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African Customary Law in South Africa: Post-Apartheid and Living Law Perspectives provides a clear introduction to indigenous law in South Africa. The text provides a structure for understanding the nature and overarching system of customary law, illustrating its distinctness in relation to other areas of law, and exploring the dynamic precepts and values of living customary law. The text suggests an approach which supports harmonisation of customary law precepts and values with the common law and Western constitutional jurisprudence, and offers an authentic, culturally sensitive framework within which contentious issues might be resolved. The text is pedagogically designed to assist learning and the development of academic skills, encouraging readers to develop an approach of independent enquiry and analysis. This text is suited as core course material for students who are studying African Customary Law, Indigenous Law, or Legal Diversity as a module of the LLB degree. It also serves as a useful first reference for scholars who are interested in this field of law, legal practitioners, magistrates and judges. The following teaching resources complement the text, and are available to lecturers, to support teaching and learning: PowerPoint slide presentation Application questions
From trade relations to greenhouse gases, from shipwrecks to cybercrime, treaties structure the rights and obligations of states, international organizations, and individuals. For centuries, treaties have regulated relations among nation states. Today, they are the dominant source of international law. Thus, being adept with treaties and international agreements is an indispensable skill for anyone engaged in international relations, including international lawyers, diplomats, international organization officials, and representatives of non-governmental organizations. The Oxford Guide to Treaties provides a comprehensive guide to treaties, shedding light on the rules and practices surrounding the making, interpretation, and operation of these instruments. Leading experts provide essays designed to introduce the law of treaties and offer practical insights into how treaties actually work. Foundational issues are covered, including what treaties are and when they should be used, alongside detailed analyses of treaty formation, application, interpretation, and exit. Special issues associated with treaties involving the European Union and other international organizations are also addressed. These scholarly treatments are complimented by a set of model treaty clauses. Real examples illustrate the approaches treaty-makers can take on topics such as entry into force, languages, reservations, and amendments. The Oxford Guide to Treaties thus provides an authoritative reference point for anyone studying or involved in the creation or interpretation of treaties or other forms of international agreement.
The year 2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the United Nations Organisation, and the 50th anniversary of the United Nations Friendly Relations Declaration, which states the fundamental principles of the international legal order. In commemoration, some of the world's most prominent international law scholars from all continents have come together to offer a comprehensive study of the fundamental principles of international law. Each chapter in this volume reflects decades of experience, work and reflection by the most authoritative voices of the field. At the same time, the book is an invitation to end narrow specialisation and re-engage with the wider body of rules and processes that lie at the foundations of the international legal order.
The Commentary on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties provides an in-depth article-by-article analysis of all of the Vienna Convention's provisions. Each provision's analysis consists of (I) Purpose and Function of the Article, (II) Historical Background with Negotiating History, (III) Elements of the Article and finally (IV) Treaties of International Organizations. In short, the present Commentary contains a comprehensive legal analysis of all aspects of the international law of treaties. Furthermore, where the law of treaties reaches into other fields of international law, e.g. the law of state responsibility, the relevant interfaces are discussed and contextualized. With its focus on international practice, the Commentary is an invaluable reference for both academia and practitioners of international law.
The European Convention on Human Rights is one of the world's most important and influential human rights documents. It owes its value mainly to the European Court of Human Rights, which applies the Convention rights in individual cases. This book offers a clear insight into the concepts and principles that are key to understanding the European Convention and the Court's case-law. It explains how the Court generally approaches the many cases brought before it and which tools help it to decide on these cases, illustrated by numerous examples taken from the Court's judgements. Core issues discussed are the types of Convention rights (such as absolute rights); the structure of the Court's Convention rights review; principles and methods of interpretation (such as common ground interpretation and the use of precedent); positive and negative obligations; vertical and horizontal effect; the margin of appreciation doctrine; and requirements for the restriction of Convention rights.
The major Commentary on the Treaty on European Union (TEU) is a European project that aims to contribute to the development of ever closer conceptual and dogmatic standpoints with regard to the creation of a "Europeanised research on Union law". This publication in English contains detailed explanations, article by article, on all the provisions of the TEU as well as on several Protocols and Declarations, including the Protocols No 1, 2 and 30 and Declaration No 17, having steady regard to the application of Union law in the national legal orders and its interpretation by the Court of Justice of the EU. The authors of the Commentary are academics from ten European states and different legal fields, some from a constitutional law background, others experts in the field of international law and EU law professionals. This should lead to more unity in European law notwithstanding all the legitimate diversity. The different traditions of constitutional law are reflected and mentioned by name thus striving for a common framework for European constitutional law.
Since the birth of criminal copyright in the nineteenth century, the copyright system has blurred the distinction between civil and criminal infringements. Today, in many jurisdictions, infringement of copyrighted materials can result in punitive fines and even incarceration. In this illuminating book, Eldar Haber analyzes the circumstances, justifications, and ramifications of the criminalization process and tells the story of how a legal right in the private enforcement realm has become over-criminalized. He traces the origins of criminal copyright legislation and follows the movement of copyright criminalization and enforcement on local and global scales. This important work should be read by anyone concerned with the future of copyright and intellectual property in the digital era.
This book focuses on Anglo-American disputes arising out of the civil war in the United States and British interests in the American continent; the Geneva Arbitration, the Venezuela-Guiana arbitration and the Bering Sea Arbitration. It draws on those cases as model proceedings which laid the foundations and inspiration for a promotion of international law through the Hague Conferences and by the work of English and American jurists. It considers the encouragement these cases gave to the promotion of public international law and how that contributed to the resolution of inter-state disputes.
This book evaluates the core of the concept of legitimate expectations from first principles in moral philosophy. It adopts an unconventional approach by examining this topic from a deep, philosophical perspective and delves into the debates on the binding nature of promise in moral philosophy. It then develops a doctrinal structure for the standard of protection. The author places the key premise of the book on the possibility of deriving firm conclusions from the debate and on creating a set of precise and prescriptive 'guidelines of the application of legitimate expectations'. The features of this book are threefold: first, a significant body of literature on moral philosophy is assimilated; second, core philosophical principles are extracted and expressed as a normative framework to resolve concrete cases; third, the author analysed a vast number of investment treaty awards against the underlying framework.
The definitive account of the historic diplomatic agreement that provided a blueprint for ending the Cold War The Helsinki Final Act was a watershed of the Cold War. Signed by thirty-five European and North American leaders at a summit in Finland in the summer of 1975, the document presented a vision for peace based on common principles and cooperation across the Iron Curtain. The Final Act is the first in-depth history of the diplomatic saga that produced this important agreement. This gripping book explains the Final Act's emergence from the parallel crises of the Soviet bloc and the West during the 1960s and the conflicting strategies that animated the negotiations. Drawing on research in eight countries and multiple languages, The Final Act shows how Helsinki provided a blueprint for ending the Cold War and building a new international order.
International Standardization and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade examines the international standardization system generally, with a specific focus on some of the bodies within this system, along with their rules and procedures. It also examines - and questions - the lack of definition regarding several features related to the system, notably an international standardizing body (ISB) and international standards in the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). Andrea Barrios Villarreal, who has been involved in standardization activities for more than seven years, provides a unique and in-depth analysis that will be useful to scholars, students and practitioners. This illuminating work is a welcome addition to the international economic law literature and should be read by anyone with an interest in the interaction between trade law and international standardization.
In 1944 the Chicago Convention set out the foundations of public international law regulating international air transport, but until 2016 no international agreement existed to limit its environmental impact. Sustainable Development, International Aviation, and Treaty Implementation explains why the CORSIA scheme, adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization in 2016, should be implemented in 2020 even though the adequacy of this scheme is still open to doubt and criticism. This book seeks to examine the many dimensions of the effort to contain greenhouse gas emissions from aircraft in a manner consonant with the principles of sustainable development, and examines the development of international law and policy in an area that has remained largely outside the general framework of international environmental law. International civil aviation is a significant polluter of the atmosphere, and in this volume, a group of air law and sustainable development law specialists considers how the international community can respond.
An informative book focusing on the internationalisation and legalisation of peace agreements to settle intra-state conflicts between state and non-state parties. Cindy Wittke focuses on two key issues: how international courts and tribunals deal with peace agreements; and what implications the United Nations Security Council's involvement in the negotiation and implementation of peace agreements has for the agreements' legal nature, the status of the non-state parties to agreements and the interpretation of peace agreements. Wittke argues that the processes of negotiating and implementing peace agreements between state and non-state parties create new spheres, spaces and forms of post-conflict law making and law enforcement. For example, contemporary peace agreements can simultaneously take the form and function of internationalised transitional constitutions and agreements governed by international law. The resulting characteristics of contemporary peace agreement lead to permanent ambiguities shaping their interpretation and enforcement.
'It will change the way you remember the 20th century and read the news in the 21st' Steven Pinker 'A clarion call to preserve law and order across our planet' Philippe Sands 'A fascinating and important book ... given the state of the world, The Internationalists has come along at the right moment' Margaret MacMillan, Financial Times Since the end of the Second World War, we have moved from an international system in which war was legal, and accepted as the ultimate arbiter of disputes between nations, to one in which it was not. Nations that wage aggressive war have become outcasts and have almost always had to give up their territorial gains. How did this epochal transformation come about? This remarkable book, which combines political, legal, and intellectual history, traces the origins and course of one of the great shifts in the modern world. 'Sweeping and yet personable at the same time, The Internationalists explores the profound implications of the outlawry of war. Professors Oona Hathaway and Scott Shapiro enrich their analysis with vignettes of the many individuals (some unknown to most students of History) who played such important roles in this story. None have put it all together in the way that Hathaway and Shapiro have done in this book' Paul Kennedy 'In this timely, elegant and powerful book, Oona Hathaway and Scott Shapiro help us understand the momentous significance of the individuals who imagined an end to war. As the world stands on the cusp of a return to an earlier age, The Internationalists is a clarion call to preserve law and order across our planet' Philippe Sands
Well-selected and authoritative, Palgrave Core Statutes provide the key materials needed by students in a format that is clear, compact and very easy to use. They are ideal for use in exams.
This complete, seven-volume set is the most authoritative reference on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was negotiated at the Third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea from 1973-1982. The commentaries are based almost entirely on the formal and informal documentation of the Conference, coupled, where necessary, with the personal knowledge of editors, contributors, or reviewers, many of whom were principal negotiators or UN personnel who participated in the Conference. Additional supplementary material can be found at "UNLCOS 1982 Commentary: Supplementary Documents."
Jan Klabbers questions how membership of the European Union affects treaties concluded between the Union"s member states and third states, both when it concerns treaties concluded before EU membership and treaties concluded after joining. Following a discussion of the public international law rules on treaty conflict, the author analyzes the case-law of the European Court of Justice and examines how such conflicts are approached in state practice.
This book explores the significance of the post-First World War peace settlement negotiated at Versailles in 1919. Versailles has always been a controversial subject and it has long been contended that the Treaty imposed unnecessarily severe conditions upon the defeated nations, particularly Germany, and in large part can be held responsible for the outbreak of war in 1939. This book considers the critical question as to whether the Treaty of Versailles established a new international settlement that could produce a peaceful and prosperous Europe, something that many have alleged was impossible. In an exhaustive analysis of the events that followed the Paris Peace Conference, Howard Elcock argues that the Versailles Treaty created a more stable diplomatic framework than has commonly been recognised, and challenges the traditional understanding that the delegates at Versailles can be held responsible for the failure to secure long-term peace in Europe.
In these two important lectures, distinguished political
philosopher Seyla Benhabib argues that since the UN Declaration of
Human Rights in 1948, we have entered a phase of global civil
society which is governed by cosmopolitan norms of universal
justice -- norms which are difficult for some to accept as
legitimate since they are in conflict with democratic ideals. In
her first lecture, Benhabib argues that this tension can never be
fully resolved, but it can be mitigated through the renegotiation
of the dual commitments to human rights and sovereign
self-determination. Her second lecture develops this idea in
detail, with special reference to recent developments in Europe
(for example, the banning of Muslim head scarves in France). The EU
has seen the replacement of the traditional unitary model of
citizenship with a new model that disaggregates the components of
traditional citizenship, making it possible to be a citizen of
multiple entities at the same time.
This book is an outstanding document and account of the International Military Tribunal that took place in Tokyo at the end of World War Two. As in the Nuremberg Trial, the leaders of Japan were accused of crimes against peace and crimes against humanity, as well as war crimes.
Economic, technological, social and environmental transformations are affecting all humanity, and decisions taken today will impact the quality of life for all future generations. This volume surveys current commitments to sustainable development, analysing innovative policies, practices and procedures to promote respect for intergenerational justice. Expert contributors provide serious scholarly and practical discussions of the theoretical, institutional, and legal considerations inherent in intergenerational justice at local, national, regional and global scales. They investigate treaty commitments related to intergenerational equity, explore linkages between regimes, and offer insights from diverse experiences of national future generations' institutions. This volume should be read by lawyers, academics, policy-makers, business and civil society leaders interested in the economy, society, the environment, sustainable development, climate change, and other law, policy and practices impacting all generations.
This readable yet sophisticated survey of treaty-making between Native and European Americans before 1800, recovers a deeper understanding of how Indians tried to forge a new society with whites on the multicultural frontiers of North America-an understanding that may enlighten our own task of protecting Native American rights and imagining racial justice.
The third edition of this acclaimed textbook on peace-making after the First World War advances that the responsibility for the outbreak of a new, even more ruinous, war in 1939 cannot be ascribed entirely to the planet's most powerful men and their meeting in Paris in January 1919 to reassemble a shattered world. Giving a concise overview of the problems and pressures these key figures were facing, Alan Sharp provides a coherent introduction to a highly complex and multi-dimensional topic. This is an ideal resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students taking modules on the Versailles Settlement, European and International History, Modern History, Interwar Europe, The Great War, Twentieth Century Europe, German History, or Diplomatic History, on either History courses or International Relations/Politics courses.
The Oxford Guide to Treaties is the authoritative reference point for anyone studying or involved in the creation or interpretation of treaties and other forms of international agreement. For centuries, treaties have regulated relations among nation states. Today, they are the dominant source of international law. From trade relations to greenhouse gases, from shipwrecks to cybercrime, treaties structure the rights and obligations of states, international organizations, and individuals. Being adept with treaties and international agreements is thus an indispensable skill for anyone engaged in international relations, including international lawyers, diplomats, international organization officials, and representatives of non-governmental organizations. This second edition of the award-winning volume from Professor Duncan B. Hollis provides a comprehensive guide to treaties, shedding light on the rules and practices surrounding the making, interpretation, and operation of these instruments. Foundational issues are covered, from defining treaties and their alternatives, to examining current theorizations about the treaty in international law. Chapters review specific stages in the treaty's life-cycle, including formation, application, interpretation, and exit. Special issues associated with treaties involving the European Union and other international organizations are also included. A section sampling over four hundred actual treaty clauses complements these scholarly treatments. These real examples help illustrate different approaches treaty-makers can take on topics such as entry into force, languages, reservations, and amendments.
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