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Ever-expanding landfills, ocean gyres filled with floating plastic mush, endangered wildlife. Our garbage has become a massive and exponentially growing problem in modern society. Eco-entrepreneur Tom Szaky explores why this crisis exists and explains how we can solve it by eliminating the very idea of garbage. To outsmart waste, he says, we first have to understand it, then change how we create it, and finally rethink what we do with it. By mimicking nature and focusing on the value inherent in our by-products, we can transform the waste we can't avoid creating from useless trash to a useful resource. Szaky demonstrates that there is value in every kind of garbage, from used chewing gum to juice pouches to cigarette butts. After reading this mind-expanding book, you will never think about garbage the same way again.
This book gives an overview on techniques and future perspectives of various aspects of waste biomass management. It also presents the economic and environmental evaluation, and also the monetary value-benefits and sustainability of the different processes. Recycling processes of lignocellulosic biomass from palm oil mill waste are covered, as well as from sugar industry waste and agriculture waste. It also includes thermal and non-thermal technologies for resource recovery from waste biomass. Challenges in the reuse and recycling of waste biomass are discussed, i.e., the hygienic safety in biomass management and bioremediation technologies for conversion into valuable products. The book is aiming at scientists, researchers and students alike, who are working in the research areas pertaining to waste management
This title, first published in 1987, examines the topic of nuclear waste management, and the way in which the public reacts to this issue. Part 1 explores the sources of public unease, such as the way in which nuclear waste had failed to be properly contained in the past. Part 2 looks at the search for a waste policy and the introduction of The Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Part 3 examines the waste problem from the standpoint of it being an international issue, and finally, Part 4 looks to the future and the lessons that we can learn from past nuclear waste management failures. This book will be of interest to students of environmental management.
This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers' attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.
Today synthetic dyes are used extensively in the textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography, pharmaceuticals, food and drink, cosmetic and leather industries. As of now, over 100,000 different dyes are available, with an annual production of over 700,000 metric tons. These industries discharge an enormous amount of colored effluents into natural water bodies, with or without treatment. The textile industry alone discharges 280,000 tons of dyes every year, making it the largest contributor to colored effluent discharge. Although a variety of treatment technologies are available, including adsorption, chemical oxidation, precipitation, coagulation, filtration electrolysis and photodegradation, biological and microbiological methods employing activated sludge, pure cultures, microbial consortia and degradative enzymes are economically viable, effective and environmentally responsible options. As such, this book gathers review articles from international experts working on the microbial degradation of synthetic dyes, offering readers the latest information on the subject. It is intended as a quick reference guide for academics, scientists and industrialists around the world.
This book examines the occurrence of uranium in its natural setting in the United States, as well as its industrial uses and the methods employed over the last century to extract it from ore deposits. In addition, this book explores the nature of solid and liquid wastes generated by extraction methods, and the various reclamation and remediation methods which can environmentally restore the extraction site. The potential radiogenic cancer risks from abandoned uranium mines are also explored, as are the environmental and geographical issues associated with those mines.
Starting with the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident, Oil Spill Impacts: Taxonomic and Ontological Approaches chronicles a timeline of events that focus on the impact of oil spills and provides an understanding of these incidents using a number of approaches. The book includes an interdisciplinary oil spill taxonomy, an oil spill topic map, and highlights information-organization tools, such as indexes, taxonomies, and topic maps that can be used to connect information resources with concepts of interest. The topic map combines the function of ontology with the function of organized information resources, and contains thousands of concepts and their relationships extracted from approximately 300 documents stemming from various academic conference presentations, journal articles, news reports, and web pages. Divided into four parts, the book begins with a brief introduction of the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill events followed by a breakdown of the taxonomy concepts distributed into categories and their subcategories. The book then describes the oil spill topic map separated by concepts, relationships, and references. This interdisciplinary reference provides to its readers: The perspective of multiple disciplines instead of just one discipline An indication of the most important topics in the oil spill domain Developed research in the oil spill and oil drilling areas A broad and detailed view of oil spill issues The book serves students, teachers, and researchers interested in oil spill issues, oil spill incidents, and addresses their impacts that involve coastal and marine environmental sciences, biological sciences, chemistry, disaster management, geology, sociology, and government policy.
Despite significant progress having been achieved in recent years, much remains to be done in terms of addressing the legacies from the early development of nuclear energy, including the dismantling of redundant research and fuel cycle facilities, research reactors and power plants, and the remediation of sites affected by past uranium mining and processing operations. Some countries are moving forward with dealing with these legacies, and accordingly have built up appropriate technical resources and expertise, but many national programmes still face very significant challenges. This publication discusses the barriers that prevent the implementation of decommissioning and environmental remediation (D&ER) projects and provides potential solutions to overcome the identified barriers and thereby facilitates a better implementation of D&ER programmes.
This brief summarizes the role of certain catalysts and associated processes that are involved in the reduction or elimination of hazardous substances from wastewater and the exploitation of renewable raw materials. The authors begin by providing a summary of the most recent developments in catalysts used in the advanced oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous phase. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPS) are described in terms of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Some emphasis is placed on the role nanocatalysts, perovskite-type catalysts, and green catalysts play in several AOPs such as Fenton Chemistry, photocatalytic oxidation, and the hybrid technologies that combine different processes. Catalyst preparation, characterization, reaction chemistry, and process technology are described. Specific wastewater case studies which illustrate the role of these catalysts in AOPs completes the brief.
The research papers presented in these proceedings volumes cover the latest developments and findings in the fields of mine health, safety, energy, waste management,reclamation and rehabilitation, mine closure and environmental protection. Authors from over 20 countries with backgrounds in chemistry, engineering, technology and management, and hailing from the government, industry and academia, have contributed to this book. The contents of this book will be of interest to scientists, engineers, consultants and government personnel who are responsible for the development and implementation of innovative approaches, techniques and technologies in the minerals industries. It will also benefit academic researchers, as it addresses the latest advances in fundamental research.
Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewaters from different sources. With the dwindling available water resources in the world coupled with high population growth, pressure is being exerted on water and wastewater plant managers the world over to find cost-effective methods to treat a wide range of wastewater pollutants in a diverse range of situations. This new and important book gathers the latest research from around the globe on fluid waste disposal with a focus on such topics as: wastewaters from the olive industry, application of sulphate-reducing bacteria in biological treatment wastewaters, electrocoagulation treatment method, usability of boron doped diamond electrodes in wastewater treatment and others.
Water, energy, and food are basic requirements for life, and this book presents solutions for obtaining these from sewage wastewater treatment plants. It describes the optimal recovery of value-added products from municipal sewage plants in developing countries, and explains how the plants' operations can become both economical and sustainable. Further, it shows how the clean effluent that is obtained is then suitable for agricultural use in the production of bio-fertilizers, and graywater for irrigation, and how the recovered biogas could be used for energy and heating needs. Practical case studies from three separate sewage plants are presented to illustrate the processes involved.
Sewer systems fall into the category "out of sight, out of mind" - they seldom excite interest. But when things go wrong with the air in the sewer system, they go very wrong. Consequences can be dramatic and devastating: sewer workers killed instantly by poisonous gas when they lift a sewer lid, or entire suburban blocks levelled by explosions. This book describes the atmospheric dangers commonly found in the sewer system. It provides easily-understood explanations of the science behind the hazards, combined with real-life examples of when things went dramatically wrong.
This book contains detailed and structured approaches to tackling practical decision-making troubles using economic consideration and analytical methods in Municipal solid waste (MSW) management. Among all other types of environmental burdens, MSW management is still a mammoth task, and the worst part is that a suitable technique to curb the situation in developing countries has still not emerged. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries will help fill this information gap based on information provided by field professionals. This information will be helpful to improve and manage solid waste systems through the application of modern management techniques. It covers all the fundamental concepts of MSWM; the various component systems, such as collection, transportation, processing, and disposal; and their integration. This book also discusses various component technologies available for the treatment, processing, and disposal of MSW. Written in view of actual scenarios in developing countries, it provides knowledge to develop solutions for prolonged problems in these nations. It is mainly for undergraduate and postgraduate students, research scholars, professionals, and policy makers.
Contamination of aqueous environments by hazardous chemical compounds is the direct cause of the decline of safe clean water supply throughout the globe. The use of unconventional water sources such as treated wastewater will be a new norm. Emerging nanotechnological innovations have great potential for wastewater remediation processes. Applications that use smart nanomaterials of inorganic and organic origin improve treatment efficiency and lower energy requirements. This book describes the synthesis, fabrication, and application of advanced nanomaterials in water treatment processes; their adsorption, transformation into low toxic forms, or degradation phenomena, and the adsorption and separation of hazardous dyes, organic pollutants, heavy metals and metalloids from aqueous solutions. It explains the use of different categories of nanomaterials for various pollutants and enhances understanding of nanotechnology-based water remediation to make it less toxic and reusable.
This third edition updates and expands the material presented in the best-selling first and second editions of Basic Hazardous Waste Management. It covers health and safety issues affecting hazardous waste workers, management and regulation of radioactive and biomedical/infectious wastes, as well as current trends in technologies. While the topics have been completely revised, the author employs the same practical approach that made the previous editions so popular. Chapters are structured to first outline the issue, subject, or technology, then to describe generic practice, and then to conclude with a summary of the statutory or regulatory approach.
Due to rising energy demand, the amount of coal utilization is escalating at a fast rate, leading to a rise in ash generation. Coal Fly Ash: Properties, Applications and Performance begins by presenting a study wherein the physiochemical properties of coal ash were analysed and based on that, their potential for reuse was identified. Next, the synergy between Portland cement and coal fly ash was investigated. Raw materials were characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical composition and physical properties. Mortars were manufactured and the effect of the addition of different ratios of coal fly ash (0-80 wt %) as a partial substitute of Portland cement was studied. Following this, an investigation was carried out to explore the behaviour of coal ash with hydrated lime as mineral filler in hot mix asphalt, in an attempt to determine a sustainable solution for the management of coal ash in Mauritius. The closing chapter describes the synthesis process used to obtain zeolite Na-A from coal fly ash via fusion with NaOH followed by hydrothermal reaction. Coal fly ash is a low cost source of both silica and alumina. The molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 for zeolite 4A formation was achieved through the addition of sodium aluminate solution/aluminum waste as aluminum sources.
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