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This textbook is for readers new or returning to the practice of optimization whose interest in the subject may relate to a wide range of products and processes. Rooted in the idea of "minimum principles," the book introduces the reader to the analytical tools needed to apply optimization practices to an array of single- and multi-variable problems. While comprehensive and rigorous, the treatment requires no more than a basic understanding of technical math and how to display mathematical results visually. It presents a group of simple, robust methods and illustrates their use in clearly-defined examples. Distinct from the majority of optimization books on the market intended for a mathematically sophisticated audience who might want to develop their own new methods of optimization or do research in the field, this volume fills the void in instructional material for those who need to understand the basic ideas. The text emerged from a set of applications-driven lecture notes used in optimization courses the author has taught for over 25 years. The book is class-tested and refined based on student feedback, devoid of unnecessary abstraction, and ideal for students and practitioners from across the spectrum of engineering disciplines. It provides context through practical examples and sections describing commercial application of optimization ideas, such as how containerized freight and changing sea routes have been used to continually reduce the cost of moving freight across oceans. It also features 2D and 3D plots and an appendix illustrating the most widely used MATLAB optimization functions.
This monograph addresses problems of: * nonlinear control, estimation and filtering for robotic manipulators (multi-degree-of freedom rigid-link robots, flexible-link robots, underactuated, redundant and cooperating manipulators and closed-chain robotic mechanisms); and* nonlinear control, estimation and filtering for autonomous robotic vehicles operating on the ground, in the air, and on and under water, independently and in cooperating groups. The book is a thorough treatment of the entire range of applications of robotic manipulators and autonomous vehicles. The nonlinear control and estimation methods it develops can be used generically, being suitable for a wide range of robotic systems. Such methods can improve robustness, precision and fault-tolerance in robotic manipulators and vehicles at the same time as enabling the reliable functioning of these systems under variable conditions, model uncertainty and external perturbations.
The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.
Plans: Approaches to Brindisi Approaches to Otranto Approaches to Gallipoli Approaches to Crotone
Franz Georg Hey summarises the development and testing of a micro-Newton thrust balance, as well as the downscaling of a High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster to micro-Newton thrust levels. The balance is tailored to fully characterise thruster candidates for the space based gravitational wave detector LISA. Thus, thrust noise measurements in sub-micro-Newton regime can be performed in the overall LISA bandwidth. The downscaled thruster can be operated down to serval tens of micro-Newton with a comparably high specific impulse. About the Author Franz Georg Hey works as mechanical, thermal, propulsion architect and technical lead of the micro-Newton propulsion laboratory of Europe's leading air and spacecraft manufacturer. The author is participating on major programmes for future satellite and electric propulsion development. The author's research is performed in close collaboration with the Dresden University of Technology, the University of Bremen and the DLR Bremen.
This textbook provides readers with a good working knowledge of adaptive control theory through applications. It is intended for students beginning masters or doctoral courses, and control practitioners wishing to get up to speed in the subject expeditiously. Readers are taught a wide variety of adaptive control techniques starting with simple methods and extending step-by-step to more complex ones. Stability proofs are provided for all adaptive control techniques without obfuscating reader understanding with excessive mathematics. The book begins with standard model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) for first-order, second-order, and multi-input, multi-output systems. Treatment of least-squares parameter estimation and its extension to MRAC follow, helping readers to gain a different perspective on MRAC. Function approximation with orthogonal polynomials and neural networks, and MRAC using neural networks are also covered. Robustness issues connected with MRAC are discussed, helping the student to appreciate potential pitfalls of the technique. This appreciation is encouraged by drawing parallels between various aspects of robustness and linear time-invariant systems wherever relevant. Following on from the robustness problems is material covering robust adaptive control including standard methods and detailed exposition of recent advances, in particular, the author's work on optimal control modification. Interesting properties of the new method are illustrated in the design of adaptive systems to meet stability margins. This method has been successfully flight-tested on research aircraft, one of various flight-control applications detailed towards the end of the book along with a hybrid adaptive flight control architecture that combines direct MRAC with least-squares indirect adaptive control. In addition to the applications, understanding is encouraged by the use of end-of-chapter exercises and associated MATLAB (R) files. Readers will need no more than the standard mathematics for basic control theory such as differential equations and matrix algebra; the book covers the foundations of MRAC and the necessary mathematical preliminaries.
Terramechanics is the broad study of terrain-vehicle systems. In this book, all physical processes associated with the static and dynamic interplay between powered and tooled wheeled or tracked vehicles with natural and man-made surfaces are analysed and mathematically modelled. The focus of the book is the technical problem of predicting the performance of a specific vehicle terrain system in the design and operation stages, looking at vehicle specifications, terrain types and uses, and traction performance parameters such as pull and speed. Special features of this book include: * a comprehensive treatment of pneumatic and flexible tyred systems * the presentation of a new method for predicting the performance of track-type vehicles based on small-scale machine model studies * an overview of tyred or tracked vehicles running on weak soil or snow.
The key principle of systems engineering is that an aircraft should be considered as a whole and not as a collection of parts. Another principle is that the requirements for the aircraft and its subsystems emanate from a logical set of organized functions and from economic or customer-oriented requirements as well as the regulatory requirements for certification. The resulting process promises to synthesize and validate the design of aircraft which are higher in quality, better meet customer requirements and are most economical to operate. This book is more of a how to and a why to rather than a what to guide. It stresses systems engineering is an integrated technical-managerial process that can be adapted without sacrificing quality in which risk handling and management is a major part. It explains that the systems view applies to both the aircraft and the entire air transport system. The book emphasizes that system engineering is not an added layer of processes on top of the existing design processes; it is the glue that holds all the other processes together. The readership includes the aircraft industry, suppliers and regulatory communities, especially technical, program and procurement managers; systems, design and specialty engineers (human factors, reliability, safety, etc.); students of aeronautical and systems engineering and technical management; and government agencies such as FAA and JAA.
Space policy is at the cutting edge of current EU policy developments and is a fascinating object of study, involving multiple and diverse actors. It is also an original and contemporary lens for studying European policy-making. This book explores advances in European space policy and their significance for European integration. Using a 'framing' methodology, it addresses central questions in European studies in order to form an interdisciplinary bridge between current research in space policy and contemporary European political studies. It assesses the interests of EU institutions in space and how these institutions perceive space policy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that space is a cross-cutting policy domain affecting a diverse range of EU policy fields, such as security, transport and migration, and underpinning the 21st century European and global economy. In doing so, this volume firmly locates space policy in the field of European Studies. This innovative volume will be of key interest to students and scholars of a range of policy areas including common foreign and security policy, technology policy, transport policy, internal market policies, environmental policy, development aid and disaster-risk management, as well as the EU institutions.
This essential book describes the mathematical formulations and subsequent computer simulations required to accurately project the trajectory of spacecraft and rockets in space, using the formalism of optimal control for minimum-time transfer in general elliptic orbit. The material will aid research students in aerospace engineering, as well as practitioners in the field of spaceflight dynamics, in developing simulation software to carry out trade studies useful in vehicle and mission design. It will teach readers to develop flight software for operational applications in autonomous mode, so to actually transfer space vehicles from one orbit to another. The practical, real-life applications discussed will give readers a clear understanding of the mathematics of orbit transfer, allow them to develop their own operational software to fly missions, and to use the contents as a research tool to carry out even more complex analyses.
Minuteman: A Technical History of the Missile That Defined American Nuclear Warfare is a detailed history of the Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile program, which has served as a powerful component of US nuclear strategies for over half a century. David K. Stumpf examines breakthroughs in solid propellant, lightweight inertial guidance systems and lightweight reentry vehicle development, the construction of over a thousand launch and launch control facilities, and key flight test and operational flight programs, and places the Minuteman program in context with world events.
While aviation fatalities have thankfully fallen dramatically in recent years, the phenomena of complexity and cognitive bias have been shown to be factors in many accidents. An understanding of these phenomena promises to bring the fatality rate even lower, and a deeper understanding of commercial aircraft in the context of systems engineering will contribute to that trend. Systems Approach to the Design of Commercial Aircraft describes commercial aircraft from an advanced systems point of view, addressing complexity, cybersecurity, and systems architecting. In addition, it provides an explanation of systems engineering, describes how systems engineering forms a framework for commercial aircraft, covers how systems engineering and systems architecting relate to commercial aircraft, addresses complexity, and shows how humans fit into systems engineering and the importance for commercial aircraft. It goes onto present how cybersecurity plays an important role in the mix and how human interface fits in. The readership includes designers of aircraft, manufacturers, researchers, systems engineers, and students. Scott Jackson is a fellow of the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and the author of Systems Engineering for Commercial Aircraft (1997 and 2015) in English and Chinese. Ricardo Moraes dos Santos is a senior systems engineer at EMBRAER S/A and an INCOSE Brazil chapter director. He works with Architecting process (Corporate) and is head of Cybersecurity and Safety (STPA Applications) at EMBRAER S/A.
This book describes the discusses advanced fuels and combustion, emission control techniques, after-treatment systems, simulations and fault diagnostics, including discussions on different engine diagnostic techniques such as particle image velocimetry (PIV), phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), laser ignition. This volume bridges the gap between basic concepts and advanced research in internal combustion engine diagnostics, making it a useful reference for both students and researchers whose work focuses on achieving higher fuel efficiency and lowering emissions.
First published in the 1950s under the editorship of EE Benest and later Konrad Nussbaum, the Imray map of the French inland waterway system has always been regarded as the essential reference for planning a visit to France by boat. It is now superseded by this completely recompiled and redrawn edition by David Edwards-May, the leading authority on World canals and waterways. The new cartography includes improved detail and presents essential information concerning distances and dimensions with a greater clarity than on previous editions. The map continues to cover the Low Countries and the western part of Germany and now also includes large scale insets of the Paris region and northeast France. The scale remains at 1:1 500 000
The FAA Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbooks are designed for use by instructors and applicants preparing for the FAA Knowledge Exam and Oral & Practical (O&P) Exams required for obtaining an Aviation Maintenance Technician (AMT) certificate with Airframe or Powerplant rating or both (also called an A&P license). Newly updated for 2018, this new edition reflects current technologies, equipment and procedures. These handbooks are for both students and instructors, and also serve as invaluable reference guides for current technicians who wish to improve their knowledge. This is Volume 2 of the FAA's "FAA-H-8083-31A" handbook.This FAA Handbook provides the basic information on principles, fundamentals, and technical procedures in the subject matter areas relating to the airframe and powerplant ratings, such as: Aircraft Structures, Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly and Rigging, Aircraft Fabric Covering, Aircraft Metal Structural Repair, Aircraft Welding, Aircraft Wood and Structural Repair, Advanced Composite Materials, Aircraft Painting and Finishing, and Aircraft Electrical System. Illustrated throughout with detailed, full-color drawings and photographs, with a comprehensive glossary and index.
The dream of flight is as old as civilization itself. Examples from ancient Chinese and Greek literature and from Native and South American legend tell of flying warriors, priests and prisoners. Later, in the fifteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci drew more than 100 sketches related to human flight, designing a parachute, a hang glider and a four-man helicopter. Today, we have developed flight so advanced that unmanned drones can fly many hundred miles to carry out surveillance or bombing operations. The History of Aviation explores the fascinating history of flight, from early developments such as the Montgolfier brothers' balloon and the Wright Flyer, through the technological advances of two world wars, to modern-day technological marvels such as the A380 and stealth fighter jets. The book also explains the political and economic reasons behind the development of certain aircraft and how aviation has affected and been affected by global politics. Addressing both military and civil flight, The History of Aviation includes a plethora of colour and black-and-white photographs and illustrations. Throughout is a timeline putting developments into historical context. From the balloon to the biplane to the Boeing 787, The History of Aviation is an expertly written and accessible account of the history of flight.
This volume provides valuable insight into diverse topics related to mechanical engineering and presents state-of-the-art work on sustainable development being carried out throughout the world by budding researchers and scientists. Divided into three sections, the volume covers machine design, materials and manufacturing, and thermal engineering. It presents innovative research work on machine design that is of relevance to such varied fields as the automotive industry, agriculture, and human anatomy. The second section addresses materials characterization, an important tool in assessing proper materials for application-oriented jobs, and emerging unconventional machining processes that are important in design engineering for new products and tools. The section on thermal engineering broadly covers the use of viable alternate fuels, such as HHO, biodiesel, etc., with the objective of reducing the burden on petroleum reserves and the environment.
Training and certification for Seafarers has been founded on technical aspects, but maybe the most important thing to do aboard a ship is dealing with people. This book, written with seamen in mind, covers areas of expertise that every officer should know to improve motivation, engagement, teamwork, and conflict handling; in short, to be a leader. This book also covers the new requirements for every officer or merchant marine and can be used in courses on this topic. It focuses on seafarers' needs and the language used, avoiding the excessive use of psychological terms, yet keeping the accuracy. Features Covers new requirements for every Merchant Marine Officer Written for and by a seaman, with the accuracy of a psychologist Presents knowledge on how to improve motivation, engagement, teamwork, and conflict handling Includes how to manage people in emergency situations and avoid the loss of lives, like the disaster of Costa Concordia and Estonia
The major changes taking place in technology have some of the greatest effect in the world of aviation. Yet, in an industry which started with the concept of 'open skies', each sector has traditionally developed on its own and adjusted to developments in other areas as and when required. The need for integration is particularly important as the skies become increasingly crowded. More intense commercialization dramatically increases the interlocking between technological developments and the size of the financial investments required. For maximum efficiency the aviation system thus has to develop as an integrated whole with a greater awareness of events in other sectors. This book is intended to meet this requirement by addressing the breadth and depth of the aviation system and looking at some areas where significant advances are happening. While following the processes of development, the reader will see where the results might lead in the new century. Its three parts concentrate on areas of great significance - in integration as well as in technological progress - especially for their impact on human and social aspects. The editor and the invited contributors are amongst the foremost experts, researchers and industry leaders in their fields in the global aviation community, many with hands-on experience of massive change. The intended readership includes those who are moving into management functions in air traffic management, airplane manufacturing and airline operations; in training centres, colleges and institutions.
The essential introduction to the principles and applications of feedback systems-now fully revised and expanded This textbook covers the mathematics needed to model, analyze, and design feedback systems. Now more user-friendly than ever, this revised and expanded edition of Feedback Systems is a one-volume resource for students and researchers in mathematics and engineering. It has applications across a range of disciplines that utilize feedback in physical, biological, information, and economic systems. Karl Astroem and Richard Murray use techniques from physics, computer science, and operations research to introduce control-oriented modeling. They begin with state space tools for analysis and design, including stability of solutions, Lyapunov functions, reachability, state feedback observability, and estimators. The matrix exponential plays a central role in the analysis of linear control systems, allowing a concise development of many of the key concepts for this class of models. Astroem and Murray then develop and explain tools in the frequency domain, including transfer functions, Nyquist analysis, PID control, frequency domain design, and robustness. Features a new chapter on design principles and tools, illustrating the types of problems that can be solved using feedback Includes a new chapter on fundamental limits and new material on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion and root locus plots Provides exercises at the end of every chapter Comes with an electronic solutions manual An ideal textbook for undergraduate and graduate students Indispensable for researchers seeking a self-contained resource on control theory
Operational information management is at a crossroads as it sheds the remaining vestiges of its paper-based processes and moves through the uncharted domain of electronic data processes. The final outcome is not yet in full focus, but real progress has been made in the transition to electronic documents providing the aviation industry with a clear direction. This book looks at a combination of industry initiatives and airline successes that point to the next steps that operators can take as they transition to fully integrated information management systems. Although the route has not been fully identified, it is evident that a key to successful long-term efficient information management is industry-wide cooperation. The chapters are authored by a range of experts in operational information management, and collectively, they outline ways that operators can improve efficiency across flight, ground and maintenance operations. Considerations and recommendations are identified and presented addressing the following priorities: Safety-critical information and procedures Human factors Information security Operational information standardization. The readership includes: Airline flight operations managers and standards personnel, Airline operating documents and publication specialists, Airline information managers, Commercial pilots, Airline maintenance managers and personnel, Manufacturers and vendors of aviation products, Aviation regulators and policy makers, Aviation researchers and developers of information technologies, and Military technical publications specialists.
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