for the development of new therapeutic strategies, giving hope of being able to cure and not only treat patients.

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