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The Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt 1869 is the most widely farmed sturgeon species. Continuing from Volume 1, which focuses on the biology of the species, the present Volume 2 in turn examines farming aspects. It is divided into six parts, the first of which deals with reproduction and early ontogenesis, i.e. reproductive cycles, controlled reproduction, sperm cryoconservation, and weaning of larvae. The second covers the growing phase with a focus on food and feeding (management, fish meal replacement, potential endocrine disruptions, usefulness of prebiotics and immunostimulants, and nitrogen excretion). Production-related data are the focus of the third part and include: characteristics (countries, structures of production, evolution in production, economic features) of the gross production of the species (meat and caviar) worldwide, a method for assessing the quality of caviars, off-flavors management, and an example of production of fingerlings for restocking. Part four addresses selected long-term management issues: genetic variability of brood stocks, genome manipulation and sex control, and the advantages of hybrids. The next three chapters constitute the fifth part, which is devoted to health status (immunology and welfare). In closing, the absence of ecological risks of introducing the species in non-native waters is shown using two long-term documented examples (Russia and France). Three methodological chapters round out the volume, covering: in vitro incubation of ovarian follicles, a richly illustrated library of echographies and photos, and a detailed presentation of oxygen demand studies.
Marine Mammal Observer and Passive Acoustic Monitoring Handbook is the ultimate instruction manual for mitigation measures to minimise man-made acoustical and physical disturbances to marine mammals from industrial and defence activities. Based on more than two decades of offshore experience, and a decade of supplying MMO and PAM services (commercial and scientific), the Handbook is a long-overdue reference guide that seeks to improve standards worldwide for marine operations such as seismic and drilling exploration, wind farm and civil engineering piling, dredging, trenching, rock-dumping, hydrographical surveys, and military/defence exercises. By popular request, this manual will also form an accompaniment to MMO and PAM courses. The Handbook consolidates all aspects of this discipline into one easily accessible resource, to educate all stakeholders (e.g. MMOs, PAM operators, suppliers, recruitment agencies, clients, contractors, regulators, NGOs, consultants, scientists, academia and media), regardless of experience. Topics include worldwide legislation, compliance, anthropogenic noise sources and potential effects, training, offshore life, visual and acoustic monitoring (theory and practice), marine mammal distribution, hearing and vocalisations, and report writing. Advice is provided on implementing sensible and practical mitigation techniques, appropriate technologies, data collection, client and regulator liaison, and project kick-off meetings. "The Handbook is an indispensable How To guide to the growing and increasingly important occupation of marine mammal monitoring, written with clarity and humor by scientists who have extensive experience in this field." -Dr Phillip J. Clapham, world-renowned cetologist and Director of the Cetacean Assessment and Ecology Program at the National Marine Mammal Laboratory in Seattle.
"Jerry Liguori has spent most of the last twenty years in the field watching and photographing hawks, and thousands of hours poring over photos and research to piece the puzzle of identification together. The result . . . is this guide, which is the most detailed and confident explanation yet of the myriad clues that lead to successful identification of hawks. This book is the first of its kind that deals with the real-world problems of identifying flying raptors from different angles. . . . The understanding of what hawkwatchers actually face in the field comes through on every page."--David A. Sibley, author of the National Audubon Society's "The Sibley Guide to Birds"
"There is nobody in North America whose identification skills and knowledge base concerning the flight identification of birds of prey surpasses Jerry Liguori. If you want to know where the high water mark in raptor identification falls today, it is in your hands. If you aspire to pin names to birds that fly just this side of the limit of conjecture with a high degree of confidence, start reading."--Pete Dunne, Vice President of Natural History Information, New Jersey Audubon Society, coauthor of "Hawks in Flight"
"We have all been perplexed and downright dumbfounded trying to identify flying raptors when seen at odd, but regularly viewed angles! Such difficult angles often offer only glimpses of identification markings shown in typical raptor field guides and bird guides. This impressive book, with its superb collection of color and black and white photographs and concise and informative data, tackles raptor identification problems that hawkwatchers face under real field conditions. Jerry Liguori has created abook that can easily be toted in the field, and is an absolute must-have for any raptor enthusiast!"--Brian K. Wheeler, author of "Raptors of Eastern/Western North America," illustrator and coauthor of "A Field Guide to Hawks of North America"
"Jerry Liguori has long been one of our best raptor experts, and this stunning book proves it yet again. Depicting hawks in the real world, in the hawkwatching arena-and not in an idealized situation that rarely occurs-is this book's forte. Comparisons, contrasts, key points, and even potential pitfalls are highlighted in the excellent photos-and set the book apart. There are a number of raptor guides available, but we finally have one that shows hawks as they are truly seen in the field."--Clay Sutton, coauthor of "Hawks in Flight" and "How to Spot Hawks and Eagles"
""Hawks from Every Angle" takes in-flight identification further than any previous book. Being a seasoned hawkwatcher, I can attest to the accuracy and usefulness of the material presented. Until now, much of the information herein has resided only in the heads of very experienced hawkwatchers and some of it, in the heads of only one or two very experienced hawkwatchers. Well organized and well written."--Tony Leukering, Rocky Mountain Bird Observatory
""Hawks from Every Angle" will be quite useful to those seeking a better understanding of the field identification of raptors rather than a feather-by-feather description of plumages. Ultimately, birders want to know which species they are seeing, and this book will guide them to the correct identification."--Brian L. Sullivan, Cornell Lab of Ornithology
What can the study of young monkeys and apes tell us about the minds of young humans? In this fascinating introduction to the study of primate minds, Juan Carlos Gomez identifies evolutionary resemblances--and differences--between human children and other primates. He argues that primate minds are best understood not as fixed collections of specialized cognitive capacities, but more dynamically, as a range of abilities that can surpass their original adaptations.
In a lively overview of a distinguished body of cognitive developmental research among nonhuman primates, Gomez looks at knowledge of the physical world, causal reasoning (including the chimpanzee-like errors that human children make), and the contentious subjects of ape language, theory of mind, and imitation. Attempts to teach language to chimpanzees, as well as studies of the quality of some primate vocal communication in the wild, make a powerful case that primates have a natural capacity for relatively sophisticated communication, and considerable power to learn when humans teach them.
Gomez concludes that for all cognitive psychology's interest in perception, information-processing, and reasoning, some essential functions of mental life are based on ideas that cannot be explicitly articulated. Nonhuman and human primates alike rely on implicit knowledge. Studying nonhuman primates helps us to understand this perplexing aspect of all primate minds.
"Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains" is the most comprehensive
account of carnivore social behavior to date. Synthesizing more
than a decade of research in the wild, this book offers a detailed
account of the behavior and ecology of cheetahs. Compared with
other large cats, and other mammals, cheetahs have an unusual
breeding system; whereas lions live in prides and tigers are
solitary, some cheetahs live in groups while others live by
themselves. Tim Caro explores group and solitary living among
cheetahs and discovers that the causes of social behavior vary
dramatically, even within a single species.
This book explores the importance of good nutrition in ensuring an adequate standard of welfare for farm animals. It is often not realized that farm animals can suffer when they are fed unsuitable diets, which may be because these diets are more economic or the farmer does not know how to rectify poor nutrition. This book reveals how to recognize and deal with feeding problems in farm animals, when the animal's behaviour is indicating a deficiency, through oral stereotypies for example. Feeding livestock in emergency situations can present special challenges, and the availability of clean and potable water, one of the essential components of life, can also be an unrecognized problem for many farm animals. Feeding farm animals effectively is rarely recognized for the major welfare issue that it is. We may assume that animals in intensive husbandry conditions have adequate feed, yet it is often too concentrated and designed primarily to immediately maximize production from the animals, in the form of growth, milk yield or reproduction. In extensive rangeland conditions adequate feed supply also cannot be assured, potentially leading to undernutrition with serious consequences for the health and even survival of livestock. This book will provide a much-needed review of the relationships between nutrition and the welfare of farm animals.
This is the first comprehensive field guide dealing exclusively with the birds of this spetacular region. It covers all resident, migrant and vagrant species found in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. Over 1300 species are illustrated with full details all the plumages and major races likely to be encountered. Concise text describes identification, status, range, habits and voice with range maps for each species. This authoritative book will not only be an indispensable guide to the visiting birder, but also a vital tool for those engaged in work to conserve and study the avifauna of this region. East Africa shelters a remarkable diversity of birds, many seriously endangered with small and vulnerable ranges. They form a constantly colourful, noisy and highly extrovert part of the landscape.
In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading
researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive
analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and
functional biology of the skull.
In this authoritative three-volume reference work, leading
researchers bring together current work to provide a comprehensive
analysis of the comparative morphology, development, evolution, and
functional biology of the skull.
Everyone's heard of the Great Whites. But most people know little of the hundreds of other types of sharks that inhabit the world's oceans. Written by two of the world's leading authorities and superbly illustrated by wildlife artist Marc Dando, this is the first comprehensive field guide to all 440-plus shark species. Color plates illustrate all species, and detailed accounts include diagnostic line drawings and a distribution map for each species. Introductory chapters treat physiology, behavior, reproduction, ecology, diet, and sharks' interrelationships with humans. More than 125 original full-color illustrations for fast and accurate identification of each shark family Over 500 additional drawings illustrating physical features from different angles Clear identification information for each species with details of size, habitat, behavior, and biology Quick ID guide helpful for differentiating similar species Geographic distribution maps for each species For professional and amateur shark enthusiasts
Through its emphasis on recent research, its many summary tables,
and its bibliography of more than 4,000 entries, this first modern,
synthetic treatment of comparative amphibian environmental
physiology emerges as "the" definitive reference for the field.
Forty internationally respected experts review the primary data,
examine current research trends, and identify productive avenues
for future research.
This critical review of behavior patterns in nonhuman primates is
an excellent study of the importance of female roles in different
social groups and their significance in the evolution of human
Here comes Froggy's marching band, led by the one and only Frogilina. Froggy and his pals are sure they can win the big prize in the Apple Blossom Parade, even though they haven't been playing together very long. They just need to remember the rules: Don't look left. Don't look right. And DON'T STOP FOR ANYTHING But when Froggy's around, things never go quite as planned...
What parent hasn't wondered 'What do I do now?' as a baby cries or a teenager glares? Making babies may come naturally, but knowing how to raise them doesn't. As primatologist-turned-psychologist Harriet J. Smith shows in this lively safari through the world of primates, parenting by primates isn't instinctive, and that's just as true for monkeys and apes as it is for humans. In this natural history of primate parenting, Smith compares parenting by non-human and human primates. In a narrative rich with vivid anecdotes derived from interviews with primatologists, from her own experience breeding cottontop tamarin monkeys for over thirty years, and from her clinical psychology practice, Smith describes the thousand and one ways that primate mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, and even babysitters care for their offspring, from infancy through young adulthood. Smith learned the hard way that hand-raised cottontop tamarins often matore into incompetent parents. Her observation of inadequate parenting by cottontops plus her clinical work with troubled human families sparked her interest in the process of how primates become 'good-enough' parents. The story of how she trained her tamarins to become adequate parents lays the foundation for discussions about the crucial role of early experience on parenting in primates, and how certain types of experiences, such as anxiety and social isolation, can trigger neglectful or abusive parenting. Smith reveals diverse strategies for parenting by primates, but she also identifies parenting behaviours crucial to the survival and development of primate youngsters that have stood the test of time.
Renowned evolutionary biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant have produced landmark studies of the Galapagos finches first made famous by Charles Darwin. In "How and Why Species Multiply," they offered a complete evolutionary history of Darwin's finches since their origin almost three million years ago. Now, in their richly illustrated new book, " 40 Years of Evolution," the authors turn their attention to events taking place on a contemporary scale. By continuously tracking finch populations over a period of four decades, they uncover the causes and consequences of significant events leading to evolutionary changes in species.
The authors used a vast and unparalleled range of ecological, behavioral, and genetic data--including song recordings, DNA analyses, and feeding and breeding behavior--to measure changes in finch populations on the small island of Daphne Major in the Galapagos archipelago. They find that natural selection happens repeatedly, that finches hybridize and exchange genes rarely, and that they compete for scarce food in times of drought, with the remarkable result that the finch populations today differ significantly in average beak size and shape from those of forty years ago. The authors' most spectacular discovery is the initiation and establishment of a new lineage that now behaves as a new species, differing from others in size, song, and other characteristics. The authors emphasize the immeasurable value of continuous long-term studies of natural populations and of critical opportunities for detecting and understanding rare but significant events.
By following the fates of finches for several generations, "40 Years of Evolution" offers unparalleled insights into ecological and evolutionary changes in natural environments."
Deer have been central to human cultures throughout time and space: whether as staples to hunter-gatherers, icons of Empire, or the focus of sport. Their social and economic importance has seen some species transported across continents, transforming landscape as they went with the establishment of menageries and park. The fortunes of other species have been less auspicious, some becoming extirpated, or being in threat of extinction, due to pressures of over-hunting and/or human-instigated environmental change. In spite of their diverse, deep-rooted and long standing relations with human societies, no multi-disciplinary volume of research on cervids has until now been produced. This volume draws together research on deer from wide-ranging disciplines and in so doing substantially advances our broader understanding of human-deer relationships in the past and the present. Themes include species dispersal, exploitation patterns, symbolic significance, material culture and art, effects on the landscape and management. The temporal span of research ranges from the Pleistocene to the modern day and covers Europe, North America and Asia. Papers derived from international conferences held at the University of Lincoln and in Paris.
An essential publication for consultants and conservationists involved in surveying and protecting the UK Biodiversity Action Plan mammal species. This 130-page book details previously unavailable guidelines for surveying, impact assessment and mitigation techniques on 8 species: harvest mouse, hedgehog, pine marten, polecat, brown hare, mountain hare, red squirrel and wildcat. It covers biology, habitat requirements, status and distribution, legislative protection, BAP status and recommended actions, survey methodologies and EIA: mitigation, compensation and enhancement.UK BAP Mammals provides the most up to date in depth knowledge, and discusses the questions that still need answering and requirements for further research, hence the word 'interim'.
The study of primate ecology and conservation has advanced rapidly in recent years. This practical volume brings together a group of distinguished primate researchers to synthesize field, laboratory, and conservation management techniques for primate ecology and conservation. The synthesis focuses on new and emerging field methods alongside a comprehensive presentation of laboratory and data analysis techniques, as well as the latest methods for determining conservation status and conservation management. This book's particular focus is on innovative ways to study primates in a changing world, including emerging methods such as non-invasive genetic techniques and advanced spatial modeling. In addition to synthesizing field and lab methods, the authors also discuss data interpretation, as well as important guiding questions and principles for students and researchers to consider as they plan research projects in primate ecology and conservation such as: how to choose a field site, acquire research permits, connect with local authorities, communities and researchers, and many other considerations. Although three chapters are dedicated to conservation methods, consideration of conservation status and threats to primate populations are considered throughout this volume where appropriate. This latest publication in the Techniques in Ecology and Conservation Series aims to provide a practical empirical reference text with an international scope, appropriate for graduate students, researchers, and conservation professionals across the globe.
The Barnacle Goose, a distinctive, handsome black-and-white bird, gets its name from a mediaeval myth that the birds hatched from barnacles - how else to explain their sudden appearance each autumn in northern Britain? We now know, of course, that the birds migrate from Arctic Russia, Norway and Svalbard to winter throughout northern Europe. This book represents a culmination of more than 25 years of Barnacle Goose research. It represents the story of one of Europe's most celebrated long-term behavioral studies, detailing the lives of these social and sociable birds. Chapters include sections on pair formation and bonding, family and population dynamics, brood parasitism, food and feeding, size and shape in different populations, life cycle, survivorship, dispersal, migration, and conservation, with particular regard to climate change. It is a rigorous and thorough examination of the lives of these birds, in fine Poyser tradition.
Fully illustrated, easy to use, and completely up-to-date, "Birds of the West Indies" is the only field guide that covers all of the bird species known to occur in the region--including migrants and infrequently occurring forms. Each species is represented by a full description that includes identification field marks, status and range, habitat, and voice. A map showing the bird's distribution accompanies many species accounts, and plumages of all species are depicted in ninety-three beautifully rendered color plates.
Bird lovers, vacationing tourists, local residents, and "armchair travelers" will all want to own this definitive field guide to the birds of the West Indies. Includes all species recorded in the regionFeatures ninety-three color plates with concise text on facing pages for quick reference and easy identificationSpecies accounts cover identification, voice, status and habitat, and rangeColor distribution maps
Beach-spawning fishes from exotic locations on most continents of the world provide spectacular examples of extreme adaptations during the most vulnerable life cycle stages. The beauty, intriguing biology, and importance of these charismatic fishes at the interface of marine and terrestrial ecosystems have inspired numerous scientific studies. Adaptations of behavior, physiology, development, and ecology are gathered together for the first time in this book. Beach-Spawning Fishes: Reproduction in an Endangered Ecosystem is a comprehensive guide to beach spawning, a charismatic animal behavior that is seen in a surprising number of teleost species. This unexpected form of reproduction provides a window into the ecology of coastal areas, the behaviors and physiology necessary for fishes and their eggs to adapt to terrestrial conditions, and the threats and challenges for conservation and management. Beach-spawning species include important forage fishes such as the capelin, exotic fishes such as the fugu puffer, and the spectacular midnight runs of the California grunion.
Universally recognised as by far the most authoritative work ever published on the subject, The Birds of Africa is a superb multi-contributor reference work, with encyclopaedic species texts, stunning paintings of all species and numerous subspecies, hundreds of informative line drawings, detailed range maps, and extensive bibliographies. Each volume contains an Introduction that brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in African ornithology, including the evolution and biogeography of African birds. Diagnoses of the families and genera, often with superspecies maps, are followed by the comprehensive species accounts themselves. These include descriptions of range and status, field characters, voice, general habits, food, and breeding habits. Full bibliographies, acoustic references, and indexes complete this scholarly work of reference. This fifth volume in the series deals comprehensively with the true thrushes, Old World warblers, Old World flycatchers, paradise-flycatchers, monarchs, shrike-flycatchers, wattle-eyes and batises. The editors and artists have worked closely with other authors - all acknowledged experts in their field - to produce a superb reference in which comprehensive texts on every species are complemented by accurate and detailed paintings and drawings of the birds themselves.
Universally recognised as by far the most authoritative work ever published on the subject, The Birds of Africa is a superb multi-contributor reference work, with encyclopaedic species texts, stunning paintings of all species and numerous subspecies, hundreds of informative line drawings, detailed range maps, and extensive bibliographies. Each volume contains an Introduction that brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in African ornithology, including the evolution and biogeography of African birds. Diagnoses of the families and genera, often with superspecies maps, are followed by the comprehensive species accounts themselves. These include descriptions of range and status, field characters, voice, general habits, food, and breeding habits. Full bibliographies, acoustic references, and indexes complete this scholarly work of reference. This sixth volume in the series deals comprehensively with picathartes, babblers, long-tailed tits, tits, penduline tits, nuthatches, creepers, sunbirds, white-eyes, sugarbirds, true shrikes, bush-shrikes, bulbuls, helmet-shrikes, orioles, drongos, crows, starlings and oxpeckers. The editors and artists have worked closely with other authors - all acknowledged experts in their field - to produce a superb reference in which comprehensive texts on every species are complemented by accurate and detailed paintings and drawings of the birds themselves.
Shorebirds, or waders, are a large group of small to medium-sized birds that occur worldwide, in a wide range of predominantly coastal or wetland habitats. Some species are largely sedentary whilst others are amongst the world's most migratory bird species, travelling thousands of kilometres in a few days. In addition to describing physical behavioural traits such as feeding, breeding, migration, and particular physiological adaptations, Shorebirds in Action also covers territorial behaviour both when feeding and breeding. There is detailed discussion of the range of species and their different lifestyles together with feeding strategies, flocking, roosting and the avoidance of predators. The seasonal features of shorebirds' lives are included, such as the various plumages that they have when breeding, or not breeding, together with the intervening periods of moult, during which the birds change from one plumage to the next.Shorebirds in Action is in two parts - firstly basic behavioural information and then a photographic section that explains the specific behaviour being illustrated for that particular shorebird at the time the photo was taken.Consequently, the book can be read as a general text, split into chapters that provide the basic behavioural information and also by reference to the extended photograph captions which explain the details of the particular behaviour shown. The book contains excellent photographs of about 180 shorebird species - over three-quarters of the world's total - and therefore provides a general reference for the identification of shorebird species and the recognition of their various plumages. It will be relevant to readers worldwide, including Europe, North America and Australasia. This comprehensive work can be read as a general text and also the photographs can be enjoyed separately in their own right. Detailed references to source material are provided.
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