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Advanced separations technology is key to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and relieving future generations from the burden of radioactive waste produced by the nuclear power industry. Nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques not only allow for recycling of useful fuel components for further power generation, but by also separating out the actinides, lanthanides and other fission products produced by the nuclear reaction, the residual radioactive waste can be minimised. Indeed, the future of the industry relies on the advancement of separation and transmutation technology to ensure environmental protection, criticality-safety and non-proliferation (i.e., security) of radioactive materials by reducing their long-term radiological hazard. Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment provides a comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. Part one covers the fundamental chemistry, engineering and safety of radioactive materials separations processes in the nuclear fuel cycle, including coverage of advanced aqueous separations engineering, as well as on-line monitoring for process control and safeguards technology. Part two critically reviews the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. The section includes discussions of advanced PUREX processes, the UREX+ concept, fission product separations, and combined systems for simultaneous radionuclide extraction. Part three details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, initially reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, highly selective compounds for solvent extraction, and developments in partitioning and transmutation processes that aim to close the nuclear fuel cycle. The book concludes with other advanced techniques such as solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid and ionic liquid extraction, and biological treatment processes. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment is a standard reference for all nuclear waste management and nuclear safety professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers in this field.
The exponential growth of urban settings has led to an increase in pollutants and waste management issues around the world. As the environment continues to falter under the weight of these pressing issues, it has become increasingly imperative to develop new technologies and methodologies that have the potential to improve the overall sustainability and cleanliness of these cities. Smart Cities as a Solution for Reducing Urban Waste and Pollution examines emergent research on smart innovations within built urban environments. Featuring best practices and theoretical frameworks, as well as potential issues in the implementation of smart and green technology in urban settings, this publication is a vital reference source for graduate students, researchers, academics, engineers, architects, facility managers, and government officials.
Sustainability is a growing area of research in ecology, economics, environmental science, business, and cultural studies. Specifically, sustainable waste disposal and management is a growing concern as both solid and liquid wastes are rapidly expanding in direct correlation with population growth and improved economic conditions across regions. The Handbook of Research on Waste Management Techniques for Sustainability explores the topic of sustainable development in an era where domestic and municipal waste is becoming a concern for both human and environmental health. Highlighting a number of topics relating to pollution, green initiatives, and waste reduction in both the public and private sector, this research-based publication is designed for use by environmental scientists, business executives, researchers, graduate-level students, and policymakers seeking the latest information on sustainability in business, medicine, agriculture, and society.
Advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) oxidize a broad range of contaminants, including those that are not readily removed with other advanced technologies. The need to treat an ever expanding range of regulated and emerging contaminants has led to an increased interest in AOTs. This handbook provides the fundamentals of the design and operation for advanced oxidation technologies. The possible applications-micropollutant treatment, treatment of taste and odor compounds, and water reuse treatment-as well as the advanced oxidation types are covered. The authors look at AOT facilities including possible locations, key design criteria, and start-up, operation and maintenance. They also cover equipment basics and the safety and handling of AOT equipment. Case studies and considerations for water utility managers such as using an engineering firm vs going it alone are particularly valuable for the beginner as well as the more advanced operator.
Energy costs are a large portion of the operational budget for water and wastewater utilities, second only to staffing. This handbook provides information and insight into energy management strategies that can reduce operational costs, increase operational efficiencies, and develop a more sustainable infrastructure. Following the popular plan-do-act-check framework, this book provides an overview of key steps in developing and implementing an energy management program. The importance of establishing an energy team, benchmarking energy use, performing audits, and using economic analysis tools to prioritize is discussed. The authors also summarize the wide variety of management measures that can be used to reduce energy use and associated costs, including operational improvements, water efficiency strategies, and asset management programs. Paying particular attention to pumping, the book describes how motor assessment and maintenance can improve energy efficiency. Renewable energy options--solar, wind, and microhydro technologies-are discussed as are external funding sources and innovative financing methods including energy performance contracting and leasing options.
Water risks and security are a major global hazard in the 21st century and it is essential that water professionals have a solid grounding in the principles of preventative risk management. This second edition of the key textbook, Risk Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities, extends beyond first principles and examines the practicalities of resilience and vulnerability assessment, strategic risk appraisal and the interconnectedness of water utility risks in a networked infrastructure. It provides an up-dated overview of tools and techniques for risk management in the context of the heightened expectations for sound risk governance that are being made of all water and wastewater utilities. Risk Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities provides a valuable starting point for newly appointed risk managers in the utility sector and offers MSc level self-paced study with self-assessment questions and abbreviated answers, key learning points, case studies and worked examples.
The Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) in Colorado is one of two sites
that features U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons that need to be
destroyed. The PCD features about 2,600 tons of mustard-including
agent. The PCD also features a pilot plant, the Pueblo Chemical
Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP), which has been set up to
destroy the agent and munition bodies using novel processes. The
chemical neutralization or hydrolysis of the mustard agent produces
a Schedule 2 compound called thiodiglycol (TDG) that must be
destroyed. The PCAPP uses a combined water recovery system (WRS)
and brine reduction system (BRS) to destroy TDG and make the water
used in the chemical neutralization well water again.
This publication is concerned with radioactive waste that requires geological disposal. It discusses the partnership arrangements necessary for the development of a multinational repository for disposal of this waste, but it also emphasizes that countries should not rely solely on a multinational solution and should in addition have coherent national plans for disposal (a dual track strategy). The publication focuses on multinational approaches based on the IAEA scenario for cooperation among countries in joint projects for the establishment of a shared geological repository. It describes the phased approach that would be needed, indicating the decision processes to be undertaken by partners in the multinational project, both within a national context and in the scope of the joint endeavour. It highlights a wide range of legal and institutional aspects, including the contractual obligations among partners, the economic and financial arrangements, liabilities, nuclear security, regulatory and legislative aspects, waste transportation arrangements, and social issues. It also addresses the uncertainties and risks involved in the implementation of a multinational repository.
This handbook describes the application, design, operation, control, and optimization of ozone facilities in drinking water treatment plants.For utilties that either use ozone or are considering its use, this book is a total resource for information about ozone water treatment systems. The book explains why and how ozone is currently being used and presents important design, operation, and maintenance considerations. For laboratories and researchers that are involved with bench- or pilot-testing, the book describes how ozone is used in full-scale installations and describes scale-up issues.Regulatory agencies responsible for enforcement, design review, and inspections of plants that use ozone also will find this book helpful.. The book explains the theory and practice of ozone operation and how ozone disinfection performance is measured, calculated, reported, and optimized.
The presence of iron and manganese in drinking water are generally not hazardous to health. However, there are few things are more alarming to customers than seeing red water or black water come out of their faucets. This book offers an analysis of current and emerging methods for iron and manganese removal as well as guidance for handling residuals. Using firsthand field experience and detailed case studies, the authors explain the processes to follow.In this new edition, more detail is devoted to the selection and design of the treatment process and to minimizing the use of vendor-engineered packages that have become so common throughout the industry. Unit processes are described and calculations are provided so that the reader can understand the impacts of changes to the design components. This edition also attempts to address the question of why decisions are made and standards followed.John Civardi and Mark Tompeck have donated their royalties from the sale of this book to the Hatch Mott MacDonald Endowed Scholarship at the New Jersey Institute of Technology.
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