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During the last decade membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has grown up to be state of the art in municipal wastewater treatment. Since 1999 the Erftverband has designed, tendered and commissioned three MBR for municipal wastewater treatment in Germany, with capacities from 3,000 to 45,000 m(3)/d. The Erftverband was one of the pioneers in the full scale application of the technology regularly hosted training and information workshops for plant designers and operators from all over the world. Operating Large Scale Membrane Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment provides hands-on information on many aspects of MBR technology based on more than ten years of practical experience in the operation of MBR plants with hollow-fiber microfiltration units. It gives details on process configuration, investment and operation costs based on case studies and also in comparison to data from conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment processes. The book contains the most recent research findings as Erftverband has been collaborating on many of the major European research projects dedicated to MBR technology. Actual process data from all treatment steps of the plants (mechanical pre-treatment, bioreactors, filtration, membrane cleaning) gives an insight into the long-term performance of the MBR plants and into the possible do's and dont's of full scale applications and the potential for further process optimisation. It is a good source of practical advice on tendering and construction, plant management and operation. Operating Large Scale Membrane Bioreactors for Municipal Wastewater Treatment is essential reading for practitioners and researchers, providing information on many aspects of MBR technology, including actual process data, graphs and pictures that illustrate the challenges of MBR design and operation. Visit the IWA WaterWiki to read and share material related to this title: http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/MBROperation
Wastewater disposal by marine outfalls is proven and effective and is a reliable and cost effective solution with minimal environmental impacts. The design and siting of submarine outfalls is a complex task that relies on many disciplines including oceanography, civil and environmental engineering, marine biology, construction, economics, and public relations. Marine Wastewater Outfalls and Treatment Systems brings these disciplines together and outlines all tasks involved in the planning and design of a wastewater system involving a marine outfall. This book concerns the design of marine wastewater disposal systems: that is an ocean outfall plus treatment plant. All aspects of outfall design and planning are covered, including water quality design criteria, mathematical modelling of water quality and dilution, gathering required oceanographic data, appropriate wastewater treatment for marine discharges, construction materials for marine pipelines, forces on pipelines and outfall design, outfall hydraulics, outfall construction, tunnelled outfalls, operation and maintenance, monitoring, case studies are discussed and methods for gaining public acceptance for the project are presented. Finally, costs for many outfalls around the world are summarized and methods for estimating costs are given. This is the first book to consider all aspects of marine outfall planning and construction. The authors are all extensively involved with outfall schemes and aware of recent developments. The science and technology of all aspects of outfall discharges into coastal waters and estuaries of treated municipal or industrial wastewater has advanced considerably over the past few years. Marine Wastewater Outfalls and Treatment Systems provides an up to date and comprehensive summary of this rapidly developing area.
This international, comprehensive guide to modeling and simulation studies in activated sludge systems leads the reader through the entire modeling process - from building a mechanistic model to applying the model in practice. Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Activated Sludge Systems will: Enhance the readers' understanding of different model concepts for several (most essential) biochemical processes in the advanced activated sludge systems Provide extensive and up-to-date coverage of experimental methodologies of a complete model parameter estimation (longitudinal dispersion coefficient, influent wastewater fractions, kinetic and stoichiometric coefficients, settling velocity, etc.) Summarize and critically review the ranges of model parameters reported in literature Compare the existing protocols aiming at a systematic organization of the simulation study Outline the capabilities of the existing commercial simulators Present documented, successful case studies of practical model applications as a guide while planning a simulation study. The book is organized to provide a general background and some basic definitions, then theoretical aspects of modeling and finally, the issues important for practical model applications. Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation of Activated Sludge Systems can be used as supplementary material for a graduate level wastewater engineering courses and is useful to a wide audience of researchers and practitioners. Experienced model users such as consultants, trained plant management staff may find the book useful as a reference and as a resource for self-guided study. Visit the IWA WaterWiki to read and share material related to this title: http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/MathmematicalModellingandActivatedSludgeSystems
In the last two decades, a concern on how federal forests in the United States are managed has provoked concerns among different stakeholders, including NGOs. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of NGO influence on forest management legislation. Eight aspects were selected and compared in different study cases referring to legislative proposals dealing with forest management in order to define success criteria for a legislative initiative. The study indicates that the following criteria are particularly important to fulfill in order to influence forest management legislation: - The issue to address should be on the political agenda and have high public interest.- Environmental and social aspects should not be at the expense of economic aspects.- The legislative initiative should be prepared in multi-stakeholder processes, including local government and organizations.- The supporters of the initiative should take part in all decision-making processes and advise the Government in aspects related to their areas of expertise.NGOs would likely improve their chances of influencing forest management legislation if they hold a flexible position regarding legislative proposals containing similar or even less strict measures than their own initiatives, look at market oriented schemes as alternatives to legislation, and maintain good relationships with other major stakeholders.
Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Plants is a review of the sludge reduction techniques integrated in wastewater treatment plants with detailed chapters on the most promising and most widespread techniques. The aim of the book is to update the international community on the current status of knowledge and techniques in the field of sludge reduction. It will provide a comprehensive understanding of the following issues in sludge reduction: * principles of sludge reduction techniques; * process configurations; * potential performance; * advantages and drawbacks; * economics and energy consumption. This book will be essential reading for managers and technical staff of wastewater treatment plants as well as graduate students and post-graduate specialists.
This book, published in collaboration with ERSAR, presents a unique account of governance and regulatory methods used by different countries, states and municipalities that will help regulators and governments all over the world to improve their regulatory approaches. It is the first book to compile such an amount of data about regulatory processes of a wide number of countries from the five continents. It discusses how the characteristics of water and wastewater services call for regulation and how different countries apply distinct regulatory methods. By showing 18 country case-studies, the book offers an interesting perspective as the regulatory models adopted vary immensely depending on geographical location, nature and strength of institutions and governments, political ideology, features and level of development of the countries. In addition, it provides examples of best practices that may be important for policy-makers to enhance the regulatory processes adopted in each country. It looks closely at rules imposed by state and local governments concerning regulatory issues and how they are being applied. Regulation of Water and Wastewater Services covers the fundamental and practical concepts and issues regarding the regulation of water and wastewater services. It describes and compares the regulatory methods adopted in several countries and provides a global overview on regulation. There is detailed coverage of topics such as quality of service regulation, economic regulation and public service obligations. This book is suitable for regulators, academic researchers and students, consultants, operators and managers, policy-makers and other stakeholders. Visit the IWA WaterWiki to read and share material related to this title: http://www.iwawaterwiki.org/xwiki/bin/view/Articles/RegulationofWaterandWastewaterServicesAninternationalcomparison Author: Rui Cunha Marques, Center of Urban and Regional Systems (CESUR), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon in collaboration with the Portuguese Water and Waste Services Regulation Authority (ERSAR)
Wastewater treatment plants usually generate millions of tons of sewage sludge every year. Sewage sludge results from the accumulation of solids from chemical coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation during wastewater treatment. Worldwide, sludge production is steadily increasing, driven by the increasing percentage of households connected to central treatment plants, the increasing tightening of pollution limits on the effluent discharged, as well as the availability of technologies capable of achieving higher efficiency of wastewater treatment. Sewage sludge contains undesirable hazardous substances such as trace elements, pesticides and endocrine disruptors, pathogens and other microbiological pollutants. Therefore, sludge has to be properly treated and disposed of to prevent environmental contamination and health risk. Sludge processing is intended to improve dewatering characteristics, eliminate disease-causing bacteria, reduce smell and decrease the quantity of organic solids. In this way, the end product can be treated further or disposed of with less handling problems and environmental consequences. This new important book gathers the latest research from around the globe on this issue.
Sewer systems constitute a very significant heritage in European cities. Their structural quality and functional efficiency are key parameters to guarantee the transfer of domestic and industrial wastewater to treatment plants without infiltration nor exfiltration. Infiltration of groundwater is particularly detrimental to treatment plant efficiency, while exfiltration of wastewater can lead to groundwater contamination. The European research project APUSS (Assessing infiltration and exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems) was devoted to sewer infiltration and exfiltration questions. It was structured in three main Work Areas dealing respectively with i) the development of new measurement methods based on tracer experiments and accounting for detailed uncertainty analyses, ii) the implementation of models and software tools to integrate structural and experimental data and to facilitate data display, operational management and decision-making processes and iii) the integration of economic and operational questions by means of cost estimation, economic evaluation, performance indicators and multi-criteria methods applied to investment/rehabilitation strategies. This final report describes the objectives, methods and main results for each Work Area. References to detailed methods, protocols, reports and tools are given in this final report which will be an invaluable source of information for all those concerned with the performance of urban sewer systems.
Legislation is now in place that demands high standards of effluent treatment and waste disposal, both industrial and domestic.
This book provides plant managers, operators and consultants with a practical guide to the equipment and techniques available for improving the standard of effluent discharges from factories and treatment plants, to comply with the tougher discharge limits that the regulatory bodies now require.
The book reviews both established and new techniques and shows how to maximise their potential by providing a wide range of options. Success the first time around is emphasized.
The text concentrates on minimising waste and maximising savings, including recycling. Practicality and simplicity of approach are stressed, with a range of case studies to demonstrate their approach.
The book has been updated to include a review of developments since the first edition was published and features a new chapter on cesspools, septic tanks and small treatment plants.
Tannery is one of the most polluting industries. In order to recover the process water and costly chemicals, membrane based processes can be effectively used to treat the effluent emerging from each of the tannery units. This book presents a systematic and comprehensive study to develop a greener route to treat such effluents. It is to be emphasised that no such book dealing with application of membrane filtration in tannery waste exists currently. Therefore, this book obviously has significant advancement compared to existing books on membrane technology. This book will have two fold impacts. Firstly, its academic value is quite high; Secondly, it will have remarkable impact of scaling up such system in actual industrial scale from pilot plant data in an emerging area. This book presents detailed description of the membrane based processes to treat the effluent from various units operations of a tannery. The results are analysed in full detail. This book is a first kind of its own in this emerging field.
From time to time city, county, or state officials must address important water and wastewater issues, such as water resources, utility service rates, or capital financing for new infrastructure. These busy people need a useful information source on drinking water and wastewater systems. Water Basics for Decision Makers: Local Officials' Guide to Water and Wastewater Systems is designed to be a handy, one-stop information resource for local decision makers all stakeholders in your city's water and wastewater systems. This expertly written book explains how management of water utilities, rate setting, water and wastewater treatment plant operations, the science of water and wastewater treatment, water quality and public health, water storage and distribution, source water development, infrastructure maintenance, finances, and much more. The author explains technical subjects in a nontechnical style, so readers do not need a technical background in water and wastewater treatment.
Pumps are the most expensive part of a water system to operate and can be very expensive to repair or replace after a failure. Proper pump selection and operation is essential for long service life.This handbook is specially written to provide operators, engineers, and maintenance staff quick and easy methods to determine whether a pump is operating properly. The book is divided into six chapters:Chapter 1 - Pump HorsepowerChapter 2 - Pump TypesChapter 3 - Variable FlowChapter 4 - Pump TroubleshootingChapter 5 - Chemical PumpsChapter 6 - Operation and Maintenance Manual
Environmental Technologies to Treat Nitrogen Pollution will provide a thorough understanding of the principles and applications of environmental technologies to treat nitrogen contamination. The main focus will be on water and wastewater treatment, with additional coverage of leachates and off-gasses. The book will bring together an up-to-date compilation of the main physical, chemical and biological processes demanded for the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from water, wastewater, leachates and off-gasses. It will include a series of chapters providing a deep and broad knowledge of the principles and applications required for the treatment of nitrogen pollution. Each chapter will be prepared by recognized specialists across the range of different aspects involved in the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from industrial discharges. Environmental Technologies to Treat Nitrogen Pollution will be the first book to provide a complete review of all the different processes used for the global management of nitrogen pollution. It will also contain updated information about strategies to achieve nitrogen recovery and reuse in different industrial sectors. Several case studies will document the application of different environmental technologies to manage nitrogen pollution. This book will be of interest to lecturers and graduate students in the following subject areas: environmental engineering, environmental biotechnology, wastewater treatment plant design, water pollution control, contaminants recovery and reuse. The book will also be an attractive reference for environmental engineering consultants.
This project was initiated in response to the establishment of mercury TMDLs around the country and issues raised by this process, specifically concerning the issue of mercury bioavailability. While many of these studies recognize that point sources constitute a small fraction of the mercury load to a water body, a question has been raised concerning the relative bioavailability of mercury coming from various sources. For instance, is the mercury discharged from a wastewater treatment plant more or less bioavailable than mercury in precipitation, mercury in urban stormwater, or mercury in sediments? This project seeks to address this question by developing a reliable definition and approach to estimating bioavailability, by profiling various sources of mercury in a watershed with regard to the species of mercury present and by profiling those factors or conditions in either the effluent or the receiving water that enhance or mitigate the bioavailability of those forms. There were several important objectives relevant to the estimation of bioavailability and potential bioaccumulation of mercury from wastewater treatment plants and other sources in receiving waters. The first was to develop a working definition of bioavailability. For purposes of this project, this definition includes not only methylmercury, the form of mercury that readily bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains, but also bioavailable and potentially bioavailable inorganic mercury species that can be converted to methylmercury within a reasonable time frame. It is concluded that the strength of binding to solids and mercury-sulfur-organic matter associations are major factors in determining the bioavailability of inorganic Hg. A second major objective was to identify those factors or conditions in both the effluent and the receiving waters that enhance or mitigate the transformation of inorganic mercury to methylmercury and its subsequent bioaccumulation. Profiles were developed for various sources of mercury in watersheds, including wastewater treatment plants, with regard to bioavailable and potentially bioavailable mercury, and key factors in effluents and receiving waters that enhance or mitigate it. A procedure to assess the relative bioavailability of mercury from various watershed sources, including wastewater treatment plants was developed and tested using data from a US location. The project also features a literature review of conventional and emerging technologies for the removal of mercury from effluent streams and their effects on mercury bioavailability. A review of the salient aspects of mercury TMDLs completed by EPA and the states is also included. This project concludes that, based on available data and bioavailability as defined in this report, wastewater effluent is one of the lowest among the sources evaluated with respect to mercury bioavailability, along with urban runoff and mining runoff. Atmospheric deposition and contaminated sediments tend to be among the highest sources with respect to mercury bioavailability.
A spectrum of environmental issues and waste management in energy and mineral production including regulation, management, risk assessment, and health and safety are contained within this book on the proceedings of SWEMP '98.
Here is a complete introduction and guide to UV technologies for the disinfection of drinking water. This book describes the powerful capabilities of ultraviolet light as a water disinfectant. It explains in detail UV how UV inactivates and makes harmless microbes by altering their DNA. It tells you how UV is measured and dosed to inactivate any type of microbe in your source water. You will understand how UV can fit into your specific treatment scheme, whether yours is a large, medium or small system using filtered or unfiltered water, an uncovered reservoir, groundwater, or surface water. The book describes the effects of turbidity, algae, and other water quality issues on UV performance, as well as pretreatment that may be needed prior to UV, such as filtration or chlorine reduction.You can use The Ultraviolet Disinfection Handbook to help you plan, purchase, install, and operate a UV installation. The book provides the specific information you need to know about UV equipment: major classes of UV water treatment systems, types of UV lamps, UV sensors, sleeves, power needs, and control equipment. In addition, chapters provide complete guidance and information on key design issues, including UV transmittance; equipment fouling and aging; equipment location, layout, and site constraints; flow and hydraulics; and electric power. It also explains USEPA requirements for validation of UV reactor performance prior to startup, plus operational requirements. You also will find helpful information on UV cost estimating.
This is a collection of methods of practical design, calculation and numerical examples that illustrate how organized, analytical reasoning can lead to the discovery of clear, direct solutions to pollution especially in the areas of biosolids management, treatment, disposal and beneficial use. The book contains an extensive collection of detailed design examples and case histories, and a distinguished panel of authors provides insight into a range of topics.
Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: .wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) .impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes .overview of wastewater treatment systems .overview of sludge treatment and disposal .complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations for the topics that are analysed in more detail in the other books in the series. The Biological Wastewater Treatment series is based on the book Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions and on a highly acclaimed set of best selling textbooks. This international version is comprised by six textbooks giving a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment.Titles in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series are: Volume 1: Wasewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal Volume 2: Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment Volume 3: Waste Stabilisation Ponds Volume 4: Anaerobic Reactors Volume 5: Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors Volume 6: Sludge Treatment and Disposal
Waste Stabilisation Ponds is the third volume in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series. The major variants of pond systems are fully covered, namely .facultative ponds .anaerobic ponds .aerated lagoons .maturation ponds. The book presents in a clear and didactic way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects, operational guidelines and sludge management for pond systems. The Biological Wastewater Treatment series is based on the book Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions and on a highly acclaimed set of best selling textbooks. This international version is comprised by six textbooks giving a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment. Other books in the Biological Wastewater Treatment series: Volume 1: Wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal Volume 2: Basic principles of wastewater treatment Volume 4: Anaerobic reactors Volume 5: Activated sludge and aerobic biofilm reactors Volume 6: Sludge treatment and disposal
This handy field reference contains all the information, charts,
graphs, formulas, and definitions that are needed by wastewater
system operators in performing their daily duties.
The Activated Sludge (AS) Process is old technology but is still widely adopted worldwide for its convenience and simplicity: an impressive number (many hundred of thousands) of this kind of system are in operation. Occasionally, problems such as bulking and foaming occur, causing regulation violations and large investment is often required immediately to control them. For this reason, an intense research effort has been made during the last few decades to face these problems, and this report details the work undertaken by the IWA Specialist Group on Activated Sludge Population Dynamics. This Scientific and Technical Report describes the main reasons fslyuor the growth of the different filamentous microorganisms in activated sludge, and the biological molecular tools available today for the identification of the main biomass components. The wide range of experiences around the world is documented and the methods to avoid the proliferation of these organisms are presented and critically reviewed. Activated Sludge Separation Problems consists of seven chapters, presenting up-to-date technical and scientific aspects of these processes. Scientific and Technical Report No. 16
Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. Ideally, this goal is to be met without introducing other risks, such as those that could be associated with disinfection by-products. The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of wastewater disinfection on human health. This assessment was conducted by examining two fundamental questions regarding the application of disinfection: 1. Should municipal wastewater effluents be disinfected prior to discharge?; and, 2. Under circumstances where disinfection is necessary, how should it be accomplished? Undisinfected effluent samples from a several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. The facilities selected for sampling were chosen to represent a broad spectrum of effluent qualities. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale disinfection under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations, and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfectants applied in this research included chlorine and UV radiation. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of microbiological assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of disinfectant exposure on bacteria and viruses.
Municipal Wastewater Management in Developing Countries discusses various approaches to municipal wastewater management in order to protect both public health and the environment, with the major focus being on waterborne diseases. Developing countries can be divided into two main categories, i.e. countries in transition with higher growth rates where industrialisation and urbanisation are taking place rapidly, and countries with slower growth rates. It is important, therefore, that approaches should be tailor-made and site-specific. In general, the major trends of water pollution control have significantly contributed to the development of ?conventional sanitation? approaches in terms of legal and financial frameworks, as well as technological enhancement. Despite advances in the science, engineering and legal frameworks, 95 per cent of the wastewater in the world is released into the environment without treatment. Only five per cent of global wastewater is properly treated using the ?standard? sanitation facilities, mainly in developed countries. As a result, the majority of the world?s population is still exposed to waterborne diseases, and the quality of water resources has been rapidly degraded, particularly in poor developing countries. The challenge now is to provide the world?s population, especially the poor, with adequate water and sanitation facilities. Despite billions of dollars of investment spent every year, billions of poor people are still suffering and dying because of poor sanitation. At the beginning of this century, about 1.1 billion people lived without access to clean water (compared to about the same number in 1990), 2.4 billion without appropriate sanitation (compared to 2.3 billion in 1990) and four billion without sound wastewater disposal. The future scenario, that water resources will be further depleted by a growing world population, will be coupled with environmental degradation due to poor pollution control, particularly in most of the developing countries. In order to address the issue of water and wastewater management in developing countries it is necessary to take into consideration the segments of the society itself, particularly the types of housing areas. The segments will indicate the level of socio-economic, mentality and knowledge, which is important for any planned changes in their life style and social engineering. It is also important to segregate the funding framework of any proposed projects. High-income urban communities, for instance, are generally willing to pay for sewerage services and higher water supply tariffs, therefore a designated system can be accordingly provided. Over the past 10 years, serious criticism has been given to the ?conventional sanitation? approach, consequently many definitions, concepts and characteristics have been proposed on ?sustainable sanitation?. Sustainable sanitation is a relevant concept in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 of providing water supply and adequate sanitation for developing countries. Sustainable sanitation is flexible in approach any community ? poor or rich, urban or rural, water-rich or water-poor country ? and requires lower investment costs compared to conventional sanitation approaches. It is also important to note that the framework of sustainable sanitation is much easier to adopt in developing countries where water supply and sanitation infrastructures are still in the developing stages. In some developing countries, no public facilities are available therefore it is an ideal condition to start a new infrastructure with a new framework. This comprehensive reference, prepared by leading international authorities, will provide an invaluable reference for all those concerned with the management of sanitation services in developing countries worldwide.
Instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) in wastewater treatment systems is now an established and recognised area of technology in the profession. There are obvious incentives for ICA, not the least from an economic point of view. Plants are also becoming increasingly complex which necessitates automation and control. Instrumentation, Control and Automation in Wastewater Systems summarizes the state-of-the-art of ICA and its application in wastewater treatment systems and focuses on how leading-edge technology is used for better operation. The book is written for: The practising process engineer and the operator, who wishes to get an updated picture of what is possible to implement in terms of ICA; The process designer, who needs to consider the couplings between design and operation; The researcher or the student, who wishes to get the latest technological overview of an increasingly complex field. There is a clear aim to present a practical ICA approach, based on a technical and economic platform. The economic benefit of different control and operation possibilities is quantified. The more qualitative benefits, such as better process understanding and more challenging work for the operator are also described. Several full-scale experiences of how ICA has improved economy, ease of operation and robustness of plant operation are presented. The book emphasizes both unit process control and plant wide operation. Scientific & Technical Report No. 15
This report deals with whether the experience of odors, i.e., odors as sensations, from biosolids at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causes illness. There exists no repository of information on the numbers of complainants with illness, their specific complaints, or the relationship between degree of exposure and complaints. Anecdotal reports nevertheless imply a pattern much like that associated with other industrial malodors. Any connection between odor and illness has received little note among the millions of articles in the medical literature. This state of affairs presumably exists because odors per se generate no objective signs of illness in otherwise healthy persons. However, malodors may exacerbate both symptoms and signs of illness in persons with certain chronic disorders, such as asthma and migraine. Vulnerability to such effects may vary considerably from person to person.
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