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Bioremediation is an emerging field of environmental research. The objective of a bioremediation process is to immobilize contaminants (reactants) or to transform them into chemical products that do not pose a risk to human health and the environment. Toxicity and Waste Management Using Bioremediation provides relevant theoretical and practical frameworks and the latest empircal research findings on the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater using bioorganisms. Focusing on effective waste treatment methodologies and management strategies that lead to improved human and environmental health, this timely publication is ideal for use by environmenal scientists, biologists, policy makers, graduate students, and scholars in the fields of environmental science, chemistry, and biology.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The activated sludge process is one of the most versatile and commonly used wastewater treatment systems in the world. In the past, when industrial wastewater treatment focused on removing biological oxygen demand and suspended solids, waste water plants needed different processes and technology. The shift to the activated sludge process means environmental engineers must build new treatment plants and retrofit old ones. In this compendium, the editor, an experienced and well-published scientist in the field, has brought together articles that relate to the new requirements.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is an ever-increasing problem in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries. To date, landfilling is still the preferred option for the disposal and management of MSW due to its low-cost operation. While this solution is advantageous from a cost perspective, it introduces a high level of potential pollutants which can be detrimental to the local environment. Control and Treatment of Landfill Leachate for Sanitary Waste Disposal presents research-based insights and solutions for the proper management and treatment of landfill leachate. Highlighting relevant topics on emerging technologies and treatment innovations for minimizing the environmental hazards of waste disposal, this innovative publication contributes to filling in many of the gaps that exist in the current literature available on leachate treatment. Waste authorities, solid waste management companies, landfill operators, legislators, environmentalists, graduate students, and researchers will find this publication beneficial to their professional and academic interests in the area of waste treatment and management.
Putting forward an up-to-date waste-to-energy approach that combines experience, sophisticated modeling and technical-economic analysis, this book examines the current need for the maximum utilization of energy from waste and the associated environmental impacts. It outlines step-by-step procedures for a complex and original waste-to-energy approach from the idea to its industrial application. With waste incinerators and industrial plants producing large amounts of pollutants, municipalities as well as smaller decentralized operations are beginning to focus on waste research. The principal advantage of utilizing research findings is the ability to apply a complex approach "from idea to industrial implementation" with respect to the needs of the market established by thorough market analysis. This book builds on this concept with an original approach that takes into consideration geographical aspects, the specifics of regions/micro-regions and technological units and/or equipment. Key areas discussed and analyzed in the text include: strategic planning of energy-source locations according to the nature of the respective region or microregion; types and amounts of wastes; logistics etc. using original mathematical models; consideration of on-site processing of various types of waste, taking into account the character of the region (agricultural, industrial etc.); tailor-made technologies for energy recovery from various types of wastes; implementation of individual technologies with original elements; and support for environmental protection based on advanced flue gas (i.e. off-gas in the case of incineration) cleaning methods.
Taking an integrated, cross-disciplinary approach to this critical process, Aeration Control System Design comprehensively addresses the concept and system design of aeration activated wastewater treatment. Author Thomas E. Jenkins, a veteran in the field, covers complete treatment of aeration system controls, processes, and instrumentation and includes a theoretical and mathematical treatment of case histories, complete with design procedures and analysis methodology. Equations, charts, figures, and diagrams are used extensively throughout, making this a vital resource for civil/environmental engineers, mechanical engineers, and electrical/instrumentation engineers.
This new edition of a well-established textbook covers the environmental and engineering aspects of the management of rainwater and wastewater in areas of human development. Urban Drainage deals comprehensively not only with the design of new systems, but also the analysis and upgrading of existing infrastructure. Keeping its balance of principles, practice and research, this new edition has significant new material on modelling, resilience, smart systems, and the global and local context. The two new authors bring further research and practice-based experience. This is an essential text for undergraduate and graduate students, lecturers and researchers in water engineering, environmental engineering, public health engineering, engineering hydrology, and related non-engineering disciplines. It also serves as a dependable reference for drainage engineers in water service providers, local authorities, and for consulting engineers. Extensive examples are used to support and demonstrate the key issues throughout the text.
Rapid population growth, along with drought, water-intensive energy development, climate change conditions, and a number of other factors all place stress on world water supplies. In many countries throughout the world, water reuse has proved to be an effective and safe means to help satisfy growing water demands and offset scarcity. This book provides the latest information on water reuse applications with a focus on urban areas. It examines numerous new and alternative methods for sustainable water supplies. This title is co-published with CRC Press
Papers on mine and mill tailings and mine waste, as well as current and future issues facing the mining end environmental communities, are included and discussed in this text. The subjects covered relate to technical capabilities and developments, regulations, and environmental concerns.
Water pollution occurs when toxic pollutants of varying kinds (organic, inorganic, radioactive and so on) are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove such potential pollutants. Today's sources of these potential pollutants, which cause high deterioration of freshwater quality, are city sewage and industrial waste discharge, human agricultural practices, industrial waste disposal practices, mining activities, civil and structural work activities and obviously natural contamination with climate change. When our water is polluted, it is not only devastating to the environment but also to human health. Therefore, development of water and wastewater treatment processes to alleviate water pollution has been a challenging and demanding task for engineers, scientists and researchers. Perhaps this is even more challenging for underdeveloped and developing countries, where water and wastewater treatment facilities, knowledge and infrastructure are limited. Water and wastewater treatment processes are broad and often multidisciplinary in nature, comprising a mixture of research areas including physical, chemical and biological methods to remove or transform various potential pollutants. This is in hopes to achieve acceptable water quality and satisfy governmental and environmental protection agencies' laws and regulations. With these objectives, this book has been written in order to provide various research results and compilation and up-to-date development on the current states of knowledge and techniques in the broad field of water and wastewater treatment processes. Basically, this book will give a comprehensive understanding and advancement and application of various physical, chemical and biological treatment methods in the reduction of potential pollutants (inorganics/organics) from water and wastewater. There are a total 18 book chapters contributed by large number of expert authors around the world, covering the following main research areas: Physical, chemical and biological water treatment processes such as adsorption, biosorption, coagulation/flocculation, electrocoagulation, denitration, membrane filtration/separation, photo-catalytic reduction, advanced oxidation, nutrients removal by struvite crystallisation and nanotechnology; Physical, chemical and biological methods for municipal wastewater and industrial wastewater treatment plants such as primary-secondary sludge treatments, anaerobic digestions, aerobic treatment, activated sludge processes, dewaterability by flocculants, pre-treatments of sludge and rheology of sludge in wastewater treatment; Various operational units/equipment and process control of wastewater treatment plant.
Comprises the proceedings of a conference on geotechnical waste management and contamination. Coverage ranges from remediation of contaminated sites to design and management of landfills. There are also papers dealing with case histories and research.
Contents: Groundwater contamination flow; Regulatory, & non regulatory controls for contaminated sites; Remediation of contaminated sites; Ground modification techniques in waste management;
Converting sludge into construction materials is deemed to be a sustainable approach to alleviating sludge disposal problems and conserving natural resources.This compendium presents the state-of-the-art development in recycling sludge into construction materials. A research-based development of engineering products made from sludge for common construction applications such as bricks, aggregates and cement-replacement materials is outlined. In-depth discussions on the properties of the products and their processing technology, the technical suitability for construction applications, and experimental study and assessment of toxic or hazardous chemicals leached from the products are prominently highlighted. Challenges and prospect of sludge recycling are also included.Contributed by eminent authors who are recognized authority in the field of sludge treatment and reuse, the unique monograph is a useful reference guide for professionals, researchers, academics and graduate students majoring in waste management, environmental engineering, civil engineering and materials engineering.
This brief gives a summary of the soluble bio-based substances (SBO) field. Urban bio-wastes of differing compositions and ageing conditions represent a promising source of soluble bio-based substances (SBO), potentially able to perform as chemical auxiliaries for applications in the chemical industry and in environmental remediation. In particular, SBO process development, characterization and scale-up is described and bioassay studies discussed. This brief also discusses the use of SBOs in wastewater treatment in the context of 'green' processes, their role as humic-like substances, and their potential use as photocatalysts for the degradation of pollutants present in aqueous solutions (dyes, pharmaceuticals, chlorophenols). Furthermore, the role of SBOs as complexing agents for iron ions in the implementation of the photo-Fenton processes under mild pH conditions is also explored. Finally, SBOs are showcased in their capacity as organic component alternatives to petrochemical products for the synthesis of new materials.
This symposium series volume was developed in order to share papers presented at the 245th ACS National Meeting on the topic of pilot plants. The Industrial and Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemical Technology Subdivision hosted a one-day symposium for industry and academic researchers to present and share their work and best practices on operations and safety in pilot plant environments. Designing and building "pilot plants" can be a big challenge, and this volume outlines the proper operations needed to run a plant safely, in both academic and industrial environments. The book addresses issues like chemical separation, chemical reactions, waste generation, process controls, and spatial considerations, as well as safety precautions. It describes ways in which plant designers and contractors can consider ease of operation, maintenance, pinch-points, and sampling, among other aspects. In contrast to workers in large-scale facilities, pilot plant workers in both industry and academia are not only exposed to hazardous substances, they are exposed to such materials in a smaller setting and thus to potentially greater concentrations. This book brings together workers and researchers in pilot plant environments to present and share their best practices as regards operations and safety.
This book presents a Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion (TSAD) technique for producing hydrogen and methane, following a step-by-step approach in order to guide readers through the experimental verification of the related hypothesis. In the first stage of AD, the reaction conditions are optimized to obtain the maximum amount of hydrogen, while in the second the liquid residue from the first phase is used as a substrate to produce fuel-methane. AD has traditionally been used to reduce the organic content of waste; this results in a biogas that is primarily constituted of CH4 and CO2. Over the last few decades, the conversion of organic matter into hydrogen by means of AD and selecting Hydrogen Producing Bacteria (HPB) has matured into a viable and sustainable technology among the pallet of H2 generation technologies. The combined bio-production of hydrogen and methane from Organic Waste Materials (OWM) is considered to be an ideal way of utilizing waste, and can increase energy efficiency (the substrate Heat Value converted into H2 and CH4 fuel) to roughly 80%, since the energy efficiency of H2-production alone (15%) is not energetically competitive. The two gas streams can be used either separately or in combination (Hytane (R)), be supplied as civilian gas or used for transportation purposes. All the aspects of this sustainable technology are taken into account, from the basic biochemical implications to engineering aspects, establishing the design criteria and the scale-up procedures for full-scale application. The sustainability of the TSAD method is assessed by applying EROI (Energy Return On Investment) and EPT (Energy Payback Time) criteria, and both the general approach and application to the field of Anaerobic Digestion are illustrated.
The purposes of this report are to 1) assess and document the occurrence and concentrations of selected pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds in WWTP influent and effluent, groundwater, canal water, and canal sediment samples at selected sites in Miami-Dade County; 2) assess the persistence of these compounds during wastewater treatment by comparing influent and effluent concentrations, loads, and seasonal variations, and by calculating percent reduction of individual compounds during treatment at each plant; and (3) assess the potential transport of these compounds from recharge areas through the groundwater system and into the canal system by comparing effluent concentrations at the HSWWTP with concentrations in nearby groundwater, nearby canal water and bed sediments, and more distant canal water and bed sediments.
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