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From the snub-nosed monkeys of China to the mountain gorillas of
central Africa, our closest nonhuman relatives are in critical
danger worldwide. A recent report, for example, warns that nearly
20 percent of the world's primates may go extinct within the next
ten or twenty years. In this book Guy Cowlishaw and Robin Dunbar
integrate cutting-edge theoretical advances with practical
management priorities to give scientists and policymakers the tools
they need to help keep these species from disappearing forever.
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This topical and exciting textbook describes fisheries
exploitation, biology, conservation and management, and reflects
many recent and important changes in fisheries science. These
include growing concerns about the environmental impacts of
fisheries, the role of ecological interactions in determining
population dynamics, and the incorporation of uncertainty and
precautionary principles into management advice. The book draws
upon examples from tropical, temperate and polar environments, and
provides readers with a broad understanding of the biological,
economic and social aspects of fisheries ecology and the interplay
between them. As well as covering 'classical' fisheries science,
the book focuses on contemporary issues such as industrial fishing,
poverty and conflict in fishing communities, marine reserves, the
effects of fishing on coral reefs and by-catches of mammals,
seabirds and reptiles. The book is primarily written for students
of fisheries science and marine ecology, but should also appeal to
practicing fisheries scientists and those interested in
conservation and the impacts of humans on the marine
* particularly useful are the modelling chapters which explain
the difficult maths involved in a user-friendly manner
PETERSON: The best-selling field guides of all time This is the most comprehensive and trusted guide to reptiles and amphibians of western North America. The new edition retains the realistic and accurate paintings by Robert Stebbins and includes 160 color photographs for additional detail. All range maps are up to date and placed within their species accounts. Family, genus, species, and subspecies names have been updated to the currently accepted usage. Illustrations of eggs and larvae, which can aid in identifying salamanders and frogs, are a particularly helpful feature. The area covered includes Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Northwest Territories, the western corner of Nunavut, Yukon, and Baja California. Sponsored by the National Audubon Society, the National Wildlife Federation, and the Roger Tory Peterson Institute
This easy-to-use identification guide to the 280 bird species most commonly seen in Malaysia (including the state of Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo) is perfect for resident and visitor alike. High quality photographs from some of Malaysia's top nature photographers are accompanied by detailed species descriptions, which include nomenclature, length, plumage, distribution, habits and habitat. The user-friendly introduction covers climate, vegetation, biogeography, opportunities for naturalists and the main sites for viewing the listed species. Also included is an all-important checklist of all of the birds of Malaysia encompassing, for each species, its common and scientific names as well as Malay names, its status in each state as well as its global status.
Destruction of habitat due to urban sprawl, pollution, and deforestation has caused population declines or even extinction of many of the world's approximately 2,600 snake species. Furthermore, misconceptions about snakes have made them among the most persecuted of all animals, despite the fact that less than a quarter of all species are venomous and most species are beneficial because they control rodent pests. It has become increasingly urgent, therefore, to develop viable conservation strategies for snakes and to investigate their importance as monitors of ecosystem health and indicators of habitat sustainability.
In the first book on snakes written with a focus on conservation, editors Stephen J. Mullin and Richard A. Seigel bring together leading herpetologists to review and synthesize the ecology, conservation, and management of snakes worldwide. These experts report on advances in current research and summarize the primary literature, presenting the most important concepts and techniques in snake ecology and conservation. The common thread of conservation unites the twelve chapters, each of which addresses a major subdiscipline within snake ecology. Applied topics such as methods and modeling and strategies such as captive rearing and translocation are also covered. Each chapter provides an essential framework and indicates specific directions for future research, making this a critical reference for anyone interested in vertebrate conservation generally or for anyone implementing conservation and management policies concerning snake populations.
Contributors: Omar Attum, Indiana University Southeast; Steven J. Beaupre, University of Arkansas; Xavier Bonnet, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique; Frank T. Burbrink, College of Staten Island-The City University of New York; Gordon M. Burghardt, University of Tennessee; Todd A. Castoe, University of Colorado; David Chiszar, University of Colorado; Michael E. Dorcas, Davidson College; Lara E. Douglas, University of Arkansas; Christopher L. Jenkins, Project Orianne, Ltd.; Glenn Johnson, State University of New York at Potsdam; Michael Hutchins, The Wildlife Society; Richard B. King, Northern Illinois University; Bruce A. Kingsbury, Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne; Thomas Madsen, University of Wollongong; Stephen J. Mullin, Eastern Illinois University; James B. Murphy, National Zoological Park; Charles R. Peterson, Idaho State University; Kent A. Prior, Parks Canada; Richard A. Seigel, Towson University; Richard Shine, University of Sydney; Kevin T. Shoemaker, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York; Patrick J. Weatherhead, University of Illinois; John D. Willson, University of Georgia
Atlas of Early Zebrafish Brain Development: A Tool for Molecular Neurogenetics, Second Edition, remains the only neuroanatomical expression atlas of important genetic and immunohistochemical markers of this vertebrate model system. It represents a key reference and interpretation matrix for analyzing expression domains of genes involved in Zebrafish brain development and neurogenesis, and serves as a continuing milestone in this research area. This updated volume provides in-situ hybridized and immunostained preparations of complete series of brain sections, revealing markers of the fundamental stages in the life history of neuronal cells in very high quality preparations and photographic plates. Specific additions to this edition include documentation on the distribution of neurons expressing GABA, dopamine and serotonin, material on the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and the caudal, segmented part of the diencephalon, new theories on the early organization of the telencephalon and thalamus, and integration of a comparative perspective on the mid- and hindbrain.
A Practical Guide to the Histology of the Mouse provides a full-colour atlas of mouse histology. Mouse models of disease are used extensively in biomedical research with many hundreds of new models being generated each year. Complete phenotypic analysis of all of these models can benefit from histologic review of the tissues. This book is aimed at veterinary and medical pathologists who are unfamiliar with mouse tissues and scientists who wish to evaluate their own mouse models. It provides practical guidance on the collection, sampling and analysis of mouse tissue samples in order to maximize the information that can be gained from these tissues. As well as illustrating the normal microscopic anatomy of the mouse, the book also describes and explains the common anatomic variations, artefacts associated with tissue collection and background lesions to help the scientist to distinguish these changes from experimentally- induced lesions. This will be an essential bench-side companion for researchers and practitioners looking for an accessible and well-illustrated guide to mouse pathology. * Written by experienced pathologists and specifically tailored to the needs of scientists and histologists * Full colour throughout * Provides advice on sampling tissues, necropsy and recording data * Includes common anatomic variations, background lesions and artefacts which will help non-experts understand whether histologic variations seen are part of the normal background or related to their experimental manipulation
The International Encyclopedia of Primatology represents the first comprehensive encyclopedic reference focusing on the behaviour, biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, and taxonomy of human and non-human primates. * Represents the first comprehensive encyclopedic reference relating to primatology * Features more than 450 entries covering topics ranging from the taxonomy, history, behaviour, ecology, captive management and diseases of primates to their use in research, cognition, conservation, and representations in literature * Includes coverage of the basic scientific concepts that underlie each topic, along with the latest advances in the field * Highly accessible to undergraduate and graduate students in primatology, anthropology, and the medical, biological and zoological sciences * Essential reference for academics, researchers and commercial and conservation organizations
Weighing as much as 2,000 pounds and reaching lengths of over seven feet, leatherback turtles are the world's largest reptile. These unusual sea turtles have a thick, pliable shell that helps them to withstand great depths-they can swim more than one thousand meters below the surface in search of food. And what food source sustains these goliaths? Their diet consists almost exclusively of jellyfish, a meal they crisscross the oceans to find. Leatherbacks have been declining in recent decades, and some predict they will be gone by the end of this century. Why? Because of two primary factors: human redevelopment of nesting beaches and commercial fishing. There are only twenty-nine index beaches in the world where these turtles nest, and there is immense pressure to develop most of them into homes or resorts. At the same time, longline and gill net fisheries continue to overwhelm waters frequented by leatherbacks. In The Leatherback Turtle, James R. Spotila and Pilar Santidrian Tomillo bring together the world's leading experts to produce a volume that reveals the biology of the leatherback while putting a spotlight on the conservation problems and solutions related to the species. The book leaves us with options: embark on the conservation strategy laid out within its pages and save one of nature's most splendid creations, or watch yet another magnificent species disappear.
The Anatomy of Dolphins: Insights into Body Structure and Function is a precise, detailed, fully illustrated, descriptive, and functionally oriented text on the anatomy and morphology of dolphins. It focuses on a number of delphinid species, with keynotes on important dolphin-like genera, such as the harbor porpoise. It also serves as a useful complement for expanding trends and emphases in molecular biology and genetics. The authors share their life-long expertise on marine mammals in various disciplines. Written as a team rather than being prepared as a collection of separate contributions, the result is a uniform and comprehensive style, giving each of the different topics appropriate space. Many color figures, which use the authors' access to wide collections of unique dolphin and whale material, round out this exceptional offering to the field.
Many Japanese once revered the wolf as Oguchi no Magami, or Large-Mouthed Pure God, but as Japan began its modern transformation wolves lost their otherworldly status and became noxious animals that needed to be killed. By 1905 they had disappeared from the country. In this spirited and absorbing narrative, Brett Walker takes a deep look at the scientific, cultural, and environmental dimensions of wolf extinction in Japan and tracks changing attitudes toward nature through Japan's long history. Grain farmers once worshiped wolves at shrines and left food offerings near their dens, beseeching the elusive canine to protect their crops from the sharp hooves and voracious appetites of wild boars and deer. Talismans and charms adorned with images of wolves protected against fire, disease, and other calamities and brought fertility to agrarian communities and to couples hoping to have children. The Ainu people believed that they were born from the union of a wolflike creature and a goddess. In the eighteenth century, wolves were seen as rabid man-killers in many parts of Japan. Highly ritualized wolf hunts were instigated to cleanse the landscape of what many considered as demons. By the nineteenth century, however, the destruction of wolves had become decidedly unceremonious, as seen on the island of Hokkaido. Through poisoning, hired hunters, and a bounty system, one of the archipelago's largest carnivores was systematically erased. The story of wolf extinction exposes the underside of Japan's modernization. Certain wolf scientists still camp out in Japan to listen for any trace of the elusive canines. The quiet they experience reminds us of the profound silence that awaits all humanity when, as the Japanese priest Kenko taught almost seven centuries ago, we "look on fellow sentient creatures without feeling compassion."
Amphibian species around the world are unusually vulnerable to a variety of threats, by no means all of which are properly understood. Volume 11 in this major series is published in parts devoted to the causes of amphibian decline and to conservation measures in regions of the world. This volume, Part 4 in the series, is concerned with Southern Europe (Italy, Malta, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Albania, Greece, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Cyprus). Each chapter has been written by experts from each country, describing the ecological background and the conservation status of affected species, with an emphasis on native species. As well as infectious diseases and parasites, threats take the form of introduced and invasive species, pollution, destruction and alteration of habitat, and climatic change. These are discussed as they affect each species. All these countries have monitoring schemes and conservation programs, whose origins and activities are described. Recommendations for action are also made. Edited by leading scholars in the field, Volume 11, when complete, will provide a definitive survey of the amphibian predicament and a stimulus to further research with the objective of arresting the global decline of an entire class of animal.
Chimpanzees are humanity's closest living relations and are of enduring interest to a range of sciences, from anthropology to zoology. In the West, many know of the pioneering work of Jane Goodall, whose studies of these apes at Gombe in Tanzania are justly famous. Less well-known, but equally important, are the studies carried out by Toshisada Nishida on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. Comparison between the two sites yields both notable similarities and startling contrasts. Nishida has written a comprehensive synthesis of his work on the behaviour and ecology of the chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. With topics ranging from individual development to population-specific behavioural patterns, it reveals the complexity of social life, from male struggles for dominant status to female travails in raising offspring. Richly illustrated, the author blends anecdotes with powerful data to explore the fascinating world of the chimpanzees of the lakeshore.
With a foreword by William Kittredge and line drawings by Ursula K. LeGuin, this literary anthology gathers together personal impressions of the Malheur-Steens region of Oregon, known for its birding opportunities, its natural beauty and remoteness, and, more recently, for the 2016 armed takeover of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Contributors include biologists, students, tourists, birders, local residents, and native Paiute, thus reflecting the perspectives of visitors, original inhabitants, and current residents. Anyone who has visited the area or plans to do so, and anyone with an interest in the region, will find inspiration in this literary companion.
Primates communicate with each other using a wide range of signals: olfactory signals to mark territories, screams to recruit help while fighting, gestures to request food and facial expressions to initiate play. Primate Communication brings together research on all forms of interchange and discusses what we know about primate communication via vocal, gestural, facial, olfactory and integrated multimodal signals in relation to a number of central topics. It explores the morphological, neural and cognitive foundations of primate communication through discussion of cutting-edge research. By considering signals from multiple modalities and taking a unified multimodal approach, the authors offer a uniquely holistic overview of primate communication, discussing what we know, what we don't know and what we may currently misunderstand about communication across these different forms. It is essential reading for researchers interested in primate behaviour, communication and cognition, as well as students of primatology, psychology, anthropology and cognitive sciences.
A comprehensive natural history of nature's smallest bird species. "The spectacular photography of Michael and Patricia Fogden reveals the diversity, beautiful colours and movement of these unique birds." Publishers Weekly. The tiny hummingbird has long been a source of fascination for birdwatchers and naturalists alike. They number 300 species and Ronald Orenstein has a passion for all of them. Hummingbirds are the smallest birds in the world. A hummingbird egg is the size of a pea, barely, and the chick that emerges will be smaller than a penny, if that. But these tiny birds pack a powerful engine: a hummingbird's heart beats more than 1,200 times per minute. Nicknamed the "avian helicopter," a hummingbird's wings beat from 70 times per second in direct flight, to more than 200 times per second when diving. Not surprisingly, that whirlwind of wing power creates a humming sound. To fuel such energy, hummingbirds must eat as much as eight times their body weight on a daily basis, which means visiting an average of 1,000 flowers - every day - to get enough nectar. Hummingbirds are found in North, Central and South America, with the greatest number in Ecuador, although some species breed as far north as Canada. Most species migrate from Mexico to Alaska, a distance of more than 5,000 miles. In this book Orenstein covers all aspects of hummingbird natural history, their relationship with the plants on which they feed, the miracle of their flight, their elaborate social life and nesting behaviour, and their renowned feats of migration. More than 170 colour photographs of these magnificent creatures, taken in the wild, adorn the pages of Hummingbirds. Ornithologists and natural history readers alike will gain new insight into the tiny bird and revel in the stunning images.
This book provides a comprehensive review of some predominant environmental risks that marine fish cage aquaculture poses in the marine environment and designs and practices now in use to address these environmental risks in the U.S. and elsewhere. The book includes a critical review of the large body of scientific work published since 2000 on the environmental impacts of marine finfish aquaculture around the world. The purpose of this book is to provide a basic set of guidelines for risk managers and other decision makers to use all information available to assess the different ecological risks of marine fish aquaculture in a variety of marine ecosystems.
Ecologists have long struggled to understand community dynamics. In this groundbreaking book, leading fish ecologists William Matthews and Edie Marsh-Matthews apply long-term studies of stream fish communities to several enduring questions. This critical synthesis reaches to the heart of ecological theory, testing concepts against the four decades of data the authors have collected from numerous warm-water stream fish communities in the central and eastern United States. Stream Fish Community Dynamics draws together the work of a single research team to provide fresh analyses of the short- and long-term dynamics of numerous streams, each with multiple sampling sites. Conducting repeated surveys of fish communities at temporal scales from months to decades, the authors' research findings will fascinate anyone searching for a deeper understanding of community ecology. The study sites covered by this book range from small headwater creeks to large prairie rivers in Oklahoma and from Ozark and Ouachita mountain streams in Arkansas to the upland Roanoke River in Virginia. The book includes* A comparison of all global and local communities with respect to community composition at the species and family level, emergent community properties, and the relationship between those emergent properties and the environments of the study sites* Analyses of traits of individual species that are important to their distribution or success in harsh environments* A review of evidence for the importance of interactions-including competition and predation-in community dynamics of stream fishes* An assessment of disturbance effects in fish community dynamics* New analysis of the short- and long-term dynamics of variation in stream fish communities, illustrating the applicability and importance of the "loose equilibrium concept"* New analyses and comparisons of spatiotemporal variation in community dynamics and beta diversity partitioning* An overview of the effects of fish in ecosystems in the central and eastern United States The book ends with a summary chapter that places the authors' findings in broader contexts and describes how the "loose equilibrium concept"-which may be the most appropriate default assumption for dynamics of stream fishes in the changing climate of the future-applies to many kinds of stream fish communities.
This is a compact, easy-to-use bird identification guide for any birdwatcher visiting Jamaica and the islands of the West Indies. It provides comprehensive coverage of 252 species of birds that inhabit the islands of the West Indies, with detailed descriptions and a colour photograph for each species. Includes thumbnail family silhouettes, a regional distribution map, up-to-date tips on the best birding localities, and an index of local bird names.
From the raucous mantled howler monkeys and the charismatic white-nosed coatis to the elusive jaguar, The Mammals of Costa Rica offers authoritative accounts of the fascinating creatures of the neotropics. With more than four hundred spectacular illustrations and a wealth of detailed information drawn from firsthand observation, new research, and synthesis of the scientific literature, this book describes all of Costa Rica's readily identifiable terrestrial and freshwater mammals. The clear and entertaining text is perfectly suited to meet the needs of naturalists, students, and researchers, as well as both experienced and first-time visitors to Costa Rica and the American tropics. The mammal descriptions include key identification features, range maps, vocalizations, local folklore and mythology, and comprehensive information about natural history and conservation. The color illustrations show not only the mammals themselves but also their tracks, foods, and skulls. Also included are illustrations of numerous other animals and plants with which the mammals have close ecological links. By presenting mammals in a broader context, The Mammals of Costa Rica provides an entry point into a general study of tropical ecology and conservation.
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