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Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, aesthetics or amenity. Waste management is also carried out to reduce the materials' effect on the environment and to recover resources from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. This book concentrates on the newest research in the field.
This text provides students with the scientific principles of hazardous waste management. Segmented into three major parts (sources, pathways, and receptors), and including a section on management and design applications, this book can be used in a one-semester course in the civil engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering or hydrology course. It can also be used in an environmental engineering or hydrology course where students do not have a design emphasis, a civil-environmental engineering course with a 33 per cent design content, or (using minimal supplemental material) a two-semester sequence in hazardous waste engineering or engineering design. The book uses example problems, end-of-chapter problems, tabular data, and includes a solutions manual.
The collection, transportation and subsequent processing of waste materials is a vast field of study which incorporates technical, social, legal, economic, environmental and regulatory issues. Common waste management practices include landfilling, biological treatment, incineration, and recycling - all boasting advantages and disadvantages. Waste management has changed significantly over the past ten years, with an increased focus on integrated waste management and life-cycle assessment (LCA), with the aim of reducing the reliance on landfill with its obvious environmental concerns in favour of greener solutions. With contributions from more than seventy internationally known experts presented in two volumes and backed by the International Waste Working Group and the International Solid Waste Association, detailed chapters cover: * Waste Generation and Characterization * Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Management Systems * Waste Minimization * Material Recycling * Waste Collection * Mechanical Treatment and Separation * Thermal Treatment * Biological Treatment * Landfilling * Special and Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Technology & Management is a balanced and detailed account of all aspects of municipal solid waste management, treatment and disposal, covering both engineering and management aspects with an overarching emphasis on the life-cycle approach.
This book details how to start and maintain a successful safety program in a municipal or industrial water or wastewater plant with special emphasis on the practical implementation. This new edition provides the latest OSHA regulations and recommendations, and each chapter has been updated with new information, including the latest innovations related to all types of successfully proven health and safety protocols. Coverage includes safety programs, recordkeeping, safety training, safety equipment, and safe work practices for wastewater treatment facilities. In addition, much of the text should be relevant to safety and health professionals in almost any industrial setting.
Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Hazardous waste generally exhibits one or more of these characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludges. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides. One major type is radioactive waste. This book brings together the latest research in this diverse field.
Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Hazardous waste generally exhibits one or more of these characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludges. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides. One of its type is radioactive waste. This book brings together the latest research in this diverse field.
Millions of tonnes of waste are produced every year by the
agri-food industry. Disposal by landfill or incineration is already
expensive and the industry faces increasing costs for the removal
of refuse and remnants. The costs of energy and water are also
significant for food businesses and savings can be made in these
areas if the quantity of energy and water used is limited. Methods
to recycle and reduce the need for disposal are therefore
increasingly of interest.
This book describes how psychiatric pharmaceuticals, namely antidepressants, anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics are among the most prescribed active substances due to the higher occurrence of psychiatric disorders throughout the world. It goes on to demonstrate how patients' excretion of the active compounds along with several metabolites is considered to be the main pathway for the occurrence of these emerging pollutants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface and drinking water, soils and sediments. Further chapters are devoted to an exploration of these pharmaceuticals' high persistence, toxicity and intrinsic biological activity, which can affect the nervous and endocrine systems of terrestrial and aquatic non-target organisms, the dissemination of these compounds in environment matrices and the growing number of associated problems and concerns. The remainder of the book describes how conventional wastewater treatment processes are generally inefficient when it comes to the removal of this type of pollutants, giving rise to the demand for implementing alternative or complementary treatment technologies. Extensive research studies on the efficiency of the degradation and/or removal of these pollutants are summarized, and adsorption, membrane and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) are proposed. Given its content and structure, the book offers a concise summary of the most significant findings on psychiatric pharmaceutical removal in wastewater.
This book examines the facts and trends in municipal solid waste generation, recycling and disposal in the United States. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. The EPA has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than thirty years. This information is used to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. In 2008, Americans generated about 250 million tons of trash and recycled and composted 83 million tons of this material, equivalent to a 33.2 percent recycling rate.
The scientific properties of different types of wastewater and the unit processes used to transform it into effluent of sufficient quality to be returned to the environment are explained in this comprehensive text. The book presents detailed descriptions of, and mathematical formulas for, wastewater treatment processes-from "dirty" influent to drinking-water-quality discharge. Operations include: filtering and activated sludge, detention basins, ponds and lagoons, and the stabilization and composting of bio solids. Chapters explain the basics of the multiple sciences needed to master wastewater treatment: mathematics, hydraulics, chemistry, and electricity, as well as plant-specific methods used in sedimentation, biological contractors, pumping, chemical dosing, lab analysis and more. Unit processes are illustrated with examples from facilities, as well as by explanations of formulas and step-by-step calculations.
Over 50 percent of the 6,900 million dry tons of sewage sludge generated each year in the United States is land applied. The principal controversies surrounding the land application of biosolids involve heavy metals and pathogens. Land Application of Sewage Sludge and Biosolids is a comprehensive, scientific text providing a complete review of various aspects of this controversial subject, from an extensive discussion of heavy metals and pathogens to the fate and effects of organic compounds. Consideration is given to crop removal of metals and organics, soil erosion, and leaching, as well as to differing approaches and regulations in Europe and Canada. The result is an authoritative, science-based, and unbiased perspective on the benefits and the potential risks of land application to human health and the environment.
A translation of Guide de conception et de gestion Des Reseaux d'assainissement unitaires - etat de l'art, Paris 1996. The contents include: data on rainstorm run-off pollution; different types of weirs and accessories; computation and measurement of characteristics of weirs; evaluation and improvement of hydraulic output and its treatment; location, checking and choice of weir and its improvement; regulations concerning weir wastes; conclusions and strategy proposed for action and improvement of knowledge; and documents concerning computational methods. The case studies presented are: Impact of wastes of storm weirs; Weirs of Paris; Measurement of quality storm weirs; Measurement of quality of water in sanitary networks; Summary of investigations conducted on weirs of Paris and three districts of premiere Couronne; Management of works of the Boulogne Loop; Management of interdistrict work of the Parisian agglomeration; The plant at Acheres: a new scheme for 2001; and Strategy for overall management of sanitation in Seine Saint Denis."
This book presents the latest advances in and current research perspectives on the field of urban/industrial solid waste recycling for bio-energy and bio-fuel recovery. It chiefly focuses on five main thematic areas, namely bioreactor landfills coupled with energy and nutrient recovery; microbial insights into anaerobic digestion; greenhouse emission assessment; pyrolysis techniques for special waste treatment; and industrial waste stabilization options. In addition, it compiles the results of case studies and solid waste management perspectives from different countries.
Reap the benefits of sludge
A practical guide to wastewater bacteria and the roles they perform
in wastewater treatment
Volume II of the definitive series on the microbiology of wastewater treatment
The activated sludge process is the most versatile, commonly used wastewater treatment system in North America; however, many activated sludge processes frequently experience operational problems related to poor compaction or settleability of secondary solids and loss of secondary solids from the clarifier. Eschewing the technical jargon and copious chemical equations found in the majority of wastewater studies, Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process speaks directly to plant operators, showing them how to identify and solve common problems and achieve maximum efficiency.
Michael H. Gerardi’s hands-on guide addresses the most common plant operational problems, such as increased costs, loss of treatment efficiency, and permit violations. Using numerous tables and illustrations, Settleability Problems provides microscopic and analytical techniques for troubleshooting and identifying the conditions responsible for settleability problems and loss of solids. It includes pictures of wet mounts and smears of acceptable and unacceptable microscopic conditions of the activated sludge and presents corrective measures for operational problems. Chapters include:
The Wastewater Microbiology Series tackles the critical topics of cost-effective operation, permit compliance, process control, and troubleshooting through a microbiological perspective. Volume II in the series, Settleability Problems will prove to be of unparalleled value to wastewater treatment plant operators as well as students of wastewater microbiology.
A practical guide to wastewater treatment for plant technicians and operators
This book, the first in a series on the microbiology of wastewater treatment, comprises the critical topics of cost-effective operation, permit compliance, process control, and troubleshooting in wastewater treatment plants. Avoiding the technical jargon, chemical equations, and kinetics that typically accompany such texts, Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process directly addresses plant operators and technicians, providing necessary information for understanding the microbiology and biological conditions that occur in the treatment process.
Of special interest to wastewater treatment plant operators are the bacteria that degrade nitrogenous wastes–the nitrifying bacteria–and the bacteria that degrade carbonaceous wastes–the cBOD-removing bacteria. Both groups of bacteria need to be routinely monitored and operational conditions favorably adjusted to ensure desired nitrification. Each chapter in this groundbreaking study offers a better understanding of the importance of nitrification and denitrification and the bacteria involved in these crucial processes. Chapters include:
Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process is an ideal companion for operators and technicians of wastewater treatment plants as they study to receive certification in their field, now required in more than thirty states. Sanitary engineers, chemists, microbiologists, and educators will benefit from this comprehensive guide.
Low-cost sewerage provides practical solutions to the sanitation needs of low-income areas. As a result of the currently very rapid urban population growth, the demand for sewerage exceeds the resources of most high density urban areas in developing countries. Low-cost alternatives to conventional sewerage, such as settled sewerage and simplified sewerage, therefore need to be developed. This book is the result of contributions by both academics and practitioners who attended the International Conference on Low-cost Sewerage which was held at the University of Leeds, England, in July 1995. Low-cost sewerage technologies are described and their applications in both developed and developing countries are detailed.
A complete guide to OSHA training requirements for hazardous waste
The text of choice for any hazardous site operations training program, whether taught in universities, government agencies, or industry, Hazardous Waste Site Operations is an excellent guide for instructors, an invaluable reference for students, and a useful resource for professionals in the field.
The most comprehensive design reference available on remediation techniques, waste disposal methods and various waste containment systems. Covers several important new issues such as the regulatory structure of RCRA Subtitles C and D; subsurface flow and transport of contaminants; liner systems, leachate collection and removal systems for landfills; and seismic stability analysis of landfills. Describes new waste stabilization technologies including the process of converting non-solid toxic waste into inert solids.
A comprehensive presentation of activated sludge from basic principles to new process designs and configurations, the book explains how activated sludge is utilized to bring industrial wastewaters up to effluent permit standards, with special attention to organics, microconstituents and bioactive pharmaceuticals. It covers characterization, pretreatment; treatability studies; process modeling and reuse from pharma, food, beverage, and meat packing facilities. A chapter is devoted to treatment of shale gas/fracking wastes. It includes key information for retrofitting, troubleshooting and new design.
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