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Historians and scholars across other disciplines have long sought an explanation for why late medieval and early modern Europeans experienced elevated rates of violent crime, and for why society apparently tolerated such high levels of interpersonal violence. Most of our existing explanations focus on the macro level, looking at causes like the rise of the state or the concomitant cultural shift toward civility. In this study, author Steven G. Reinhardt utilizes a more micro-level, descriptive approach to examine the intersection of honor and violence in prerevolutionary France, in particular in the Perigord region between 1770 and 1790. Drawing on archival sources (such as interrogations, petitions, and inquests), Reinhardt vividly conveys the texture of ordinary people's everyday experiences. Based on a sampling of criminal court cases from a region marginally integrated into the emerging capitalist economy, Violence and Honor in Prerevolutionary Perigord presents a series of extraordinarily rich narratives illustrating their subjects' understanding of the imperatives of the honor code. Combining careful scholarship with popular history, the book will interest historians of early modern Europe, legal scholars, and anthropologists of law, as well as students and general readers interested in the history of violence. Steven G. Reinhardt is associate professor of history at the University of Texas at Arlington.
This reader is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Frederic McClintock who was to be a co-editor. Dr. McClintock passed away in May 1994. In part one of this book, acknowledged experts from Finland, Holland, Switzerland, Spain and the U.K. report on the developments in victimology and discuss the discipline's impact on criminal justice policy.
Part two takes a broader perspective explaining how restorative justice initiatives could provide a viable and less costly alternative to the current retributive criminal justice system. In this part, three essays contrast the retributive and restorative justice paradigms while the remaining six essays are devoted to the theory and the different practices of restorative justice.
Particular attention is given to the role crime victims can play in a new model of criminal justice and to their traditional role in aboriginal and tribal communities. Also emphasis is placed on the practice of mediation, the techniques of dispute settlement and conflict resolution aimed at restitution and harm reparation and their recent developments in different countries.
Lambda Literary Award Finalist - LGBTQ Anthology Written by and for trans and non-binary survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault, Written on the Body offers support, guidance and hope for those who struggle to find safety at home, in the body, and other unwelcoming places. This collection of letters written to body parts weaves together narratives of gender, identity, and abuse. It is the coming together of those who have been fragmented and often met with disbelief. The book holds the concerns and truths that many trans people share while offering space for dialogue and reclamation. Written with intelligence and intimacy, this book is for those who have found power in re-shaping their bodies, families, and lives.
Victimology, Eighth Edition, shows how to transform the current criminal's justice system into a victim's justice system. Doerner and Lab, both well-regarded scholars, write compellingly about the true scope of crime victims' suffering in the United States. They lay out the sources of evidence available to victimology researchers. In later chapters, theory is woven together with the description of each topic and illustrated with specific examples. The second part of the book addresses the full impact of victimization. Part III, Types of Victimization, details specific problems ranging from violent crimes, child and elder abuse, and property crime to crime in the workplace. The authors emphasize their concern with the extent of criminal victimization, explain how obstacles hinder the pursuit of justice, and introduce the idea that reforms have rendered the system much more victim-friendly. Appropriate for undergraduate as well as early graduate students in Victimology courses in Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Sociology programs, as well as Justice Studies, this book offers an instructor's manual with a test bank, as well as PowerPoint lecture slides and a companion site with student resources.
The participant's essential guide to reflection and personal growth Beyond Anger and Violence: A Program for Women Participant Workbook is the participant's personal place for reflection, reactions, and learning, during and after management sessions. The activities inside reinforce program lessons about anger and violence, including how families, relationships, communities, and society affect one's life. In learning about the relationships between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, participants can begin to grasp a better self-understanding that will help them manage anger in a healthier, more productive manner. They'll develop new skills for communication, conflict resolution, and decision-making, and will be introduced to a variety of calming techniques. Beyond Anger and Violence is a 40-hour, evidence-based program designed for women who have difficulty managing anger. Based on a social-ecological model, the program addresses the factors that put people at risk for experiencing overwhelming feelings of anger, and perpetrating assaults or destruction of property. This curriculum acknowledges anger as a normal, appropriate, and human emotion, but also recognizes the destruction it can lead to if allowed to get out of control. This workbook will help guide participants through the program, reinforcing the discussions held in session. Topics include: * The effects of trauma * Relationships and communication, control, and conflict * The importance of safety and the power of community * Self-transformation, and creating change The workbook also includes a Daily Anger Log, a Self-Reflection Tool, and list of yoga poses that can have a calming effect on both body and mind. Participants may already recognize the effects of anger on their lives, and that it may even be affecting their health. Through the Beyond Anger and Violence program, and the exercises in this workbook, they can join a group of women working to create a less-violent world.
He was my religious teacher. I should have been able to trust him. But he made me do unspeakable things... At seven years old, Nabila Sharma began her lessons at the mosque as every good Muslim girl does. But from the minute she looked up at her Imam, the man who held her spiritual future in his hands, she knew something was wrong. Over the next five years Nabila's life became unbearable. While she was behind the doors of the mosque, the most sacred of places, the Imam brutally molested her on the slightest whim. Each day he would make her perform unspeakable acts, physically and mentally torturing her into compliance, to fulfil his perverse desires. Nothing would stop him; no plea would make him relent. But he was a respected member of the community, trusted by everyone; if Nabila cried for help she would risk the honour of her family, an unthinkable act. There was nowhere she could turn, no one she could talk to. As a young Muslim girl, Nabila was powerless. Brutal is the shocking, revelatory and heart-rending account of one girl's plight in a society where honour and shame are a matter of life and death. It is a tale of innocence lost and a life shattered, but above all it is a tale of survival, of a young girl who found love and hope in the darkest of places.
Contrary to the stereotype of the astrong Black woman, a African American women are more plagued by domestic violence than any other racial group in the United States. In fact, African American women experience intimate partner violence at a rate of 35% higher than White women and about two and a half times more than women of other races and ethnicities. This common portrayal can hinder Black women seeking help and support simply because those on the outside donat think help is needed. Yet, as Hillary Potter argues in Battle Cries: Black Women and Intimate Partner Abuse, this stereotype often helps these African American women to resist and to verbally and physically retaliate against their abusers. Thanks to this generalization, Potter observes, Black women are less inclined to label themselves as avictimsa and more inclined to fight back.
Battle Cries is an eye-opening examination of African American
womenas experiences with intimate partner abuse, the methods used
to contend with abusive mates, and the
Child Maltreatment, Third Edition, by Cindy Miller-Perrin and Robin Perrin, is a thoroughly updated new edition of the first textbook for undergraduate students and beginning graduate students in this field. The text is designed to provide a comprehensive introduction to child maltreatment by disseminating current knowledge about the various types of violence against children. By helping students understand more fully the etiology, prevalence, treatment, policy issues, and prevention of child maltreatment, the authors hope to further our understanding of how to treat child maltreatment victims and how to prevent future child maltreatment.
No nation is free from the charge that it has a less-than-complete view of the past. History is not simply about recording past events-it is often contested, negotiated, and reshaped over time. Debate over the history of World War II in Asia remains surprisingly intense, and Divergent Memories examines the opinions of powerful individuals to pinpoint the sources of conflict: from Japanese colonialism in Korea and atrocities in China to the American decision to use atomic weapons against Japan. Rather than labeling others' views as "distorted" or ignoring dissenting voices to create a monolithic historical account, Gi-Wook Shin and Daniel Sneider pursue a more fruitful approach: analyzing how historical memory has developed, been formulated, and even been challenged in each country. By identifying key factors responsible for these differences, Divergent Memories provides the tools for readers to both approach their own national histories with reflection and to be more understanding of others.
Conflict is inherent to all human and inter-state relations, but it is not inevitable. Since the end of the Cold-War, the prevention of conflict escalation into violence through management and resolution has become a fundamental objective of the international system. So how does prevention work when it works, and what can be done when tried and tested practices fail? In this book, I. William Zartman offers a clear and authoritative guide to the key challenges of conflict prevention and the norms, processes and methods used to dampen and diffuse inter and intra-state conflict in the contemporary world. Early-stage techniques including `awareness' `de-escalation', `stalemate', `ripening', and `resolution', are explored in full alongside the late or `crisis' stage techniques of `interruption', `separation' and `integration'. Prevention, he argues, is a battle that is never won: there is always more work to be done. The search for prevention - necessary but still imperfect - continues into new imperatives, new mechanisms, new agents, and new knowledge, which this book helps discover and apply.
Inspired by the fear of pervasive violence in the world, authors Alex Alvarez and Ronet Bachman address the various legislative, social, and political efforts to curb violent behavior. They expertly incorporate a wide range of the most current cases to help readers interpret the nature and dynamics of a variety of different, yet connected, forms of violence. While most texts of this type simply cover individual acts of violence, this book offers readers a broader perspective, covering more collective violence activities such as terrorism, mob violence, and genocide.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This edited collection explores the background and implementation of the Nordic Barnahus (or 'Children's House') model - recognised as one of the most important reforms related to children who are the victims of crime in the Nordic region. This book discusses both its potential to affect change and the challenges facing it. The model was introduced as a response to a growing recognition of the need for more integrated and child-centred services for children exposed to violence and sexual abuse. In the Barnahus structure, different professions work together to ensure that victimized children receive help and treatment and that their legal rights are met. This original study is organised into four broad themes: child-friendliness, support and treatment; the forensic child investigative interview; children's rights perspectives; and interagency collaboration and professional autonomy. Each themed section includes in-depth chapters from different Nordic countries, outlining and analysing the practice and outcomes of the collaborative work engaged in by Barnahus from different perspectives. The introductory and concluding chapters offer a comparative lens useful for policy and practice implementation within the Nordic welfare state context and beyond, ensuring this book has global academic and practical appeal.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are the gateway between the medieval world and the modern, centuries when the western societies moved from an age governed principally by religion and superstition to an age directed principally by reason and understanding. Although the worlds of science and philosophy took giant strides away from the medieval view of the world, attitudes to women did not change from those that had pertained for centuries. Girls were largely barred from education - only around 14% of women could read and write by 1700 - and the few educated women were not permitted to enter the professions. As a result women, especially if single, were employed in menial jobs or were forced into a life of petty crime. Many survived by entering the 'oldest profession in the world'. The social turbulence of the first half of the seventeenth century afforded women new opportunities and new religious freedoms and women were attracted into the many new sects where they were afforded a voice in preaching and teaching. In a time of unprecedented and unbridled political discussion, many better educated women saw no reason why they should not enter the debate and began to voice their opinions alongside those of men, publishing their own books and pamphlets. These new and unprecedented liberties thus gained by women were perceived as a threat by the leaders of society, and thus arose an unlikely masculine alliance against the new feminine assertions, across all sections of society from Puritan preachers to court judges, from husbands to court rakes. This reaction often found expression in the violent and brutal treatment of women who were seen to have stepped out of line, whether legally, socially or domestically. Often beaten and abused at home by husbands exercising their legal right, they were whipped, branded, exiled and burnt alive by the courts, from which their sex had no recourse to protection, justice or restitution. Many of the most brutal forms of punishment were reserved exclusively for women, and even where the same, they were more savagely applied than would be the case for similar crimes committed by men. This work records the many kinds of violent physical and verbal abuse perpetrated against women in Britain and her colonies, both domestically and under the law, during two centuries when huge strides in human knowledge and civilisation were being made in every other sphere of human activity, but social and legal attitudes to women and their punishment remained firmly embedded in the medieval.
Though never officially acknowledged, over 25,000 young people have died in America's gang wars since 1980. In cities across America, members of the Crips, Bloods, Mara Salvatrucha, 18th Street, Latin Kings, Blackstone Rangers, and Gangster Disciples are like traumatized war veterans with no way home. Drawn from ten years as an activist and public official working to understand and prevent gang violence in Los Angeles, Street Wars is Tom Hayden's searing indictment of the neo-conservative politics of law and order that dominates current policy and suffocates inner city youth. Weaving together cutting analysis with numerous first-hand stories from gang leaders, Hayden shows how the prison-industrial complex reinforces gang identity through humiliation and punishment, and reveals how globalization has created a force of unemployable men and women around the world who are defined as incorrigible, outside law and community. The final chapters advocate an internal peace process to address the devastation of America's urban youth.
From the Sunday Times and New York Times bestselling author comes the poignant and shocking memoir of Cathy s recent relationship with Tayo, a young boy she fosters whose good behaviour and polite manners hide a terrible past.
Tayo arrives at Cathy s with only the clothes he stands up in. He has been brought to her by the police, but he is calm, polite, and very well spoken, and not at all like the children she normally fosters. The social worker gives Cathy the forms which should contain Tayo s history, but apart from his name and age, it is blank. Tayo has no past.
Tayo is an 'invisible' child, kidnapped from his loving father in Nigeria and brought illegally to the UK by his drink and drugs dependent prostitute mother, where he is put to work in a sweat shop in Central London. When he sustains an injury and is no longer earning, he is cast out.
When Cathy takes Tayo to school he points out a dozen different addresses where he has stayed in the last six months, often being left alone. Tayo lies, and manipulates situations to his own advantage and Cathy has to be continually on guard. Tayo s social worker searches all computer databases but there is no record of Tayo he has only attended school for 3 terms and has never seen a doctor. He and his mother have been evading the authorities by living underground .
With his mother recently released from prison, Tayo is desperate to live with his father in Nigeria, but no one can track him down or even prove that he exists."
Aimed at scholars, students and lay persons interested in peace and conflict studies, The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Violence is a comprehensive resource to understand the principal debates on political violence, a field which is becoming an increasingly important part of courses on peace and conflict. Organized into seven main sections, this volume deals with a wide range of issues covering the following important research areas: A* Issues of definition and nomenclature and how contests over these relate to political violence. A* Theoretical frameworks and methods for understanding and researching political violence. A* Motivations and goals of those who use political violence. A* The various forms of political violence. A* Perspectives on countering political violence, by state and non-state actors. A* Why and how political violence ends. A* The aftermath of political violence. Contributions by leading scholars in the field provide an authoritative guide and source book on political violence for the scholar, the researcher and the informed general reader.
In "Domestic Violence: Intersectionality and Culturally Competent Practice," experts working with twelve unique groups of domestic abuse survivors provide the latest research on their populations and use a case study approach to demonstrate culturally sensitive intervention strategies. Chapters focus on African Americans, Native Americans, Latinas, Asian and Pacific Island communities, persons with disabilities, immigrants and refugees, women in later life, LGBT survivors, and military families. They address domestic violence in rural environments and among teens, as well as the role of religion in shaping attitudes and behavior.
Lettie L. Lockhart and Fran S. Danis are editors of the Council of Social Work Education's popular teaching modules on domestic violence and founding co-chairs of the CSWE symposium on violence against women and children. In their introduction, they provide a thorough overview of intersectionality, culturally competent practice, and domestic violence and basic practice strategies, such as universal screening, risk assessment, and safety planning. They follow with collaborative chapters on specific populations demonstrating the value of generalist social work practice, including developing respectful relationships that define issues from the survivor's perspective; collecting and assessing data; setting goals and contracting; identifying culturally specific interventions; implementing culturally appropriate courses of action; participating in community-level strategies; and advocating for improved policies and funding at local, state, and federal levels. Featuring resources applicable to both practitioners and clients, Domestic Violence forms an effective tool for analysis and action.
For many years after that night, my memories of what happened after he held the blade to my throat and threatened my life were fragmented...difficult to piece together. It was too extreme, too violent for me to understand. Living in a state of shock and self-loathing, it took her years of struggle to confront the buried memories of that first attack and begin to undo the damage it wrought, as men continued to take advantage of her fragility in the worst possible way. Yet, after growing up with a burden no teenager should ever have to shoulder, she found the heart to carry out the best revenge plan of all: leading a fulfilling and happy life. But the road to piecing her life back together was long and painful. For Madeleine, forgiveness was the key. True forgiveness takes genuine effort. It takes a real desire to understand those who have done us so much harm. It is the ultimate act of courage. In Unbroken, Madeleine tells her deeply moving and empowering story, as she discovers that life is about how a person chooses to recover from adversity. We are not defined by what knocks us down - we are defined by how we get back up.
Gunfight is a timely work examining America s four-centuries-long political battle over gun control and the right to bear arms. In this definitive and provocative history, Adam Winkler reveals how guns not abortion, race, or religion are at the heart of America s cultural divide. Using the landmark 2008 case District of Columbia v. Heller which invalidated a law banning handguns in the nation s capital as a springboard, Winkler brilliantly weaves together the dramatic stories of gun-rights advocates and gun-control lobbyists, providing often unexpected insights into the venomous debate that now cleaves our nation."
South Africa boasts the largest private security sector in the entire world, reflecting deep anxieties about violence, security, and governance. Twilight Policing is an ethnographic study of the daily policing practices of armed response officers - a specific type of private security officer - and their interactions with citizens and the state police in Durban, South Africa. This book shows how their policing practices simultaneously undermine and support the state, resulting in actions that are neither public nor private, but something in between, something "twilight." Their performances of security are also punitive, disciplinary, and exclusionary, and they work to reinforce post-apartheid racial and economic inequalities. Ultimately, Twilight Policing helps to illuminate how citizens survive volatile conditions and to whom they assign the authority to guide them in the process.
This definitive textbook provides accessible information on best practice for assessing the needs and strengths of vulnerable children and their families. It explores the challenges that practitioners face routinely - with suggestions as to how to address them - as well as the established areas for assessment, of children's developmental needs, parenting ability and motivation, and socio-economic factors. This new edition has been extended substantially to include recent practice, policy and theoretical developments, such as understanding the lived experience of children, young people, and family members. It also considers children's neurological development, assessing parental capacity to change, early help assessments, emerging areas of practice such as child sexual exploitation, and working with asylum-seeking and trafficked children. Crucially, this updated edition takes a broader approach in offering relevant information to a range of professionals working with vulnerable children. The importance of inter-professional working is emphasised throughout.
Technology will make killing a thing of the past. The gun is antiquated technology, and it is responsible for tens of thousands of senseless killings every year. Humanity has accepted that killing is an unavoidable fact of life--but Rick Smith argues that it doesn't need to be this way and that we have the means to make the bullet obsolete in our lifetime. Smith is the founder of TASER (now Axon), and in this book, he demonstrates that we are on the cusp of a world in which killing is neither required nor acceptable. That change won't come by way of stricter gun control laws. No, what holds us back from making an overdue and necessary shift in how we think about weapons is our skepticism about new technologies and their potential. Smith has devoted his career to understanding why and how we kill each other. In The End of Killing, he reviews the history of weaponry and warfare as well as the latest technologies in crowd control, surveillance, and artificial intelligence. He delves into the big, thorny questions about how technology is creating more tools for police, homeland security, and military, and offering more options for our personal safety and our justice system. With clarity and conviction, he challenges the conventional wisdom on these subjects, showing how technologies that appear strange and scary at first can be the key to making the gun a relic of the past. In our current impasse of dead-end debates about gun violence and police brutality, Smith offers us a clear roadmap into a safer future. Thought-provoking, insightful, and controversial, The End of Killing will make you reconsider the violent world you inhabit--and imagine the safer world on the horizon.
This timely Brief offers up-to-date findings about bullying--from trends and outcomes to assessment and identification--and workable approaches to combat this social epidemic on multiple fronts. The book examines links between bullying and mental health issues, the complex dynamics between bully and bullied (especially since bullies themselves may be victimized by others) and new challenges presented by youth involvement in social media. Effects of whole-school interventions involving students, teachers, and administrators, on bullying and its consequences, are concisely presented. And clinicians have guidelines for coordinating with children, parents, schools and the community. Included in the coverage: State statutes and federal anti-bullying efforts. A parent's perspective on the bullying of special-needs children. School-based prevention programs. Bullying and special populations. Parent strategies to reduce cyber-bullying. Best practices for promoting awareness and advocacy. Practical Strategies for Clinical Management of Bullying is an important reference for clinicians, parents, professionals at child-serving agencies and organizations, school administrators and staff, policymakers and child advocates. Its coverage strikes the right balance between intervention and prevention, with effective methods for helping victims--and bullies--heal.
On July 9, 1883, twenty men stormed the jail in Morehouse Parish, Louisiana, kidnapped Henderson Lee, a black man charged with larceny, and hanged him. Events like this occurred thousands of times across the American South in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, yet we know scarcely more about any of these other victims than we do about Henderson Lee. Drawing on new sources to provide the most comprehensive portrait of the men and women lynched in the American South, Amy Bailey and Stewart Tolnay's revealing profiles and careful analysis begin to restore the identities of--and lend dignity to--hundreds of lynching victims about whom we have known little more than their names and alleged offenses.Comparing victims' characteristics to those of African American men who were not lynched, Bailey and Tolnay identify the factors that made them more vulnerable to being targeted by mobs, including how old they were; what work they did; their marital status, place of birth, and literacy; and whether they lived in the margins of their communities or possessed higher social status. Assessing these factors in the context of current scholarship on mob violence and reports on the little-studied women and white men who were murdered in similar circumstances, this monumental work brings unprecedented clarity to our understanding of lynching and its victims.
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