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The effective removal of dyes from aqueous waste is an important issue for many industrialized countries. The traditional treatment methods used to remove dyes from wastewater have certain disadvantages such as incomplete dye removal, high reagent and energy requirements, and the generation of toxic sludge or other waste products that require disposal. The search for alternative and innovative treatment techniques has focused attention on the use of biological materials for dye removal and recovery technologies. This brief summarizes the latest developments in this important field.
This publication provides an introduction to the planning and design of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants.
Tuning Biological Nutrient Removal Plants increases interest in tuning to enhance both performance and capacity, to provide insight into typical plant operating characteristics, and to stimulate operators' interest in studying the behaviour of their own plants. The book focuses on understanding of plant behavioural characteristics so that optimum performance can be achieved and maintained. Tuning Biological Nutrient Removal Plants is carefully organized to cover: influent and effluent characteristics; process fundamentals; individual process characteristics; overall plant characteristics; the evolutionary operation approach to tuning. The approach is practical and the use of mathematics is kept to a minimum and information is supplied in graphical and tabular form. Real operating data from a wide range of plant experiences is included. The book draws on the generosity of many Australian plant owners in permitting their plant data to be incorporated. Not all process types are covered but the tuning principles expounded are universally applicable. The capacity and performance capabilities of a plant are not fixed; both are amenable to on-going enhancement through systematic and enthusiastic effort. The book helps to set new benchmarks in plant operation. Tuning Biological Nutrient Removal Plants is a valuable resource for sewage treatment operations and operations support personnel, sewage process design engineers - operating authorities, consultants, contractors, operators of industrial wastewater treatment plants and sewage treatment lecturers in chemical engineering departments and other training organisations. About the author: Ken Hartley, B.Tech, M.Eng.Sc Fellow, Institution of Engineers, Australia Member Australian Water Association Member International Water Association. Ken Hartley has 45 years' experience in the water and wastewater industry. He has worked for the South Australian water and wastewater authority, consultants GHD and the University of Queensland. Since 1998 he has been an independent consulting process engineer.
Clay minerals are typically formed over long periods of time by the gradual chemical weathering of rocks, usually silicate-bearing, by low concentrations of carbonic acid and other diluted solvents. Since ancient times, clay minerals have been investigated because of their importance in agriculture, ceramics, building and other uses. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the types, properties and uses of clay. Topics discussed include clay mineral application in electrochemistry and wastewater treatment; organoclay/polymer nanocomposites; use of clays to manufacture honeycomb monoliths for pollution control applications; clays for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions and structural modification of montmorillonite clays by the pillaring process.
Bioremediation and Sustainability is an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of research and applications for some of the most important low-cost, "green," emerging technologies in chemical and environmental engineering.
Anaerobic digestion technology may help to address two congressional concerns that have some measure of interdependence: development of clean energy sources and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Anaerobic digestion technology breaks down a feedstock, usually manure from livestock operations, to produce a variety of outputs including methane. An anaerobic digestion system may reduce greenhouse gas emissions because it captures the methane from manure that might otherwise be released into the atmosphere as a potent greenhouse gas. This book provides information on anaerobic digestion systems, technology adoption, challenges to widespread implementation, and policy interventions that could affect adoption of the technology.
Hazardous materials are any substance which have the potential to cause harm to humans, animals or the environment through direct or indirect interaction. In this book, the authors gather topical research in the study of the types, risks and control of hazardous materials, from across the globe. Topics discussed include antibiotics as environmental contaminants; controlling inorganic and organic contaminants in wastewater; hazardous metal sources and toxicity; surfactant removal in wastewater treatment; fly ash management; a chemical study of sewage sludge from a two phase anaerobic digestion plant and the complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds at moderate temperatures.
Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material and are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to human health and the environment and is regulated by government agencies. This book presents topical research in the study of the sources, types and management of radioactive waste, including DMNR real-time online monitoring of short and medium term radioactive waste; radioactive waste from research reactor operation and decommissioning; treatment of high-level radioactive waste arising from pyroprocessing and its waste form and highly radioactive waste disposal.
NRC's Offices of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) and Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs (FSME) organized this Workshop on Engineered Barrier Performance Related to Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Decommissioning, and Uranium Mill Tailings Facilities. The workshop was held August 3-5, 2010 at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Headquarters Auditorium, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The Workshop was coordinated with the States (i.e., Texas, South Carolina, Utah, Colorado, Washington, and New York), Tribal Nations (Navajo, Umatilla and Nez Perce), and Federal agencies (e.g., U.S. Department of Energy DOE], U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA], U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service USDA/ARS], U.S. Geological Survey USGS], and DOE National Laboratories). The workshop technical topics focused on engineered surface covers and bottom liners designed to isolate waste by impeding surface-water infiltration into the waste systems and mitigating the migration of contaminants from the waste disposal site. Topics included engineered barrier performance, modeling, monitoring, and regulatory experiences at low-level radioactive waste, decommissioning, and uranium mill tailings sites. The workshop objectives included: (1) facilitation of communication among Federal and State staff and contractors and selected experts on current engineered barrier issues and technical and regulatory experiences; (2) discussion of lessons learned and approaches for monitoring and modeling; (3) preparation of recommendations to address maintenance of engineered barrier performance over time; and (4) identification of topics for future research and the potential need to update technical guidance. Recommendations and insights given during session presentations, panel debates, and the discussions that followed were documented by the session reporters and are included in this report.
A history of of the industrial ecosystem that focuses on the biological sewage treatment plant as an early example. Biological sewage treatment, like electricity, power generation, telephones, and mass transit, has been a key technology and a major part of the urban infrastructure since the late nineteenth century. But sewage treatment plants are not only a ubiquitous component of the modern city, they are also ecosystems-a hybrid variety that incorporates elements of both nature and industry and embodies multiple contradictions. In Hybrid Nature, Daniel Schneider offers an environmental history of the biological sewage treatment plant in the United States and England, viewing it as an early and influential example of an industrial ecosystem. The sewage treatment plant relies on microorganisms and other plants and animals but differs from a natural ecosystem in the extent of human intervention in its creation and management. Schneider explores the relationship between society and nature in the industrial ecosystem and the contradictions that define it: the naturalization of industry versus the industrialization of nature; the public interest versus private (patented) technology; engineers versus bacterial and human labor; and purification versus profits in the marketing of sewage fertilizer. Schneider also describes biotechnology's direct connections to the history of sewage treatment, and how genetic engineering is extending the reaches of the industrial ecosystem to such "natural" ecosystems as oceans, rivers, and forests. In a conclusion that shows how industrial ecosystems continue to evolve, Schneider discusses John Todd's Living Machine, a natural purification method of sewage treatment, as the embodiment of the contradictions of the industrial ecosystem.
Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The treatment system was efficient in organic matter removal during the entire year, while nitrogen, phosphorus and faecal coliform removal were negatively affected by the decline in temperature in winter. Most of the nitrogen removal was achieved by plant uptake (81%) while 14.5% and 4.5% of the removal was due to denitrification and sedimentation, respectively. The treatment system provided effluent quality and duckweed biomass suitable to reuse in tilapia aquaculture. The nutritional value of fresh duckweed was significantly better than for wheat bran and simular to the commecial feed when used in combination with treated sewage from the duckweed ponds. This research was carried out with financial support of the Dutch government within the framework of the SAIL funded "Wasteval" project (LUW/MEA/971) and is the result of a cooperative effort of the Water Pollution Control Department of the National Research Centre in Cairo, Wageningen University and Research and the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education.
Intended for advanced students and practitioners of wastewater engineering, this comprehensive text clearly explains the theory and quantitative rationale for treating wastewater and industrial sludges, with public safety and efficiency in mind. The authors bring instructional and engineering backgrounds to the subject of sludge, presenting the necessary calculations as well as sample design alternatives for each process in sludge handling. The authors are fully attuned to the controversies surrounding sludge disposal and carefully lay out US and European regulations that govern current technologies. The book offers important information on emerging practices for safe and legal sludge disposal. Numerous case studies and sample problems are included for the benefit of instructors and students. Special features: comprehensive explanation of sludge theory and engineering design; covers US and European disposal regulations and practices; and includes design examples and solved problems.
Radioactive wastes are generated from a wide range of sources,
including the power industry, and medical and scientific research
institutions, presenting a range of challenges in dealing with a
diverse set of radionuclides of varying concentrations.
Conditioning technologies are essential for the encapsulation and
immobilisation of these radioactive wastes, forming the initial
engineered barrier required for their transportation, storage and
disposal. The need to ensure the long term performance of
radioactive waste forms is a key driver of the development of
advanced conditioning technologies.
One of the most visible consequences of our society's breakneck level of production and consumption is the increasing amount of land designated as landfill and other waste disposal and processing sites. Often located in marginal areas or adjacent to politically and economically dispossessed communities, these places are usually ignored by mainstream society, as is the garbage that fills them. Even with the greater awareness of the problems of waste disposal inspired by recycling programs and anti-littering ads, we would much rather take the garbage out than think about where its going. In Designing America's Waste Landscapes, landscape architect and scholar Mira Engler takes a close look at the landfills, recycling and waste transfer centers, and sewage treatment plants that accommodate and redistribute the by-products of consumption. For Engler, waste is not only a pervasive, essential, and constructive process of civilization; it is a key element in the way we consider, order, and shape our landscape. Yet the overwhelmingly negative, defensive perceptions we have of these places-and their marginalization within public debate-limits our ability to respond creatively and effectively to the growing problem of waste disposal. Engler addresses two distinct aspects of waste landscapes in America: the historic and cultural context of waste and the theories, practices, and concerns of the planners, engineers, landscape designers, and other waste management professionals. She reviews the physical evolution of waste sites across the country, scrutinizes perceptions and representations of these landscapes, and highlights attempts by environmental designers and artists to change public perceptions. Illustrated with more than 70 photographs, maps, drawings, and other images, Designing America's Waste Landscapes is a cogent and compelling inquiry into the scientific, environmental, and aesthetic parameters of cutting-edge waste management technology and design.
A host of chemical substances have become essential parts of human activities and requirements for societal development. Any kind of misuse and/or negligence in handling these substances can cause health disorders, poisoning, and fatalities among unprotected workers and members of the public exposed to contaminated food, water, and air. Carefully organized for ease of use, Handbook of Chemicals and Safety provides a tool for the management of a range of chemical substances commonly used, handled, stored, transported, and disposed of as wastes. Written in an accessible style with just the right amount of technical rigor, the book covers: General fundamentals and specific hazards and effects of chemical substances The basics of exposures and responses to chemical substances in the work environment Toxic responses in different body systems General perspective on the problem of chemical exposures and the possible health effects The author includes substances such as industrial solvents, pesticides, metals, air pollutants, toxic gases, drugs, and other items. He supplies the chemical abstract system (CAS) number, IUPAC name, molecular formula, synonyms and trade names, use and exposure, toxicity and health effects, and carcinogen factors. He also includes information on exposure limits, methods of proper storage, and waste disposal. An important reference on exposure to different categories of chemical substances, the book stresses the importance of preparedness in any safety program. Taking a broad and interdisciplinary approach to chemicals and workplace safety, it provides guidance on the judicious management of chemical substances.
Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment. Radioactive contamination is typically the result of a spill or accident during the production or use of a radionuclide. Contamination may occur from radioactive gases, liquids or particles. For example, if a radionuclide used in nuclear medicine is accidentally spilled, the material could be spread by people as they walk around. Radioactive contamination may also be an inevitable result of certain processes, such as the release of radioactive xenon in nuclear fuel reprocessing. In cases where radioactive material cannot be contained, it may be diluted to safe concentrations. Containment is what differentiates radioactive material from radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactive material in sealed and designated containers is not properly referred to as contamination. According to various studies, although some radioactive contamination may be smaller than the internationally permitted radioactivity standards, it gains significance day by day and therefore is one of the potentially developing concerns in years to come. This book presents current research on this serious environmental and health issue.
The first comprehensive guide to managing the entire solid waste cycle.
Combining integrated solid waste management (ISWM) with the traditional coverage of landfill design, construction, and monitoring, this new edition of Amalendu Bagchi's classic guide is in response to the growing need for a comprehensive approach toward managing solid waste--from collection to recycling to eventual disposal.
This far-reaching guide provides professionals of various disciplines with fast, easy access to authoritative information on source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting, contaminated soil remediation, incineration, and medical waste management. It also presents the latest developments on bioreactor landfills, wetland mitigation, remediation of landfills, waste management-related health and safety, and financial issues affecting the industry.
Topics covered in this "Third Edition" include: The role of geotechnical engineering in a variety of environmental issues Planning, marketing, and quality con trol for reuse and recycling facilities Health, safety, and economic issues related to composting Risk assessment of contaminated lands Leachate and gas generation in landfills Microbiology of landfills And much more
Supplemented with hundreds of helpful drawing, tables, and photos, "Design of Landfills and Integrated Solid Waste Management, Third Edition" is an indispensable resource for environmental engineers, hydrogeologists, and landfill operators and owners. It is also an excellent text for environmental science and engineering courses related to waste management.
An analysis of the regime for the management of hazardous chemicals, highlighting the insights it provides for effective multilevel governance in other areas. The challenges posed by managing hazardous chemicals cross boundaries, jurisdictions, and constituencies. Since the 1960s, a chemicals regime-a multitude of formally independent but functionally related treaties and programs-has been in continuous development, as states and organizations collaborate at different governance levels to mitigate the health and environmental problems caused by hazardous chemicals. In this book, Henrik Selin analyzes the development, implementation, and future of the chemicals regime, a critical but understudied area of global governance, and proposes that the issues raised have significant implications for effective multilevel governance in many other areas. Selin focuses his analysis on three themes: coalition building in support of policy change; the diffusion of regime components across policy venues; and the influence of institutional linkages on the design and effectiveness of multilevel governance efforts. He provides in-depth empirical studies of the four multilateral treaties that form the core of the chemicals regime: the Basel Convention (1989), which regulates the transboundary movement and disposal of hazardous wastes; the Rotterdam Convention (1998), which governs the international trade in chemicals; the CLRTAP POPs Protocol (1998), designed to reduce the release and transnational transport of emissions of persistent organic pollutants; and the Stockholm Convention (2001), which targets the production, use, trade, and disposal of persistent organic pollutants. The interactions of participants and institutions within and across different levels of governance have implications for policy making and management that are not yet fully understood. Selin's analysis of these linkages in the chemicals regime offers valuable theoretical and policy-relevant insights into the growing institutional density in global governance.
The mode of development that the world-and India-has followed has led to a situation where we are surrounded by numerous hazardous substances in our everyday lives, which affect the health of people, of other living creatures, and of the planet as a whole. Our Toxic World is an effort to shine a keen light on these substances, and suggest alternatives that will allow readers to improve the physical quality of their lives and of their environment. Our Toxic World takes a series of peeks into the lives of the fictitious Sachdeva family and the people they come in contact with, examines the hazardous substances that affect us in our everyday lives, outlines the effect these materials can have on us, and suggests alternative routes that we can adopt.
*The reader is informed about the state of the art of biological waste treatment and how to exploit the potential that microorganisms are offering for this purpose Among the goals of environmentally sound waste treatment is the recycling of organic wastes. The most practiced options are composting and anaerobic digestion, both processes being carried out by microorganisms. This book provides an overview of the various ways microbes are doing their job and gives the reader an impression of their potential. The sixteen chapters of this book summarize the advantages and disadvantages of treatment processes, whether they are aerobic like composting or work without oxygen like anaerobic digestion for biogas (methane) production. These chapters show the potential of microorganisms to create valuable resources from otherwise wasted materials. These resources include profitable organic, humus-like soil conditioners or fertilizer components which are often suppressive to plant diseases. Composts may thus improve soil carbon sequestration, or support sustainable agriculture by reducing the need for mineral fertilizers or pesticides. If anaerobic digestion is used, the biogas produced may replace fossil fuels. Thus, proper biological waste treatment with the help of microorganisms should contribute to a reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas production. Written for Research
This publication presents the findings of the first Ph.D. thesis on the EU system for the Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) which has impacted companies across the world since 2008.
As cities grow and climates change, precipitation increases, and with every great storm-from record-breaking Boston blizzards to floods in Houston-come buckets of stormwater and a deluge of problems. In Stormwater, William G. Wilson brings us the first expansive guide to stormwater science and management in urban environments, where rising runoff threatens both human and environmental health. As Wilson shows, rivers of runoff flowing from manmade surfaces-such as roads, sidewalks, and industrial sites-carry a glut of sediments and pollutants. Unlike soil, pavement does not filter or biodegrade these contaminants. Oil, pesticides, road salts, metals, automobile chemicals, and bacteria all pour into stormwater systems. Often this runoff discharges directly into waterways, uncontrolled and untreated, damaging valuable ecosystems. Detailing the harm that can be caused by this urban runoff, Wilson also outlines methods of control, from restored watersheds to green roofs and rain gardens, and, in so doing, gives hope in the face of an omnipresent threat. Illustrated throughout, Stormwater will be an essential resource for urban planners and scientists, policy makers, citizen activists, and environmental educators in the stormy decades to come.
The only step-by-step guide to an exciting new chemical management and waste minimization methodology
Over the past decade, a revolutionary new approach to chemical supply has emerged that dramatically reduces chemical waste and chemical costs while improving company performance. Known as Shared Savings Chemical Management, it has already yielded astonishing results for several major North American manufacturing firms and numerous other companies. The first complete guide to this innovative chemical management methodology, Chemical Management acquaints you with Shared Savings principles and shows you how to put them to work in your company.
Thomas Bierma and Francis Waterstraat Jr. explore the environmental, health and safety, purchasing, inventory, tracking, waste disposal, and other major problems inherent to traditional chemical supply programs, and clearly explain how and why a Shared Savings Chemical Management program helps minimize or completely eliminate those problems. With the help of fascinating case studies, they demonstrate how Shared Savings techniques are currently being applied in five extremely successful plants belonging to GM, Ford, Chrysler, and Navistar International. What’s more, they provide you with a complete, step-by-step blueprint for designing and implementing a Shared Savings program tailored to your company.
Chemical Management is an indispensable resource for manufacturing managers, purchasing managers, environmental managers, health and safety managers, and others charged with developing more effective chemical waste minimization strategies for their companies.
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