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The book aims to integrate our understanding of mammalian societies into a novel synthesis that is relevant to behavioural ecologists, ecologists, and anthropologists. It adopts a coherent structure that deals initially with the characteristics and strategies of females, before covering those of males, cooperative societies and hominid societies. It reviews our current understanding both of the structure of societies and of the strategies of individuals; it combines coverage of relevant areas of theory with coverage of interspecific comparisons, intraspecific comparisons and experiments; it explores both evolutionary causes of different traits and their ecological consequences; and it integrates research on different groups of mammals with research on primates and humans and attempts to put research on human societies into a broader perspective.
The cheetah is an endangered species, threatened with extinction due to loss of habitat and conflict with humans for land use and prey animals. Although international efforts to save the cheetah include co-ordinated multi-national breeding programmes, the captive cheetah population is not yet self-sustaining. Understanding of cheetah biology has increased dramatically in recent decades but the domestic cat is still commonly used as a model species for the cheetah in captivity when it comes to nutrition and reproduction. However, is it really fair to extrapolate the nutritional requirements or reproductive anomolies of the domestic cat to its distant relative the cheetah? This book reviews the known differences and similarities in cheetah and cat biology, with particular reference to their nutritional and reproductive physiology. Where examples from either species are missing, comparison is made with other members of the Felidae in order to estimate the likelihood of interspecific differences between the cheetah and cat. The comparisons made here have particular relevance for the fomulation of diets for captive cheetahs and the development of zoo-based breeding programmes. Furthermore, this book provides zoo managers, breeding co-ordinators, veterinarians and nutritionists with a valuable tool when attempting to identify and correct nutritional inadequacies or reproductive dysfunction in the cheetah.
The Class Mammalia is amazingly diverse, ranging from whales to marsupials to bats to primates. The more than 5,400 species occupy many habitats, with mammals present on all the continents. They are rare only on Antarctica and a few isolated islands. Mammals present a complex set of conservation and management issues. Some species have become more numerous with the rise of human populations, while others have been extirpated or nearly so-such as the Caribbean monk seal, the thylacine, the Chinese river dolphin, and the Pyrenean ibex. In this new edition of their classic textbook, George A. Feldhamer and his colleagues cover the many aspects of mammalogy. Thoroughly revised and updated, this edition includes treatments of the most recent significant findings in ordinal-level mammalian phylogeny and taxonomy; special topics such as parasites and diseases, conservation, and domesticated mammals; interrelationships between mammalian structure and function; and the latest molecular techniques used to study mammals. Instructors: email firstname.lastname@example.org for a free instructor resource disc containing all 510 illustrations printed in Mammalogy: Adaptation, Diversity, Ecology, third edition.
The second edition of "The Diversity of Fishes" represents a major revision of the world's most widely adopted ichthyology textbook. Expanded and updated, the second edition is illustrated throughout with striking color photographs depicting the spectacular evolutionary adaptations of the most ecologically and taxonomically diverse vertebrate group. The text incorporates the latest advances in the biology of fishes, covering taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, biogeography, ecology, and behavior. A new chapter on genetics and molecular ecology of fishes has been added, and conservation is emphasized throughout. Hundreds of new and redrawn illustrations augment readable text, and every chapter has been revised to reflect the discoveries and greater understanding achieved during the past decade. Written by a team of internationally-recognized authorities, the first edition of "The Diversity of Fishes" was received with enthusiasm and praise, and incorporated into ichthyology and fish biology classes around the globe, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The second edition is a substantial update of an already classic reference and text.
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Costa Rica is a remarkable place for amphibians and reptiles. Known for its biological diversity, conservation priorities, and extensive protected lands, this small country contains 418 herpetological species including the dangerous Fer-de-Lance and Black-headed Bushmaster, the beloved sea turtles, and numerous dink, foam, glass, and rain frogs. Additional species are thought to be nearing extinction while others have been introduced only recently.
Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica is the perfect introductory guide to this diverse herpetofauna in a format that makes it easy to carry into the field. The focus is on identification with entries for all species in the country, including scientific and English common names, as well as the older names for the many species that have been recently reclassified. Key ID marks are noted as well as adult sizes. Range maps identify the region(s) where species are known to be present. Color photographs and drawings are provided for over 80 percent of the species, representing those that are most likely to be encountered. Designed with ease of use in mind, this guide will be a great aid to the observer in identifying the specimen at hand.
A unique, beautifully illustrated exploration of our fascination with our closest primate relatives, and the development of primatology as a discipline This insightful work is a compact but wide-ranging survey of humankind's relationship to the great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans), from antiquity to the present. Replete with fascinating historical details and anecdotes, it traces twists and turns in our construction of primate knowledge over five hundred years. Chris Herzfeld outlines the development of primatology and its key players and events, including well-known long-term field studies, notably the pioneering work by women such as Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey, and Birute Galdikas. Herzfeld seeks to heighten our understanding of great apes and the many ways they are like us. The reader will encounter apes living in human families, painting apes, apes who use American Sign Language, and chimpanzees who travelled in space. A philosopher and historian specializing in primatology, Herzfeld offers thought-provoking insights about our perceptions of apes, as well as the boundary between "human" and "ape" and what it means to be either.
Until recently, surprisingly little has been known about the biology and behavior of tropical forest raptors, including such basic aspects as diets, breeding biology, habitat requirements, and population ecology, information critical to the development of conservation efforts. The Peregrine Fund conducted a significant eight-year-long research program on the raptor species, including owls, in Tikal National Park in Guatemala to learn more about Neotropical birds of prey. Impressive and unprecedented in scale, this pioneering research also involved the development of new methods for detecting, enumerating, and studying these magnificent but often elusive birds in their forest home. Beautifully illustrated with photographs of previously little-known species, the resulting book is the most important single source for information on the lowland tropical forest raptor species found in Central America.
Neotropical Birds of Prey covers twenty specific species in depth, including the Ornate Hawk-Eagle, the Barred Forest-Falcon, the Bat Falcon, and the Mexican Wood Owl, offering thorough synopses of all current knowledge regarding breeding biology and behavior, diet, habitat use, and spatial needs. Contributors to this landmark work also show how the populations fit together as a community with overlapping habitat and prey needs that can put them in competition with reptiles and mammalian carnivores as well, yet differ from one another in their nesting or feeding behaviors and population dynamics. The work's substantive original data offer interesting comparisons between tropical and temperate zone species, and provide a basis for establishing conservation measures based on firsthand research. Making available for the first time new data on the biology, ecology, behavior, and conservation of the majestic owls and raptors of the New World tropics, this book will appeal to a wide ornithological readership, especially the many raptor enthusiasts around the world.
In the songs and bubble feeding of humpback whales; in young killer whales learning to knock a seal from an ice floe in the same way their mother does; and in the use of sea sponges by the dolphins of Shark Bay, Australia, to protect their beaks while foraging for fish, we find clear examples of the transmission of information among cetaceans. Just as human cultures pass on languages and turns of phrase, tastes in food (and in how it is acquired), and modes of dress, could whales and dolphins have developed a culture of their very own? Unequivocally: yes. In The Cultural Lives of Whales and Dolphins, cetacean biologists Hal Whitehead, who has spent much of his life on the ocean trying to understand whales, and Luke Rendell, whose research focuses on the evolution of social learning, open an astounding porthole onto the fascinating culture beneath the waves. As Whitehead and Rendell show, cetacean culture and its transmission are shaped by a blend of adaptations, innate sociality, and the unique environment in which whales and dolphins live: a watery world in which a hundred-and-fifty-ton blue whale can move with utter grace, and where the vertical expanse is as vital, and almost as vast, as the horizontal. Drawing on their own research as well as a scientific literature as immense as the sea--including evolutionary biology, animal behavior, ecology, anthropology, psychology, and neuroscience--Whitehead and Rendell dive into realms both humbling and enlightening as they seek to define what cetacean culture is, why it exists, and what it means for the future of whales and dolphins. And, ultimately, what it means for our future, as well.
This book brings together scientific evidence and experience relevant to the practical conservation of wild birds. The authors worked with an international group of bird experts and conservationists to develop a global list of interventions that could benefit wild birds. For each intervention, the book summarises studies captured by the Conservation Evidence project, where that intervention has been tested and its effects on birds quantified. The result is a thorough guide to what is known, or not known, about the effectiveness of bird conservation actions throughout the world. The preparation of this synopsis was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council and Arcadia.
Ecology and Conservation of Forest Birds is a unique review of current understanding of the relationships between forest birds and their changing environments. Large ecological changes are being driven by forest management, climate change, introduced pests and pathogens, abiotic disturbances, and overbrowsing. Many forest bird species have suffered population declines, with the situation being particularly severe for birds dependent on attributes such as dead wood, old trees and structurally complex forests. With a focus on the non-tropical parts of the Northern Hemisphere, the text addresses the fundamental evolutionary and ecological aspects of forest birds using original data analyses and synthesising reviews. The characteristics of bird assemblages and their habitats in different European forest types are explored, together with the macroecological patterns of bird diversity and conservation issues. The book provides a valuable reference for ecologists, ornithologists, conservation professionals, forest industry employees, and those interested in birds and nature.
From a modest beginning in the form of a little shrew-like, nocturnal, insect eating ancestor that lived 200 million years ago, mammals evolved into the huge variety of different kinds of animals we see today. Many species are still small, and follow the lifestyle of the ancestor, but others have adapted to become large grazers and browsers, like the antelopes, cattle, rhinos, and elephants, or the lions, hyaenas, and wolves that prey upon them. Yet others evolved to be specialist termite eaters able to dig into the hardest mounds, or tunnel creating burrowers, and a few took to the skies as gliders and the bats. Many live partly in the water, such as otters, beavers, and hippos, while whales and dugongs remain permanently in the seas, incapable of ever emerging onto land. In this Very Short Introduction T. S. Kemp explains how it is a tenfold increase in metabolic rate - endothermy or "warm-bloodedness" - that lies behind the high levels of activity, and the relatively huge brain associated with complex, adaptable behaviour that epitomizes mammals. He describes the remarkable fossil record, revealing how and when the mammals gained their characteristics, and the tortuous course of their subsequent evolution, during which many bizarre forms such as sabre-toothed cats, and 30-tonne, 6-m high browsers arose and disappeared. Describing the wonderful adaptations that mammals evolved to suit their varied modes of life, he also looks at those of the mainly arboreal primates that culminated ultimately in Homo sapiens. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Paleozoology and Paleoenvironments outlines the reconstruction of ancient climates, floras, and habitats on the basis of animal fossil remains recovered from archaeological and paleontological sites. In addition to outlining the ecological fundamentals and analytical assumptions attending such analyzes, J. Tyler Faith and R. Lee Lyman describe and critically evaluate many of the varied analytical techniques that have been applied to paleozoological remains for the purpose of paleoenvironmental reconstruction. These techniques range from analyses based on the presence or abundance of species in a fossil assemblage to those based on taxon-free ecological characterizations. All techniques are illustrated using faunal data from archaeological or paleontological contexts. Aimed at students and professionals, this volume will serve as fundamental resource for courses in zooarchaeology, paleontology, and paleoecology.
New Guinea, the largest tropical island, supports a spectacular bird fauna characterized by cassowaries, megapodes, pigeons, parrots, kingfishers, and owlet-nightjars, as well as the iconic birds of paradise and bowerbirds. Of the nearly 800 species of birds recorded from New Guinea, more than 350 are found nowhere else on Earth. This comprehensive annotated checklist of distribution, taxonomy, and systematics of the birds of New Guinea is the first formal review of this avifauna since Ernst Mayr's Checklist, published in 1941. This new book brings together all the systematic, taxonomic, and distributional research conducted on the region's bird families over the last 70 years. Bruce Beehler and Thane Pratt provide the scientific foundation for the names, geographic distributions, and systematic arrangement of New Guinea's bird fauna. All technical information is annotated and a geographic gazetteer and bibliography are included. This book is an ideal complement to the Birds of New Guinea field guide also published by Princeton, and is an essential technical reference for all scientific libraries, ornithologists, and those interested in bird classification. * The first complete revision of the New Guinea bird fauna since 1941* Accounts for 75 bird species new to the region* Includes a geographic gazetteer, bibliography, and explanations of taxonomic and systematic classifications
This is the first statewide distributional survey of Georgia's breeding birds. This is a comprehensive historical record of all free-ranging bird species known to be breeding in Georgia around the beginning of the new millennium. The atlas profiles 182 species, from the sociable House Wren to the secretive Black Rail; from the thriving Red-shouldered Hawk to the threatened Wilson's Plover. The atlas is the result of a systematic survey conducted from 1994 to 2001, the massive collaborative effort of several private organizations, public agencies, and many individuals. It offers a wealth of information critical to bird-conservation efforts and provides a baseline so that changes to species ranges, numbers, and other significant aspects of each species' status can be better understood. Each species account includes: color photograph of the bird; information on the bird's habitat and life history, distribution, population trends, and conservation status; details discussed including diet, nesting habits, life cycle of the young, predators, and interactions with humans; color distribution map showing the state's six ecoregions and indicating possible, probable, and confirmed breeding; and, graphs showing population trends. Also included in this title are chapters on the survey methodology, results of the surveys, influence of the physical environments of the state on bird distribution, changes in the avifauna since European settlement, and bird conservation.
How intelligent are dolphins? Is their communication system really as complex as human language? And are they as friendly and peaceful as they are made out to be? The Western world has had an enduring love affair with dolphins since the early 1960s, with fanciful claims of their 'healing powers' and 'super intelligence'. Myths and pseudoscience abound on the subject. Justin Gregg weighs up the claims made about dolphin intelligence and separates scientific fact from fiction. He puts our knowledge about dolphin behaviour and intelligence into perspective, with comparisons to scientific studies of other animals, especially the crow family and great apes. He gives fascinating accounts of the challenges of testing what an animal with flippers and no facial expressions might be animal behaviour, Gregg challenges many of the widespread beliefs about dolphins, while also inspiring the reader with the remarkable abilities common to many of the less glamorized animals around us - such as chickens.
Jonathan Kingdon, one of the world's foremost authorities on African mammals, has both written and illustrated this landmark field guide. The unique combination of his extensive field experience and artistic talent has produced a stunning work that sets new standards. The concise text provides full information on identification, distribution, ecology, relationships and conservation status, with introductory profiles that summarise the characteristics of each mammal group. All known species of African land mammal are covered, with coverage of several of the more complex groups of small mammals simplified by reference to genera. Classification has been fully updated and this new edition includes many newly recognised species. With over 780 colour illustrations, numerous line drawings and more than 520 maps, this book will be an essential companion to anyone visiting Africa or with an interest in the mammals of the continent. Competition note: There are regional mammal books covering southern Africa, for example, but none that covers the whole continent in a portable format. The smaller-format and more concise Kingdon Pocket Guide to African Mammals may be more appealing to a more general safari market, but is much less comprehensive and more out of date.
Do you think identifying bats in Europe or in North America is difficult? Well, try it in the Amazon. The planet's green lung is home to the most diverse bat communities on the planet with more than 160 species currently described. Local species richness often surpasses 100 and for many, their identification in the field is, to say the least, challenging. This task will now become easier with the publication of the Field Guide to the Bats of the Amazon: a landmark handbook aimed at facilitating species identification in the field. The book, written and designed by an international bat research team mainly based in the University of Lisbon in collaboration with the National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA), is a guide for anyone conducting field work on bats in the Amazon or interested in bat biodiversity. It is largely based on previous published keys with modifications derived from both personal observations and years of field experience in the Brazilian Amazon at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP), as well as a thorough revision of available bat keys and species descriptions. The field guide also features the first acoustic key for Amazonian bats, illustrated with the echolocation spectrogram of most species. This represents a major step towards alleviating the daunting task of identifying the numerous species of aerial insectivorous bats that occur in the Amazon based on their echolocation calls. It further constitutes an important tool to improving the knowledge and optimizing surveys of aerial insectivorous Neotropical bats, a group which remains largely understudied. The field guide provides an essential tool, not only for researchers, but also for bat conservationists, consultancies and anyone interested in Neotropical bats in general, and Amazonian bats in particular.
Like the first edition (1993), this modern edition contains:
- an in-depth introduction to the natural history of freshwater fishes and the southern African context;
- detailed species accounts, each with a full-colour illustration, distribution map and symbols indicating size and conservation status. A concise description covers identifying features, biology and ecology, conservation status and uses of each species.
The only guide to African freshwater fishes, this book is of value and interest to all aquarists, anglers, convervationists, biologists and naturalists, amateur and otherwise. It fills a large gap in the natural history literature of Southern Africa.
Birds pervaded the ancient world, impressing their physical presence on the daily experience and imaginations of ordinary people and figuring prominently in literature and art. They provided a fertile source of symbols and stories in myths and folklore and were central to the ancient rituals of augury and divination. Jeremy Mynott's Birds in the Ancient World illustrates the many different roles birds played in culture: as indicators of time, weather and the seasons; as a resource for hunting, eating, medicine and farming; as domestic pets and entertainments; and as omens and intermediaries between the gods and humankind. We learn how birds were perceived - through quotations from well over a hundred classical Greek and Roman authors, all of them translated freshly into English, through nearly 100 illustrations from ancient wall-paintings, pottery and mosaics, and through selections from early scientific writings, and many anecdotes and descriptions from works of history, geography and travel. Jeremy Mynott acts as a stimulating guide to this rich and fascinating material, using birds as a prism through which to explore both the similarities and the often surprising differences between ancient conceptions of the natural world and our own. His book is an original contribution to the flourishing interest in the cultural history of birds and to our understanding of the ancient cultures in which birds played such a prominent part.
The RSPB Handbook of Scottish Birds is the ideal reference for keen birdwatchers and visitors to Scotland alike, and this fully updated second edition is richer and more comprehensive than ever. Over 250 species are covered in detail with each account including information on identification, voice, habits, habitat, food, breeding, ecology, seasonal movements, population and conservation. More than 1,000 superb colour illustrations by some of the world's leading bird artists are integrated into the text for easy reference. This second edition features newly added Gaelic names, updated distribution maps, and also incorporates the latest information on the conservation status of each species. - Concise text offers a 'biography' of each species in simple, non-technical language - Practical, easy-to-use format - Updated distribution maps show resident species, summer and winter visitors, and passage migrants
Fantastic book on the Norwegian killer whale distributed by NHBS.John Stenersen, leading nature photographer, and Tiu Simila, the leading authority in Norway on killer whales, document through stunning colour photography and informative text, killer whale distribution, lifespan, the latest research, and an excellent chapter on identification, be it visual, acoustic or through behavioural studies. Also covered are killer whale migrations, the study of killer whale families and, perhaps most importantly, conservation and the future for the killer whale.
This book examines the application of fish community characteristics to evaluate the sustainability and biological integrity of freshwaters. Topics include perspectives on use of fish communities as environmental indicators in program development, collaboration, and partnership forming; influence of specific taxa on assessment of the IBI; regional applications for areas where the IBI had not previously been developed; and specific applications of the IBI developed for coldwater streams, inland lakes, Great Lakes, reservoirs, and tailwaters.
Key features: Serves as the first single-source reference with in-depth coverage of techniques appropriate for the laboratory and field study of sharks, skates, and rays Contains chapters on a broad range of methods such as Imaging Technologies, Satellite Tracking, Stationary Underwater Video, and Population Genetic Approaches and Genomics among others Presents technologies that can be used to study other aquatic fish and marine mammals and reptiles Includes chapter authors who were pioneers in developing some of the technologies discussed in the book Concludes with a unique section on Citizen Science and its Application to Studies of Shark Biology Over the last decade, the study of shark biology has benefited from the development, refinement, and rapid expansion of novel techniques and advances in technology. These have given new insight into the fields of shark genetics, feeding, foraging, bioenergetics, imaging, age and growth, movement, migration, habitat preference, and habitat use. This pioneering book, written by experts in shark biology, examines technologies such as autonomous vehicle tracking, underwater video approaches, molecular genetics techniques, and accelerometry, among many others. Each detailed chapter offers new insights and promises for future studies of elasmobranch biology, provides an overview of appropriate uses of each technique, and can be readily extended to other aquatic fish and marine mammals and reptiles.
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