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This book provides a concise synthesis of how toxic chemical
pollutants affect physiological processes in teleost fish. This
Second Edition of the well-received Water Pollution and Fish
Physiology has been completely updated, and chapters have been
added on immunology and acid toxicity. The emphasis, as in the
first edition, is on understanding mechanisms of sublethal effects
on fish and their responses to these environmental stressors.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a valuable and common model for researchers working in the fields of genetics, oncology and developmental sciences. This full-color atlas will aid experimental design and interpretation in these areas by providing a fundamental understanding of zebrafish anatomy. Over 150 photomicrographs are included and can be used for direct comparison with histological slides, allowing quick and accurate identification of the anatomic structures of interest. Hematoxylin and eosin stained longitudinal and transverse sections demonstrate gross anatomic relationships and illustrate the microscopic anatomy of major organs. Unlike much of the current literature, this book is focused exclusively on the zebrafish, eliminating the need for researchers to exclude structures that are only found in other fish.
This book takes a non-technical approach in covering the evolution of South American mammalian fauna throughout geological history, and discusses how South America has changed due to mammalian invasions. Unlike other works on the subject, this book attempts to answer several crucial questions that often go unmentioned together in one cohesive monograph. What was the fauna like before the American interchange? What were the origins of the now-extinct groups when northern species arrived and out-competed them? How did the modern mammalian fauna come into being with such disparate animal groups? This information is given from a historical perspective throughout the book's 15 chapters, and is presented in an easily graspable fashion by mostly avoiding technical language. The book is written for academics, scientists and scholars engaged in paleontology, zoology and evolutionary biology, but may also appeal to a larger audience of general readers interested in mammalian evolution. The book begins with an introduction, describing the tools necessary to interpret the evolutionary history of South American mammals in geological terms and some of the early people who helped found South American mammalian paleontology. Chapter 2 describes the Mesozoic first mammals of Gondwana and what we are learning about them, dominant before the K/T extinction event. Then chapters 3 through 8 cover the Cenozoic, or "Age of Mammals", highlighting the major mammalian groups of South America that replaced the earlier mammals of Gondwana. These groups include the marsupials, native ungulates, the xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters, sloths), the caviomorphs (rodents), and the platyrrhine monkeys. Chapters 9 and 10 address the Antarctic La Meseta fossils and the Colombian La Venta fossil faunal assemblages. Chapter 11 discusses the neotropical mammals that invaded the Caribbean Islands, and illustrates the influence South America has had on adjacent faunas. Chapter 12 describes the origin of the Amazon River and the role it has played in the evolution of the mammals and other flora and fauna. Chapter 13 tells the story of the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI), and chapter 14 follows this up with a discussion of the Pleistocene mammal communities and their eventual extinction. Chapter 15 concludes the text by discussing the modern mammals of South America, and how despite the extensive Pleistocene extinctions there is still a lot of mammalian diversity in South America.
This book comprehensively describes the transgenesis techniques and applied experimental methods in ascidians including enthusiastically developed original devices in addition to concrete examples of developmental biology studies. Ascidians have been one of the most important model animals in developmental biology for studying molecular and cellular processes underlying formation of the chordate body plan. Transgenic techniques such as microinjection, electropolation, cis-element analysis and application, and TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 have been developed in ascidians for more than 20 years, and now many applied methods, some of which are unique in ascidians, have been accumulated. Those extensive technological innovations, such as cell isolation, cell labeling, germ-line transformation, marker transgenic lines, and the experimental systems for studying notochord formation and nervous system, are exceptional particularly in marine invertebrates. This book is useful for ascidian researchers to quickly access the techniques in which they are interested as well as to compare each technology to become familiar with specialized tips, and for biologists of other organisms to learn the unique techniques and ingenious attempts specific to ascidians. Providing detailed and easily understandable descriptions of techniques, the book will inspire ascidian specialists to improve their techniques, encourage anyone wanting to begin studying ascidians, and enable readers to immediately apply the techniques to the organisms they research.
This book takes a new approach to understanding primate conservation research, adding a personal perspective to allow readers to learn what motivates those doing conservation work. When entering the field over a decade ago, many young primatologists were driven by evolutionary questions centered in behavioural ecology. However, given the current environment of cascading extinctions and increasing threats to primates we now need to ensure that primates remain in viable populations in the wild before we can simply engage in research in the context of pure behavioural ecology. This has changed the primary research aims of many primatologists and shifted our focus to conservation priorities, such as understanding the impacts of human activity, habitat conversion or climate change on primates. This book presents personal narratives alongside empirical research results and discussions of strategies used to stem the tide of extinction. It is a must-have for anyone interested in conservation research.
Essential Fish Biology provides an introductory overview of the functional biology of fish and how this may be affected by the widely contrasting habitat conditions within the aquatic environment. It describes the recent advances in comparative animal physiology which have greatly influenced our understanding of fish function as well as generating questions that have yet to be resolved. Fish taxa represent the largest number of vertebrates, with over 25,000 extant species. However, much of our knowledge, apart from taxonomy and habitat descriptions, has been based on relatively few of them , usually those which live in fresh water and/or are of commercial interest. Unfortunately there has also been a tendency to base our interpretation of fish physiology on that of mammalian systems, as well as to rely on a few type species of fish. This accessible textbook will redress the balance by using examples of fish from a wide range of species and habitats, emphasizing diversity as well as recognizing shared attributes with other vertebrates.
Fantastic book on the Norwegian killer whale distributed by NHBS.John Stenersen, leading nature photographer, and Tiu Simila, the leading authority in Norway on killer whales, document through stunning colour photography and informative text, killer whale distribution, lifespan, the latest research, and an excellent chapter on identification, be it visual, acoustic or through behavioural studies. Also covered are killer whale migrations, the study of killer whale families and, perhaps most importantly, conservation and the future for the killer whale.
The local diversity and global richness of coral reef fishes, along with the diversity manifested in their morphology, behaviour and ecology, provides fascinating and diverse opportunities for study. Reflecting the very latest research in a broad and ever-growing field, this comprehensive guide is a must-read for anyone interested in the ecology of fishes on coral reefs. Featuring contributions from leaders in the field, the 36 chapters cover the full spectrum of current research. They are presented in five parts, considering coral reef fishes in the context of ecology, patterns and processes, human intervention and impacts, conservation, and past and current debates. Beautifully illustrated in full-colour, this book is designed to summarise and help build upon current knowledge and to facilitate further research. It is an ideal resource for those new to the field as well as for experienced researchers.
The contributors to this volume present research concerning the
cognitive structures and development of nonhuman primates from a
cognitive psychological perspective. The authors and researchers
come to this project from the study of humans and apply their
knowledge to research on nonhumans. For professional, researchers,
and students in cognitive, developmental, and experimental
A comprehensive photographic guide to the world's gull species
With more than 50 gull species in the world, this family of seabirds poses some of the greatest field identification challenges of any bird group: age-related plumage changes, extensive variations within species, frequent hybridization, and complex distribution.
Gulls of the World takes on these challenges and is the first book to provide a comprehensive look at these birds. Concise text emphasizes field identification, with in-depth discussion of variations as well as coverage of habitat, status, and distribution. Abundant photographs highlight identification criteria and, crucially, factor in age and subspecific field separation. Informative species accounts are accompanied by detailed color range maps.
Gulls of the World is the most authoritative photographic guide to this remarkable bird family.
- The first book to provide in-depth coverage of all the world's gull species
- More than 600 stunning color photographs
- Concise text looks at variations, habitat, status, and distribution
- Informative species accounts and color range maps
The creation of Dolly the sheep in the 1990s was for many people the start of a new era: the age of genetically modified animals. However, the idea was not new for in the 1920s an amateur scientist, Hans Duncker, decided to genetically engineer a red canary. Though his experiments failed, they paved the way for others to succeed when it was recognised that the canary needed to be both a product of nature and nurture. This highly original narrative, of huge contemporary relevance, reveals how the obsession with turning the wild canary from green to red heralded the exciting but controversial developments in genetic manipulation.
Australia is home to a spectacular diversity of birdlife, from parrots and penguins to emus and vibrant passerines. "Birds of Australia" covers all 714 species of resident birds and regularly occurring migrants and features more than 1,100 stunning color photographs, including many photos of subspecies and plumage variations never before seen in a field guide. Detailed facing-page species accounts describe key identification features such as size, plumage, distribution, behavior, and voice. This one-of-a-kind guide also provides extensive habitat descriptions with a large number of accompanying photos. The text relies on the very latest IOC taxonomy and the distribution maps incorporate the most current mapping data, making this the most up-to-date guide to Australian birds.Covers all 714 species of resident birds and regularly occurring migrantsFeatures more than 1,100 stunning color photosIncludes facing-page species accounts, habitat descriptions, and distribution mapsThe ideal photographic guide for beginners and seasoned birders alike
The cheetah, the fastest terrestrial animal, has widespread appeal amongst wildlife biologists and enthusiasts alike. However, like all all large carnivores, it is increasingly threatened by habitat loss and its status is now classified as 'Vulnerable' by the IUCN. This is the first comprehensive study of cheetah biology in an arid environment, a major component of its current distribution range. The book brings together results from an intensive six year study of the cheetah by the authors in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa and Botswana. It documents a wealth of detailed and direct observations of cheetah population biology and behavioural ecology, adopting an evolutionary approach and providing a conceptual framework for future research and applied management in the context of global environmental change. Kalahari Cheetahs covers topics such as optimal foraging theory, hunting strategies and predator prey relations, mating systems and reproductive strategies and success, inter-specific competition, demography, social organisation, and population limitation. Comparisons with previous cheetah studies reveal the variability of ecological determinants on behaviour, and the behavioural flexibility and ability of these carnivores to adapt to different environments. This advanced textbook is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in felid behavioural ecology and conservation biology. It will also be of relevance and use to conservationists, wildlife managers, and African wildlife enthusiasts.
There are more than 33,000 species of living fishes, accounting for
more than half of the extant vertebrate diversity on Earth. This
unique and comprehensive reference showcases the basic anatomy and
diversity of all 82 orders of fishes and more than 150 of the most
commonly encountered families, focusing on their distinctive
The interactions between apex predators and their prey are some of the most awesome and meaningful in nature - displays of strength, endurance, and a deep coevolutionary history. And there is perhaps no apex predator more impressive and important in its hunting - or more infamous, more misjudged - than the wolf. Because of wolves' habitat, speed, and general success at evading humans, researchers have faced great obstacles in studying their natural hunting behaviors. The first book to focus explicitly on wolf hunting of wild prey, Wolves on the Hunt seeks to remedy these gaps in our knowledge and understanding. Combining behavioral data, thousands of hours of original field observations, research in the literature, a wealth of illustrations, and - in the e-book edition and online - video segments, the authors create a compelling and complex picture of these hunters. The wolf is indeed an adept killer, able to take down prey much larger than itself. While adapted to hunt primarily hoofed animals, a wolf - or especially a pack of wolves - can kill individuals of just about any species. But even as wolves help drive the underlying rhythms of the ecosystems they inhabit, their evolutionary prowess comes at a cost: wolves spend one third of their time hunting - the most time-consuming of all wolf activities - and success at the hunt only comes through traveling long distances, persisting in the face of regular failure, detecting and taking advantage of deficiencies in the physical condition of individual prey, and through ceaseless trial and error, all while risking injury or death. By describing and analyzing the behaviors wolves use to hunt and kill various wild prey - including deer, moose, caribou, elk, Dall sheep, mountain goats, bison, muskoxen, arctic hares, beavers, and others - Wolves on the Hunt provides a revelatory portrait of one of nature's greatest hunters.
In 1838 Charles Darwin jotted in a notebook, "He who understands
baboon would do more towards metaphysics than Locke." "Baboon
Metaphysics "is Dorothy L. Cheney and Robert M. Seyfarth's
fascinating response to Darwin's challenge.
This new field guide covers The Gambia, a country which is very popular with a large number of birders and tourists, and the whole of neighbouring Senegal. This fascinating region shelters many Western Palearctic migrants from September to April, as well as a significant list of resident West African birds. The stunning colour plates depict more than 680 species, covering almost every distinct plumage and race. The authoritative text highlights the key features needed to identify each species in the field, and accurate up-to-date maps are provided for every species. This comprehensive guide is an essential companion for anyone visiting The Gambia and Senegal.
This comprehensive encyclopedia of the world's birds presents a fantastic visual guide to the major avian species and families, from America's tiniest insect-catchers to the giant, flightless species still living on the African plains. A 420-page directory features fully illustrated entries for hundreds of birds, as well as detailing many other related species. The activities of birds are explored in a natural history section, detailing anatomy, flight, feeding, pairing and nesting. There are also tips on birdwatching for those who want to get a closer look at these fascinating creatures. This is an authoritative and sumptuous guide to the diversity of bird life across the globe.
For more than a hundred million years, sea turtles have been swimming in the world's oceans. These magnificent, long-lived creatures spend their lives in the water, coming ashore to lay their eggs. Upon hatching, the baby turtles leave the nest and enter a dangerous world of storms and predators. The females will return to the same beach to lay their own eggs when they reach maturity a decade later. Today, there are seven species of sea turtle: the grass-eating green turtle; the sea sponge-eating hawksbill; the olive ridley; the Kemp's ridley, which is the smallest species; the loggerhead; the flatback of Australia; and the giant leatherback. Having escaped the mass extinction that wiped out the dinosaurs, these ancient reptiles today face new dangers that threaten their survival: pollution, hunting, and the destruction of their nesting grounds. Will this century be the last to witness their majesty? Will succeeding generations live in a world devoid of their graceful presence?
Marine biologist James R. Spotila has spent much of his life unraveling the mysteries of these graceful creatures and working to ensure their survival. In "Sea Turtles," he offers a comprehensive and compelling account of their history and life cycle based on the most recent scientific data--and suggests what we can do now to save them. From the Kemp's ridley, which nests on a single beach on Mexico's Gulf Coast, to the nomadic leatherback, which can weigh up to a ton and is in the most imminent danger of extinction, Spotila offers a vivid description of their diets and mating habits, and the conservation efforts being made on their behalf. Illustrated with stunning color photographs by the world's leading nature photographers, "Sea Turtles" will inform and inspire readers of all ages everywhere.
Monkey see, monkey do or does he? Can the behavior of non-human primates their sociality, their intelligence, their communication really be chalked up to simple mimicry? Emphatically, absolutely: no. And as famed primatologist Julia Fischer reveals, the human bias inherent in this oft-uttered adage is our loss, for it is only through the study of our primate brethren that we may begin to understand ourselves. An eye-opening blend of storytelling, memoir, and science, Monkeytalk takes us into the field and the world's primate labs to investigate the intricacies of primate social mores through the lens of communication. After first detailing the social interactions of key species from her fieldwork from baby-wielding male Barbary macaques, who use infants as social accessories in a variety of interactions, to aggression among the chacma baboons of southern Africa and male-male tolerance among the Guinea baboons of Senegal Fischer explores the role of social living in the rise of primate intelligence and communication, ultimately asking what the ways in which other primates communicate can teach us about the evolution of human language. Funny and fascinating, Fischer's tale roams from a dinner in the field shared with lionesses to insights gleaned from Rico, a border collie with an astonishing vocabulary, but its message is clear: it is humans who are the evolutionary mimics. The primate heritage visible in our species is far more striking than the reverse, and it is the monkeys who deserve to be seen. "The social life of macaques and baboons is a magnificent opera," Fischer writes. "Allow me now to raise the curtain on it."
This wonderful book describes the fascinating lives of the two most ubiquitous shorebirds in the world. Between them the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) and Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) make use of a large part of the world's terrestrial habitat and they exhibit many of the exciting features of shorebirds. As the birds arrive on the breeding ground, their displays are spectacular and their sounds are an exciting announcement of springtime. Unusually, the Spotted Sandpiper appears to be the only bird where the female is the territory holder, laying successive clutches of eggs for different males to care for, while the male of the Common Sandpiper holds the territory, has one mate, and shares most duties. They stay on the breeding grounds only as long as is essential to reproduce before making a migration southwards to a broad range of non-breeding homes in Central and South America, Africa, India, and eastwards to Australia with vagrants reaching as far as Tristan da Cunha and New Zealand. The Common Sandpiper has also been recorded breeding in East Africa and wintering in Scotland so their flexibility is amazing. The author has spent over 40 years studying the lives of these fantastic birds and provides a wealth of information including their breeding behaviour, migrations, distribution, food sources, habitats and their history from the present back to 36 million years ago. This beautiful book will hopefully stimulate others to watch these worldwide birds more appreciatively and add to our knowledge.
Centrarchid fishes, also known as freshwater sunfishes, include such prominent species as the Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass and Bluegill. They are endemic to Eastern North America where they form part of a multi-million dollar sports fishing industry, but they have also been widely introduced around the globe by recreational anglers, in aquaculture programs and by government fisheries agencies. Centrarchid Fishes provides comprehensive coverage of all major aspects of this ecologically and commercially important group of fishes. Coverage includes diversity, ecomorphology, phylogeny and genetics, hybridization, reproduction, early life history and recruitment, feeding and growth, ecology, migrations, bioenergetics, physiology, diseases, aquaculture, fisheries management and conservation. Chapters have been written by well-known and respected scientists and the whole has been drawn together by Professors Cooke and Philipp, themselves extremely well respected in the area of fisheries management and conservation. Centrarchid Fishes is an essential purchase for all fish biologists, ecologists, fisheries managers and fish farm personnel who work with centrarchid species across the globe.
This book will take readers on a flying visit round the world, scouring the seven continents for the biggest, brightest and best birds on the planet. Urban Jungle creator Vicky Woodgate perfectly captures the brilliance of the bird world, each chapter taking us to a new continent and introducing birds from hummingbirds to hawks, and parrots to penguins. With a vintage travelogue feel, vibrant artwork and fascinating annotations, it is a book that will appeal to wildlife lovers from 7 to 70!
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