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Lagoons and estuaries are transition spaces between earth and sea. Beyond their expanse, geographic repartition, geomorphological, hydroclimatic and ecobiological diversity and biodiversity, they play an important role in regional economies and are some of the ecosystems most vulnerable to global change. Reinforced by numerous references, this book studies Mediterranean lagoonal and estuarine fishes whose diversity largely depends on the composition of neighboring marine and continental ichtyofauna. The authors describe their morphological, biological, ecological and behavioral characteristics by evoking their distinctive features and differences with their marine or freshwater homologues. Their adaptation strategies, elucidated thanks to recent advances in morphology, genetics and molecular biology, are recognized as a major advantage in the context of climate change. This book is for natural environment managers, engineers, teachers, students and researchers.
Mice are used as model organisms across a wide range of fields in science today--but it is far from obvious how studying a mouse in a maze can help us understand human problems like alcoholism or anxiety. How do scientists convince funders, fellow scientists, the general public, and even themselves that animal experiments are a good way of producing knowledge about the genetics of human behavior? In Model Behavior, Nicole C. Nelson takes us inside an animal behavior genetics laboratory to examine how scientists create and manage the foundational knowledge of their field. Behavior genetics is a particularly challenging field for making a clear-cut case that mouse experiments work, because researchers believe that both the phenomena they are studying and the animal models they are using are complex. These assumptions of complexity change the nature of what laboratory work produces. Whereas historical and ethnographic studies traditionally portray the laboratory as a place where scientists control, simplify, and stabilize nature in the service of producing durable facts, the laboratory that emerges from Nelson's extensive interviews and fieldwork is a place where stable findings are always just out of reach. The ongoing work of managing precarious experimental systems means that researchers learn as much--if not more--about the impact of the environment on behavior as they do about genetics. Model Behavior offers a compelling portrait of life in a twenty-first-century laboratory, where partial, provisional answers to complex scientific questions are increasingly the norm.
In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading
researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive
analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and
functional biology of the skull.
"The Biology of Small Mammals" is the first exploration of the lives of small mammals undertaken in decades. Mammalogist Joseph F. Merritt offers an engaging, in-depth discussion about a diverse array of small mammals, from the rare Kitti's hog-nosed bat of Southeast Asia to the bizarre aye-aye of Madagascar to the familiar woodchuck of North America.
Small mammals include those mammals weighing under five kilograms (approximately eleven pounds). Merritt introduces the various species that fall under this heading, then follows with chapters that cover such topics as behavior, modes of feeding, locomotion, habitat use, reproduction, and coping with heat loss.
Animals of this size face different physiological and ecological challenges than larger mammals. Merritt describes in rich detail how mammals across the globe have adapted to compensate for their small stature, showing how they contribute to and survive in diverse environments in many fascinating ways. For example, arctic foxes, weighing just 3 to 4.3 kilograms, are champion survivors in the cold. They cope with their harsh environs by decreasing activity, seeking shelter in temporary dens and snow burrows, growing a lush winter fur, and undergoing complex physiological changes to insulate themselves from chilling temperatures.
Beautifully illustrated throughout, "The Biology of Small Mammals" provides a valuable and updated reference on nature's more diminutive creatures.
Australian marsupials represent a parallel adaptive radiation to that seen among placental mammals. This great natural experiment has produced a striking array of mammals with structural and behavioural features echoing those seen among primates, rodents, carnivores, edentates and ungulates elsewhere in the world. Many of these adaptations involve profound evolutionary changes in the nervous system, and occurred in isolation from those unfolding among placental mammals. Ashwell provides the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the structure and function of the nervous system of Australian marsupials. The book also includes the first comprehensive delineated atlases of brain structure in a representative diprotodont marsupial (the tammar wallaby) and a representative polyprotodont marsupial (the stripe-faced dunnart). For those interested in brain development, the book also provides the first comprehensive delineated atlas of brain development in a diprotodont marsupial (the tammar wallaby) during the critical first 4 weeks of pouch life.
This guide includes the nest and eggs of 285 species found in the 26 states east of the Mississippi River. Descriptions of breeding range and time, habitat, and nests and eggs are enhanced by 222 color photographs.
Birds of Peru is the most complete and authoritative field guide to this diverse, neotropical landscape. It features every one of Peru's 1,817 bird species and shows the distinct plumages of each in 307 superb, high-quality color plates. Concise descriptions and color distribution maps are located opposite the plates, making this book much easier to use in the field than standard neotropical field guides. This fully revised paperback edition includes twenty-five additional species. * A comprehensive guide to all 1,817 species found in Peru--one fifth of the world's birds--with subspecies, sexes, age classes, and morphs fully illustrated * Designed especially for field use, with vivid descriptive information and helpful identification tips opposite color plates * Detailed species accounts, including a full-color distribution map * Includes 25 additional species not covered in the first edition * Features 3 entirely new plates and more than 25 additional illustrations
The insect-eating sunbirds of the Old World are amongst the most glamorous of all bird families. This guide provides a comprehensive resource on the sunbirds and their allies, with 48 colour plates portraying all major plumage variations and many species depicted on typical food plants.
How do vertebrates get the oxygen they need, or even manage without it for shorter or longer periods of time? How do they sense oxygen, how do they take it up from water or air, and how do they transport it to their tissues? Respiratory system adaptations allow numerous vertebrates to thrive in extreme environments where oxygen availability is limited or where there is no oxygen at all. Written for students and researchers in comparative physiology, this authoritative summary of vertebrate respiratory physiology begins by exploring the fundamentals of oxygen sensing, uptake and transport in a textbook style. Subsequently, the reader is shown important examples of extreme respiratory performance, like diving and high altitude survival in mammals and birds, air breathing in fish, and those few vertebrates that can survive without any oxygen at all for several months, showing how evolution has solved the problem of life without oxygen.
THE BRITISH BIRDS BOOK OF THE YEAR 2018 This unique and spectacular handbook is the most complete and comprehensive photographic guide to the passerines of the Western Palearctic. Written by two of the world's most respected ornithologists, Hadoram Shirihai and Lars Svensson, it contains the most up-to-date information available on bird identification covering all aspects of plumage, moult, ageing and sexing, with sections on voice and other identification criteria, and detailed taxonomic notes. The passerines are divided into two volumes, with the first covering larks, hirundines, pipits and wagtails, bulbuls, accentors, robins, chats, wheatears, thrushes, prinias and cisticolas, and warblers, and the second covering flycatchers, reedlings, tits, nuthatches, orioles and sunbirds, shrikes, corvids, finches and buntings, along with extreme vagrants. The exceptional text is backed up by a remarkable collection of more than 5,000 photographs, featuring a comprehensive range of plumages that illustrate every race and morph of each species in the region. This stunning handbook will be the definitive reference for the region for years to come - no birder's shelf will be complete without it.
This high-quality laboratory manual may accompany any comparative anatomy text, but correlates directly to Kardong's Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution text. This lab manual carefully guides students through dissections and is richly illustrated. First and foremost, the basic animal architecture is presented in a clear and concise manner. Throughout the dissections, the authors pause strategically to bring the students' attention to the significance of the material they have just covered.
Thailand is home to over 350 species of reptiles, consisting of many kinds of turtles and tortoises, lizards, snakes and crocodiless. With its extensive network of protected areas, Thailand is one of the richest and most ecologically diverse countries in the world. However, many of these species are being threatened more than ever before, including habitat loss caused by agricultural expansion and intensification, and from wildlife trade. For herpetologists and naturalists, understanding the reptiles of Thailand is now more important than ever before. With A Field Guide to the Reptiles of Thailand, Tanya Chan-ard, John Parr, and Jarujin Nabhitabhata present the definitive resource for identifying and understanding all known species of reptile in the region. It is the only updated and complete guide to the country's reptilian life in existence. The book contains an account of every species, complete with nomenclature, colour illustrations, and range maps of known locations. The accounts include discussion of behaviour, morphological measurements, and habitat, as well as the most current information on each species' conservation status. The authors explain the current system of classifying the threat level of endangerment, making the presented information and terminology understandable and useful. The introduction to the book discusses the history of herpetology in Thailand, as well as its climate, physiography, and zoogeography. A section on how to use the guide most effectively has also been included to make the book accessible to a wide range of both scientists and nature enthusiasts. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of Thailand is the definitive and most comprehensive resource for herpetologists, naturalists, and conservationists working in Thailand.
Marine Mammal Observer and Passive Acoustic Monitoring Handbook is the ultimate instruction manual for mitigation measures to minimise man-made acoustical and physical disturbances to marine mammals from industrial and defence activities. Based on more than two decades of offshore experience, and a decade of supplying MMO and PAM services (commercial and scientific), the Handbook is a long-overdue reference guide that seeks to improve standards worldwide for marine operations such as seismic and drilling exploration, wind farm and civil engineering piling, dredging, trenching, rock-dumping, hydrographical surveys, and military/defence exercises. By popular request, this manual will also form an accompaniment to MMO and PAM courses. The Handbook consolidates all aspects of this discipline into one easily accessible resource, to educate all stakeholders (e.g. MMOs, PAM operators, suppliers, recruitment agencies, clients, contractors, regulators, NGOs, consultants, scientists, academia and media), regardless of experience. Topics include worldwide legislation, compliance, anthropogenic noise sources and potential effects, training, offshore life, visual and acoustic monitoring (theory and practice), marine mammal distribution, hearing and vocalisations, and report writing. Advice is provided on implementing sensible and practical mitigation techniques, appropriate technologies, data collection, client and regulator liaison, and project kick-off meetings. "The Handbook is an indispensable How To guide to the growing and increasingly important occupation of marine mammal monitoring, written with clarity and humor by scientists who have extensive experience in this field." -Dr Phillip J. Clapham, world-renowned cetologist and Director of the Cetacean Assessment and Ecology Program at the National Marine Mammal Laboratory in Seattle.
The successful conservation of bird species relies upon our understanding of their habitat use and requirements. In the coming decades the importance of such knowledge will only grow as climate change, the development of new energy sources and the needs of a growing human population intensify the, already significant, pressure on the habitats that birds depend on. Drawing on valuable recent advances in our understanding of bird-habitat relationships, this book provides the first major review of avian habitat selection in over twenty years. It offers a synthesis of concepts, patterns and issues that will interest students, researchers and conservation practitioners. Spatial scales ranging from landscape to habitat patch are covered, and examples of responses to habitat change are examined. European landscapes are the main focus, but the book has far wider significance to similar habitats worldwide, with examples and relevant material also drawn from North America and Australia.
How did rodent outbreaks in Germany help to end World War I? What caused the destructive outbreak of rodents in Oregon and California in the late 1950s, the large population outbreak of lemmings in Scandinavia in 2010, and the great abundance of field mice in Scotland in the spring of 2011? Population fluctuations, or outbreaks, of rodents constitute one of the classic problems of animal ecology, and in "Population Fluctuations in Rodents", Charles J. Krebs sifts through the last eighty years of research to draw out exactly what we know about rodent outbreaks and what should be the agenda for future research. Krebs has synthesized the research in this area, focusing mainly on the voles and lemmings of the Northern Hemisphere - his primary area of expertise - but also referring to the literature on rats and mice. He covers the patterns of changes in reproduction and mortality and the mechanisms that cause these changes - including predation, disease, food shortage, and social behavior - and discusses how landscapes can affect population changes, methodically presenting the hypotheses related to each topic before determining whether or not the data supports them. He ends on an expansive note, by turning his gaze outward and discussing how the research on rodent populations can apply to other terrestrial mammals. Geared toward advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and practicing ecologists interested in rodent population studies, this book will also appeal to researchers seeking to manage rodent populations and to understand outbreaks in both natural and urban settings - or, conversely, to protect endangered species.
Ecologists have long struggled to understand community dynamics. In this groundbreaking book, leading fish ecologists William Matthews and Edie Marsh-Matthews apply long-term studies of stream fish communities to several enduring questions. This critical synthesis reaches to the heart of ecological theory, testing concepts against the four decades of data the authors have collected from numerous warm-water stream fish communities in the central and eastern United States. Stream Fish Community Dynamics draws together the work of a single research team to provide fresh analyses of the short- and long-term dynamics of numerous streams, each with multiple sampling sites. Conducting repeated surveys of fish communities at temporal scales from months to decades, the authors' research findings will fascinate anyone searching for a deeper understanding of community ecology. The study sites covered by this book range from small headwater creeks to large prairie rivers in Oklahoma and from Ozark and Ouachita mountain streams in Arkansas to the upland Roanoke River in Virginia. The book includes* A comparison of all global and local communities with respect to community composition at the species and family level, emergent community properties, and the relationship between those emergent properties and the environments of the study sites* Analyses of traits of individual species that are important to their distribution or success in harsh environments* A review of evidence for the importance of interactions-including competition and predation-in community dynamics of stream fishes* An assessment of disturbance effects in fish community dynamics* New analysis of the short- and long-term dynamics of variation in stream fish communities, illustrating the applicability and importance of the "loose equilibrium concept"* New analyses and comparisons of spatiotemporal variation in community dynamics and beta diversity partitioning* An overview of the effects of fish in ecosystems in the central and eastern United States The book ends with a summary chapter that places the authors' findings in broader contexts and describes how the "loose equilibrium concept"-which may be the most appropriate default assumption for dynamics of stream fishes in the changing climate of the future-applies to many kinds of stream fish communities.
Kingdon's remarkable seven-volume masterwork on East African
mammals concludes with two volumes on the bovids, placing them in a
broad comparative, ecological, and evolutionary context. Volume
IIIC covers cattle, water buffalo, kudus, elands, dwarf antelopes,
duikers, reedbucks, and waterbucks; IIID covers gazelles, impalas,
wildebeests, oryxes, sheep, and goats. In addition to the stunning,
lifelike drawings that are an integral part of the text, the
volumes include a reappraisal of bovid taxonomy and original
analyses of the form and function of body shape and size, horn
shape, coat pattern, and tooth structure.
Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Structural changes and improved turbine design have been instrumental in reducing mortality in birds. Despite the improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Larger and taller turbines actually seem to be causing increased fatalities of bats. Numerous research opportunities exist that pertain to issues such as identifying the best and worst placement of sites for turbines; and mitigation strategies that would minimise impacts to wildlife (birds and bats). This book focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America.
This book celebrates the eagles of Africa in evocative text and compelling photography. Colour photographs of all 26 eagle species occurring on the African mainland – a first in publishing history. Informative but readable species accounts. Special essays, in images and words, on the hunt, the breeding cycle, the eagle’s day and the eagle’s world. Eagle names in English, Afrikaans, French, German, Spanish, Swahili, Tswana, and Zulu. Distribution maps, measurements, global conservation status. Anecdotes from the author’s experiences in the field.
Records of parasitism in crocodilians date back to the early 1800s, distributed among various types of published and unpublished materials. Analyzing parasite-host specificity, geographic distribution, and taxonomy can provide otherwise cryptic details about crocodilian ecology and evolution, as well as their local food web dynamics. This information is critical for improved conservation tactics for both crocodilians and their habitat. As climate change, anthropogenic conflict, and environmental pollution endanger crocodilian ecosystems, there is a need for organized information on crocodile, alligator, caiman, and gharial infectious diseases. This volume meets this need by delivering the first checklist of crocodilians and their parasites for researchers and scholars in biology, herpetology, and ecology in order to further the knowledge and study of crocodilian-parasite dynamics and improve our understanding of human impacts on ecosystems.
Savannah habitats comprise an ecologically important, but ultimately fragile, ecosystem. They constitute one of the largest biomes on Earth, covering almost 20% of the land surface, and can be simply described as tropical and subtropical grasslands with scattered bushes and trees. Most savannahs occur in Africa, although smaller areas can be found in South America, India, and Australia. They form a rich mosaic of diverse ecosystems, and this book offers a concise but comprehensive introduction to their ecology, biodiversity, and conservation. The Biology of African Savannahs describes the major plants (grasses, and trees such as Acacia) and animals (mainly large mammals) that live in this habitat, and examines the biological and ecological factors that influence their population size, interactions (such as predation), and community composition. Conservation issues such as climate change, hunting, and conflict between wildlife and domestic animals are also discussed. This new edition has been updated throughout with the latest research in the field, and contains new technique boxes which introduce readers to some of the analytical methods used to study African savannahs. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in savannah and tropical ecology as part of a wider ecology and/or conservation biology degree programme. It will also be of relevance and use to the many professional ecologists and conservation practitioners requiring a concise but authoritative overview of the topic.
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