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Like many industrialized regions, the Philadelphia metro area contains pockets of environmental degradation: neighborhoods littered with abandoned waste sites, polluting factories, and smoke-belching incinerators. However, other neighborhoods within and around the city are relatively pristine. This eye-opening book reveals that such environmental inequalities did not occur by chance, but were instead the result of specific policy decisions that served to exacerbate endemic classism and racism. From Workshop to Waste Magnet presents Philadelphia's environmental history as a bracing case study in mismanagement and injustice. Sociologist Diane Sicotte digs deep into the city's past as a titan of American manufacturing to trace how only a few communities came to host nearly all of the area's polluting and waste disposal land uses. By examining the complex interactions among economic decline, federal regulations, local politics, and shifting ethnic demographics, she not only dissects what went wrong in Philadelphia but also identifies lessons for environmental justice activism today. Sicotte's research tallies both the environmental and social costs of industrial pollution, exposing the devastation that occurs when mass quantities of society's wastes mix with toxic levels of systemic racism and economic inequality. From Workshop to Waste Magnet is a compelling read for anyone concerned with the health of America's cities and the people who live in them.
Every sector faces unique challenges in the transition to sustainability. Across each, materials will play a key role. That will depend on novel materials and processes, but these will only be effective with a solid understanding of the trends in the market. For each respective sector, the papers in this collection will explore the trends and drivers toward sustainability, the enabling materials technologies and challenges, and the tools to evaluate their implications. Major sections in REWAS 2019 include: Disruptive Material Manufacturing: Scaling and Systems Challenges Education and Workforce Development Rethinking Production Secondary and Byproduct Sources of Materials, Minerals, and Metals
The safety assessment of a deep repository for nuclear waste poses challenging scientific and technical questions. The risks from leakage of radionuclides from the repository, including transfers to the biosphere and the food chain must be assessed. This involves complex and poorly understood interactions between groundwater, soils, plants and the atmosphere. A unique, multidisciplinary experimental and modeling program at Imperial College London has been funded by UK NIREX to develop the science and to produce modeling tools to interpret and generalize the experimental data for safety assessment. This monograph brings together for the first time the accumulated results and experience from almost two decades of research. The results have important implications for the safety assessment of nuclear waste worldwide and provide new insights into the geochemical and biological controls on the upwards migration of radiochemicals in the near-surface environment.
Systems engineering techniques such as optimization tools, simulation model, integrated modeling systems, management information systems, decision support tools, material flow analysis, and life cycle assessment have been developed, yet have not been applied to the waste management industry as practical tools. This book introduces how to apply systems engineering techniques not only by theory, but also through practical case studies. The target applications include urban, industrial, hazardous and non-hazardous waste, waste streams such as waste packaging, end-of-life vehicles, waste batteries, waste of electric and electronic equipment, waste lubricant oils, end of life tires and all waste streams demanding sustainable management via appropriate systems analysis to meet both managerial and technical goals.
From Waste to Value investigates how streams of organic waste and residues can be transformed into valuable products, to foster a transition towards a sustainable and circular bioeconomy. The studies are carried out within a cross-disciplinary framework, drawing on a diverse set of theoretical approaches and defining different valorisation pathways. Organic waste streams from households and industry are becoming a valuable resource in today's economies. Substances that have long represented a cost to companies and a burden for society are now becoming an asset. Waste products, such as leftover food, forest residues and animal carcasses, can be turned into valuable products such as biomaterials, biochemicals and biopharmaceuticals. Exploiting these waste resources is challenging, however. It requires that companies develop new technologies and that public authorities introduce new regulation and governance models. This book helps policy-makers govern and regulate bio-based industries, and helps industry actors to identify and exploit new opportunities in the circular bioeconomy. Moreover, it provides important insights for all students and scholars concerned with renewable energy, sustainable development and climate change.
The Perfect Slime presents the latest state of knowledge and all aspects of the Extracellular Polymeric Substances, (EPS) matrix - from the ecological and health to the antifouling perspectives. The book brings together all the current material in order to expand our understanding of the functions, properties and characteristics of the matrix as well as the possibilities to strengthen or weaken it. The EPS matrix represents the immediate environment in which biofilm organisms live. From their point of view, this matrix has paramount advantages. It allows them to stay together for extended periods and form synergistic microconsortia, it retains extracellular enzymes and turns the matrix into an external digestion system and it is a universal recycling yard, it protects them against desiccation, it allows for intense communication and represents a huge genetic archive. They can remodel their matrix, break free and eventually, they can use it as a nutrient source. The EPS matrix can be considered as one of the emergent properties of biofilms and are a major reason for the success of this form of life. Nevertheless, they have been termed the "black matter of biofilms" for good reasons. First of all: the isolation methods define the results. In most cases, only water soluble EPS components are investigated; insoluble ones such as cellulose or amyloids are much less included. In particular in environmental biofilms with many species, it is difficult to impossible isolate, separate the various EPS molecules they are encased in and to define which species produced which EPS. The regulation and the factors which trigger or inhibit EPS production are still very poorly understood. Furthermore: bacteria are not the only microorganisms to produce EPS. Archaea, Fungi and algae can also form EPS. This book investigates the questions, What is their composition, function, dynamics and regulation? What do they all have in common?
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