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Mammalian skull structure is notably diverse; however at a basic level the jaw mechanism is remarkably similar, if not essentially the same, in the majority of mammals. Using simple models that are compared with real animals at every step, this book examines the basic structural features of the mammalian jaw mechanism from a mechanical point of view. It explores how the mechanical constraints placed on the jaw have contributed to the evolution of an efficient basic structure, used by many mammals, which precludes mechanical difficulties and uses a minimum amount of bone tissue. Throughout the book the emphasis is on conceptual understanding, with explanations linked together to form a complete story that can be applied to both fossil and extant mammals. Summarising over forty years of research from one of the leading pioneers in 3D jaw mechanics, this is a must-have for anyone interested in mammalian jaw morphology.
One of the top birding destinations on earth, China's vast landscape encompasses six biogeographical areas that harbor an astonishing avifauna including more than 1,300 species of birds, 52 of which are endemic and found nowhere else in the world. The country's 600+ nature reserves and national parks are ideal places to enjoy birds in China. This beautifully illustrated guide highlights over 140 familiar and unique species and includes a map featuring prominent bird-viewing areas. Laminated for durability, this lightweight, pocket-sized folding guide is an excellent source of portable information for anyone interested in Asia birds, and is ideal for field use by China's residents and visitors. Made in the USA.
Chimpanzees are humanity's closest living relations and are of enduring interest to a range of sciences, from anthropology to zoology. In the West, many know of the pioneering work of Jane Goodall, whose studies of these apes at Gombe in Tanzania are justly famous. Less well-known, but equally important, are the studies carried out by Toshisada Nishida on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika. Comparison between the two sites yields both notable similarities and startling contrasts. Nishida has written a comprehensive synthesis of his work on the behaviour and ecology of the chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. With topics ranging from individual development to population-specific behavioural patterns, it reveals the complexity of social life, from male struggles for dominant status to female travails in raising offspring. Richly illustrated, the author blends anecdotes with powerful data to explore the fascinating world of the chimpanzees of the lakeshore.
This book is the capstone of the first comprehensive state-wide survey of Arizona's breeding birds. More than 700 surveyors, mainly volunteers, reported a total of 376 bird species during the 1993-2000 field seasons. Of those species, 283 were confirmed as breeding and 18 additional species were suspected of potentially nesting in the state during the atlas survey period. The atlas provides a breeding distribution snapshot for each of Arizona's nesting bird species at the end of the twentieth century. Bird populations change constantly due to environmental factors and human activities. The data compiled in this book will serve as a baseline against which to judge future changes. It also provides a wealth of natural history information. Each of the 270 two-page species accounts contains a colour photograph of the species and a range map summarising the breeding distribution records collected during the atlas survey period. The accompanying descriptive text and graphs provide nesting habitat information and a timeline chronicling each bird's breeding habits and migratory status in Arizona. Additional chapters describe atlas methods, results, and Arizona ornithological history, as well as topography, climate, and habitat diversity, which ultimately govern bird species distribution in the state. Useful to land managers and biologists, the atlas will also be a resource for birders and educators and will increase public awareness of Arizona's vast avian life.
'Scales's genuine appreciation and awe for fish are contagious.' Science 'Delightful' New Scientist Seventy per cent of the earth's surface is covered by water. This vast aquatic realm is inhabited by a multitude of strange creatures and reigning supreme among them are the fish. There are giants that live for centuries and thumb-sized tiddlers that survive only weeks; they can be pancake-flat or inflatable balloons; they can shout with colours or hide in plain sight, cheat and dance, remember and say sorry; some rarely budge while others travel the globe restlessly. And yet the mesmerising and complex lives of fish remain largely underrated and unseen, living hidden beneath the waterline, out of sight and out of mind. Helen Scales is our guide on an underwater journey, as we fathom the depths and watch these animals going about the glorious business of being fish. As well as the fish, we meet devoted fishwatchers past and present, from voodoo zombie potion hunters and scientists who taught fish how to walk to nonagenarian explorers of the deep sea. Woven throughout are vignettes of Helen's own aquatic explorations, from eerie nighttime dives with glowing fish and up-close encounters with giant manta rays, to floating in the middle of a swirling shoal being watched by thousands of inquisitive eyes. As well as being a rich and entertaining read, this book will inspire readers to think again about these animals and the seas they inhabit, and to go out and appreciate the wonders of fish, whether through the glass walls of an aquarium or, better still, by gazing into the fishes' wild world and swimming through it. 'Engaging and informative' The Economist
Of the forty mammal species known to have vanished in the world in the last 200 years, almost half have been Australian. Our continent has the worst record of mammal extinctions, with over 65 mammal species having vanished in the last 50 000 years. It began with the great wave of megafauna extinctions in the last ice-age, and continues today, with many mammal species vulnerable to extinction. The question of why mammals became extinct, and why so many became extinct in Australia has been debated by experts for over a century and a half and we are no closer to agreement on the causes. This book introduces readers to the great mammal extinction debate. Chris Johnson takes us on a detective-like tour of these extinctions, uncovering how, why and when they occurred.
The cheetah, the fastest terrestrial animal, has widespread appeal amongst wildlife biologists and enthusiasts alike. However, like all all large carnivores, it is increasingly threatened by habitat loss and its status is now classified as 'Vulnerable' by the IUCN. This is the first comprehensive study of cheetah biology in an arid environment, a major component of its current distribution range. The book brings together results from an intensive six year study of the cheetah by the authors in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in South Africa and Botswana. It documents a wealth of detailed and direct observations of cheetah population biology and behavioural ecology, adopting an evolutionary approach and providing a conceptual framework for future research and applied management in the context of global environmental change. Kalahari Cheetahs covers topics such as optimal foraging theory, hunting strategies and predator prey relations, mating systems and reproductive strategies and success, inter-specific competition, demography, social organisation, and population limitation. Comparisons with previous cheetah studies reveal the variability of ecological determinants on behaviour, and the behavioural flexibility and ability of these carnivores to adapt to different environments. This advanced textbook is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in felid behavioural ecology and conservation biology. It will also be of relevance and use to conservationists, wildlife managers, and African wildlife enthusiasts.
This is the only comprehensive photographic field guide to the birds of the entire Indian subcontinent. Every distinct species and subspecies--some 1,375 in all--is covered with photographs, text, and maps. The guide features more than 4,000 stunning photographs, many never before published, which have been carefully selected to illustrate key identification features of each species. The up-to-date facing-page text includes concise descriptions of plumage, voice, range, habitat, and recent taxonomic changes. Each species has a detailed map reflecting the latest distribution information and containing notes on status and population density. The guide also features an introduction that provides an overview of birdlife and a brief history of ornithology in India and its neighbors. The result is an encyclopedic photographic guide that is essential for everyone birding anywhere in the subcontinent. * Covers all 1,375 subcontinental bird species* Features more than 4,000 stunning photographs to aid quick field identification* Includes up-to-date facing-page text and range maps* Contains concise descriptions of plumage, voice, habitat, and much more
A lavish volume in celebration of the astonishing fossils uncovered in Abu Dhabi's deserts, a region once lush, green, and teeming with now-extinct animals This lavish volume celebrates the astonishing wealth of fossils uncovered in recent decades in Abu Dhabi's desert. These prehistoric findings, around seven million years in age, record a period when the region was lush, green, and teeming with diverse mammals, all now extinct. With more than one hundred full-color photographs, including reconstructions of extinct animals, this book is both a visual delight and a unique glimpse into Arabia's ancient past. All text in the book is presented in both English and Arabic.
This comprehensive volume on the blood-gas barrier (BGB) among vertebrates covers its structure and composition along with aspects of evolution, bioengineering, and morphometry. The book also discusses the embryological development of the BGB, including chronology of events and molecular control in vertebrates; modulation of the barrier function, including cyclic stretch-induced increases in alveolar epithelial permeability; mechanisms of lung vascular/epithelial permeability; transport mechanisms of the BGB, including sodium transport channels; factors affecting trans-barrier traffic of fluids, such as chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure; stress failure; regulation and repair in acute lung injury; chronic lung disease; and lung transportation. Ten authoritative chapters approach the blood-gas barrier holistically, from basic structure and development to pathology and treatment. Properties of the BGB are discussed in the earlier chapters, followed by prenatal and post-natal development and mechanisms of the healthy BGB. The latter half of the book delves into the pathology of the BGB, analyzing common afflictions and exploring options for treatment, including its alterations during lung transplantation. Intuitively structured and comprehensive, The Vertebrate Blood-Gas Barrier in Health and Disease is ideal for researchers and clinicians interested in pneumology and angiology.
Following a public consultation, redrafting and an extensive review process the Bat Conservation Trust has produced Bat Surveys for Professional Ecologists: Good Practice Guidelines 3rd edition. In line with the latest evidence and best practice the third edition features new content and revised guidance. This is the essential reference guide for anyone involved in professional bat work.The 3rd edition includes:- A revised structure, index and cross-referencing for improved accessibility- Updates on the latest legislation, licensing, policy and published research- A new chapter on bat surveys of trees- A new section on acoustic surveys at swarming sites- A new chapter on advanced licence survey techniques- A new section on using statistics to analyse bat survey dataThe 3rd edition has gone through an extensive review process by a technical board representing all UK SNCOs, ALGE, ecological consultants and an LPA.Please note that due to the delay in publication of the National Bats and Wind Turbines Project report, there will be no wind farms chapter in this edition. The 2nd edition guidelines wind farms chapter will stand until new guidelines are available for this project type.BCT Members receive a 20% discount: please quote your membership number when ordering (in the 'comments' field when ordering online), and the discount will be applied when we process your order. Please disregard the full amount quoted in your shopping basket and automated order confirmation. If you are not a BCT member, click here to join online now and claim your discount.
Elusive study organisms for ornithologists and highly prized additions to the birder's life-list, the antpittas (Grallariidae) and gnateaters (Conopophagidae) are among the most poorly known Neotropical bird groups. This authoritative handbook is the first book dedicated solely to these two families, combining an exhaustive review of more than two centuries of literature with original observations by the author and many knowledgeable contributors. Antpittas and Gnateaters provides a thorough guide to the identification and ecology of these birds, with detailed maps accompanying the text. A series of superb plates illustrate most of the 156 recognized taxa; supplemented by more than 250 colour photographs, the immature plumages and natural history of many species are depicted for the first time. This book is the ultimate reference on these remarkable and beautiful birds, and an indispensible addition to the libraries of researchers and birders for many years to come.
"Salmon at the Edge" covers, in depth, the problems faced by wild
Atlantic salmon and sea trout in estuaries and coastal zones, and
in their early weeks at sea. The book also reflects the current
precarious state of many migratory salmonid populations and the
need for new approaches to a number of threats to these
Generated from papers given at the landmark Sixth Atlantic
Salmon Symposium, held in Edinburgh, UK, "Salmon at the Edge"
contains a huge wealth of information on such important topics as
the impact of salmon farming, the behaviour of post-smolts in their
early migration and their vulnerability to by-catch, and the use of
nutrient enrichment and habitat enhancement to increase production
of juvenile salmonids.
With chapters written by internationally-known and respected
authors, and including a message of support from His Royal Highness
The Prince of Wales, this important volume is essential reading for
all those involved with salmonid fishes, including fish biologists,
fisheries scientists and managers, environmental, marine and
freshwater scientists, and personnel involved in salmon
aquaculture. Libraries in all universities and research
establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should
have copies on their shelves.
The Sixth Atlantic Salmon Symposium, from which chapters in this
book have been generated, was organised by The Atlantic Salmon
Trust and The Atlantic Salmon Federation, and was published with
the financial support of The Fishmongers' Company and Scottish and
Derek Mills of The Atlantic Salmon Trust, Pitlochry, Perthshire, UK has many years of research, writing andediting experience in salmon biology and fisheries
Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.
This book offers a new explanation for the development of flight in mammals and offers detailed morphological descriptions of mammals with flapping flight. The skeletomuscular apparatus of the shoulder girdle and forelimbs of tree shrews, flying lemurs and bats is described in detail. Special attention is paid to the recognition of peculiar features of the skeleton and joints. For the basic locomotor patterns of flying lemurs and bats, the kinematic models of the shoulder girdle elements are developed. The most important locomotor postures of these animals are analyzed by means of statics. The key structural characters of the shoulder girdle and forelimbs of flying lemurs and bats, the formation of which provided transition of mammals from terrestrial locomotion to gliding and then, to flapping flight, are recognized. The concept is proposed that preadaptations preceding the acquisition of flapping flight could have come from widely sprawled forelimb posture while gliding from tree to tree and running up the thick trunks. It is shown that flying lemur is an adequate morphofunctional model for an ancestral stage of bats. The evolutionary ecomorphological scenario describing probable transformational stages of typical parasagittal limbs of chiropteran ancestors into wings is developed.
The emphasis in this volume is on the structure and functional design of the integument. The book starts with a brief introduction to some basic principles of physics (mechanics) including Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These principles are subsequently used to interpret the problems animals encounter in motion. It is in only the last 40 or so years that we have begun to understand how important a role the integument plays in the locomotion of many marine vertebrates. This involves the crossed-fiber architecture, which was first discovered in a classic study on nemertean worms. As a design principle we see that the crossed-fiber architecture is ubiquitous in nature. Research on some of the most dynamic marine vertebrates of the oceans - tuna, dolphins and sharks, and the extinct Jurassic ichthyosaurs - shows precisely how the crossed-fiber architecture contributes to high-speed swimming and (in lamnid sharks) may even aid in energy conservation. However, this design principle is not restricted to animals in the marine biota but is also found as far afield as the dinosaurs and, most recently, has been revealed as a major part of the microstructure of the most complex derivative of the integument, the feather. We see that a variety of phylogenetically diverse vertebrates take to the air by using skin flaps to glide from tree to tree or to the ground, and present detailed descriptions of innovations developed in pursuit of improved gliding capabilities in both extinct and modern day gliders. But the vertebrate integument had even greater things in store, namely true or flapping flight. Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to use the integument as a membrane in true flapping flight and these interesting extinct animals are discussed on the basis of past and cutting-edge research , most intriguingly with respect to the structure of the flight membrane. Bats, the only mammals that fly, also employ integumental flight membranes. Classic research on bat flight is reviewed and supplemented with the latest research, which shows the complexities of the wing beat cycle to be significantly different from that of birds, as revealed by particle image velocimetry. The book's largest chapter is devoted to birds, given that they make up nearly half of the over 22,000 species of tetrapods. The flight apparatus of birds is unique in nature and is described in great detail, with innovative research highlighting the complexity of the flight structures, bird flight patterns, and behavior in a variety of species. This is complimented by new research on the brains of birds, which shows that they are more complex than previously thought. The feather made bird flight possible, and was itself made possible by ss-keratin, contributing to what may be a unique biomechanical microstructure in nature, a topic discussed in some depth. A highly polarized subject concerns the origin of birds and of the feather. Alleged fossilized protofeathers (primal simple feathers) are considered on the basis of histological and taphonomic investigative studies in Chapter 6. Finally, in Chapter 7 we discuss the controversies associated with this field of research. Professor Theagarten Lingham-Soliar works at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth and is an Honorary Professor of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
The tragic history of the cormorant's relations with humans and the implications for today's wildlife management policy The double-crested cormorant, found only in North America, is an iridescent black waterbird superbly adapted to catch fish. It belongs to a family of birds vilified since biblical times and persecuted around the world. Thus it was perhaps to be expected that the first European settlers in North America quickly deemed the double-crested cormorant a competitor for fishing stock and undertook a relentless drive to destroy the birds. This enormously important book explores the roots of human-cormorant conflicts, dispels myths about the birds, and offers the first comprehensive assessment of the policies that have been developed to manage the double-crested cormorant in the twenty-first century. Conservation biologist Linda Wires provides a unique synthesis of the cultural, historical, scientific, and political elements of the cormorant's story. She discusses the amazing late-twentieth-century population recovery, aided by protection policies and environment conservation, but also the subsequent U.S. federal policies under which hundreds of thousands of the birds have been killed. In a critique of the science, management, and ethics underlying the double-crested cormorant's treatment today, Wires exposes "management" as a euphemism for persecution and shows that the current strategies of aggressive predator control are outdated and unsupported by science.
The Real Chimpanzee encapsulates the fascinating behaviour of wild chimpanzees and discusses the differences observed in different populations across the species, and across the many levels of their social behaviour. It explains why sex competition and predation pressures in a forest chimpanzee population made the females of the group highly social and gave the males a high level of within-group solidarity, making them very xenophobic towards outsiders. Love is what makes war possible. Christophe Boesch brings back to the table the debate over ecological pressures and social organization, and the influence they have over issues such as the evolution of warfare, co-operation, altruism and the position of females. Written in an accessible style for a general audience as well as for undergraduate and graduate students, he presents insightful views to give readers the background information to understand the struggle for survival of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, and through this to find some keys to the ever-so-intriguing question of what makes us human.
This book gives a unique insight into the current knowledge of krill population dynamics including distribution, biomass, production, recruitment, growth and mortality rates. Detailed analysis is provided on food and feeding, reproduction and krill behaviour. The volume provides an overview on the aspects of natural challenges to the species, which involve predation, parasites and the commercial exploitation of the resource and its management. A chapter on genetics shows the results of population subdivision and summarizes recent work on sequencing transcriptomes for studying gene function as part of the physiology of live krill. The focus of Chapter 4 is on physiological functions such as biochemical composition, metabolic activity and growth change with ontogeny and season; and will demonstrate which environmental factors are the main drivers for variability. Further discussed in this chapter are the bottle necks which occur in the annual life cycle of krill, and the mechanisms krill have adapted to cope with severe environmental condition.
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