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The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering presents an in-depth examination of the principles and practice of modern day composting. This comprehensive book covers compost science, engineering design, operation, principles, and practice, stressing a fundamental approach to analysis throughout. Biological, physical, chemical, thermodynamic, and kinetic principles are covered to develop a unified analytical approach to analysis and an understanding of the process. A brief history of the development of composting systems, which leads to descriptions of modern processes, is presented.
Material Recovery Facility Design Manual is a comprehensive guide to the technical and economic aspects of material recovery facility (MRF) equipment and methods for separating and handling separable of source-separated recyclables in a typical municipal solid waste stream. For each individual constituent of the solid waste stream, alternative approaches are identified for separation and recovery. For each piece of equipment, the book covers design, theory of operation, sizing and equipment needs, for example shredders and balers.
Low-pressure (MF and UF) membranes can remove nearly all microbial pathogens as long as the integrity of the membranes remains intact. Membrane integrity testing identifies tiny defects in MF and UF membranes. The book describes various methods for membrane integrity testing. You will learn the types and causes of integrity breaches, tests to discover them, and how to establish a membrane integrity testing program.To comply with disinfection regulations, utilities using low-pressure membranes for drinking water treatment must validate and verify the removal efficiency of the targeted contaminant through integrity testing. Owners and operators of water treatment systems that use MF or UF membranes should use the testing methods described in this book to protect public health.
Now, every water treatment operator can identify and correct treatment deficiencies to maintain the desired water quality. Water Treatment Process Monitoring & Evaluation shows how.A basic part of the water treatment plant operator's job is to identify process problems, evaluate the causes, and develop effective solutions. This handbook will help you accomplish these essential duties.This book provides operators with the information needed to troubleshoot treatment problems, evaluate operational variations (such as the changes in treatment efficiency due to changes in the raw water), and make corresponding water chemistry or other process changes to maintain the desired water quality. Additionally, Water Treatment Process Monitoring & Evaluation covers fundamentals that all operators should know, including process design, computerized and manual controls, chemical feeders, monitoring instruments, response and detention times, and record keeping.Case histories, plentiful graphic illustrations, and a rich assortment of appendix material augment the text.
This valuable new book offers practical guidance regarding the design and operation of systems for reducing effluent nitrogen and phosphorus. The principles of nitrogen and phosphorus removal are discussed, including sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater, removal options, nitrogen and phosphorus transformations in treatment, process selection, and treatment. The book also covers the design and operation of nitrogen and phosphorus removal systems, including system options, system design, facility design, facility costs, and operation. Practical case studies are provided as examples of successful system implementations that may be able to help you decide what will work best in your plant.
Providing an introduction, the scientific background, case studies and future perspectives of in-situ arsenic remediation technologies for soils, soil water and groundwater at geogenic and anthropogenic contaminated sites. The case studies present in-situ technologies about natural arsenic, specifically arsenate and arsenite, but also about organic arsenic compounds. This work covers geochemical, microbiological and plant ecological solutions for arsenic remediation. It will serve as a standard textbook for (post-)graduate students and researchers in the field of Environmental Sciences and Hydrogeochemistry as well as researchers, engineers, environmental scientists and chemists, toxicologists, medical scientists and even for general public seeking an in-depth view of arsenic which had been classed as a carcinogen. This book aims to stimulate awareness among administrators, policy makers and company executives of in-situ remediation technologies at sites contamined by arsenic and to improve the international cooperation on the subject.
Part 5 of the 5-part Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations (WSO), this text provides a practical education in mathematics, hydraulics, chemistry, and electricity. Hundreds of problems and examples are included to relate these sciences specifically to municipal water supply operations. This book is referenced in the four other textbooks in the series. It is a required text when used with other WSO series texts, but may be used alone as a basic science text. Designed for self study or classroom use, the Fourth Edition provides many new problems and examples. Includes glossary, index, conversion tables, periodic table of the elements, and color plates.
This pocket field guide explains dry, liquid, and gas chemical feed systems, calibrations, and handling and storage requirements for various types of chemicals used in water treatment. Handy feed calculators for gas, liquid, and dry chemicals are included. Table of Contents 1. Chemical Feed Quality Control 2. Chemical Feed-Common System Components 3. Chemical Feed of Gases-Equipment and Systems 4. Chemical Feed of Gases-Calculations and Examples 5. Dry Chemical Feeders and Systems 6. Dry Chemical Feed-Calculations and Examples 7. Liquid Chemical Feed Equipment and Systems 8. Liquid Chemical Feed-Calculations and Examples Appendix A: Chemical Specification Example Language Appendix B: Conversion Factors Appendix C: Density Tables for Common Liquid Chemicals Appendix D: Calculator Derivations Appendix E: Atomic Weights and Measures
A practical, systems-based approach for a more sustainable farming operation To many people today, using the words "factory" and "farm" in the same sentence is nothing short of sacrilege. In many cases, though, the same sound business practices apply whether you are producing cars or carrots. Author Ben Hartman and other young farmers are increasingly finding that incorporating the best new ideas from business into their farming can drastically cut their wastes and increase their profits, making their farms more environmentally and economically sustainable. By explaining the lean system for identifying and eliminating waste and introducing efficiency in every aspect of the farm operation, The Lean Farm makes the case that small-scale farming can be an attractive career option for young people who are interested in growing food for their community. Working smarter, not harder, also prevents the kind of burnout that start-up farmers often encounter in the face of long, hard, backbreaking labor. Lean principles grew out of the Japanese automotive industry, but they are now being followed on progressive farms around the world. Using examples from his own family's one-acre community-supported farm in Indiana, Hartman clearly instructs other small farmers in how to incorporate lean practices in each step of their production chain, from starting a farm and harvesting crops to training employees and selling goods. While the intended audience for this book is small-scale farmers who are part of the growing local food movement, Hartman's prescriptions for high-value, low-cost production apply to farms and businesses of almost any size or scale that hope to harness the power of lean in their production processes.
Wastes, whether they are solid wastes or wastewater, are resources from which economic values may be derived. Almost all components of agricultural and food wastewater can be and should be utilized or recovered; the stumbling block of achieving this aspiration is economical, not technical. The last one and a half decades have seen the surging of agricultural and non-agricultural commodity prices across the board and increased public consciousness of environmental impact of industrial wastewater discharge and treatment. The confluence of these new developments have generated new interests and applications of agricultural and food wastewater and their treatment residuals in diverse fields and industries. This new edition will expand topics related to wastewater utilizations and new uses of treatment residuals while providing up-to-date information on new treatment technologies and practices across the globe. The new edition s target audience is anyone who has the responsibility of dealing with its plant effluents in agricultural and food processing operations. It should be of value to waste management personnel responsible for managing major waste effluents from agro and food industries. It will also be useful for college students whose majors are in environmental science or waste management fields as a reference.
A successful modern heavy metal control program for any industry will include not only traditional water pollution control, but also air pollution control, soil conservation, site remediation, groundwater protection, public health management, solid waste disposal, and combined industrial-municipal heavy metal waste management. In fact, it should be a total environmental control program. Comprehensive in scope, Heavy Metals in the Environment provides technical and economical information on the development of a feasible total heavy metal control program that can benefit industry and local municipalities. The book discusses the importance and contamination of metals such as lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, iron, and mercury. It covers important research of metals in the environment, the processes and mechanisms for metals control and removal, the environmental behavior and effects of engineered metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, environmental geochemistry of high arsenic aquifer systems, nano-technology applications in metal ion adsorption, biosorption of metals, and heavy metal removal by expopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria. The authors delineate technologies for metals treatment and management, metal bearing effluents, metal-contaminated solid wastes, metal finishing industry wastes and brownfield sites, and arsenic-contaminated groundwater streams. They also discuss control, treatment, and management of metal emissions from motor vehicles. The authors reflect the breadth of the field and draw on personal experiences to provide an in-depth presentation of environmental pollution sources, waste characteristics, control technologies, management strategies, facility innovations, process alternatives, costs, case histories, effluent standards, and future trends for each industrial or commercial operation. The methodologies and technologies discussed are directly applicable to the waste management problems that must be met in all industries.
The main aim of this book is to bridge the gap between aerobic and anaerobic waste treatments by concentrating on studies of earthworms. In particular, vermicomposting is being discussed as well as its properties and applications. Other subjects touch on the treatment of palm oil mill effluents, the various importance of earthworms, its scope and future aspects of earthworm research, and the impact of waste management practices on human health.
The growing quantities of waste sludge generated in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants containing various organics and other contaminants require novel treatment technologies that are capable of achieving significant removal efficiencies and producing reusable sludge products. As a response, a large variety of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been investigated to remove the present contaminants from wastewaters and limited cases of waste sludge. Multidisciplinary researches have been carried out accordingly. In this regard, electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) have emerged as novel environmental-friendly and effective treatment technologies for the elimination of several organic contaminants. Considerable validation of these methods has been performed at both the bench-scale and pilot-scale. Although a promising new technology, the mechanisms involved in the oxidation of organic compounds during electrochemical advanced oxidation processes and the corresponding environmental impacts have not been completely addressed until now. This book aims at the electrochemical advanced oxidation processes occurrence from different points of view, describing its related technologies, providing an assessment of the development and efficiency, and highlighting various aspects of waste activated sludge stabilisation and reuse accordingly in five chapters. In the first chapter a brief review to waste sludge stabilisation and reuse has been presented. The second chapter provides an overview to advanced oxidation processes. The third chapter describes the various electrochemical advanced oxidation methods. Chapter four presents and discusses the own experimental investigations results employing the Fered-Fenton EAOP. The modeling of the results of the own experimental studies results by means of Taguchi method and artificial neural networks has been performed in the fifth chapter. The main goal of this book is to gather different updated viewpoints according to the electrochemical advanced oxidation processes and to provide the own experimental studies results accordingly in order to present students, researchers, engineers and managers with useful knowledge in this regard.
Sludge Management provides up-to-date information on sludge treatment, reuse and disposal. A comprehensive coverage of all issues related to sludge management is included with local through global coverage of all sludge management practices. Conventional to advanced technologies for sludge management with available case studies from both developing and developed countries are covered in this book. Given the responsibility of engineers to develop the technological tools to meet the increasingly stricter standards for sludge treatment and disposal, the main attraction of the book principally relies on its technical content that reviews all the points to be considered in sludge management from engineering and technological perspectives. Sludge Management can be used for planning, designing, and implementing waste sludge management projects. Moreover, this book can be used as a standard textbook in Universities for Master and Doctoral students. Also, academics, researchers, scientists, and practicing engineers working in the field of sludge management would find the book very informative and a source of interesting case studies.
Although primarily concerned with the treatment of wastewater and water quality, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) are required to be in compliance with the Federal Clean Air Act and an increasingly stringent series of Clean Air Act Amendments to control emissions of odors, criteria pollutants, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). How POTWs demonstrate, document, or show compliance with federal and state or local quality laws and regulations can vary significantly from POTW to POTW and from state to state. VOC Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Characterization, Control, and Compliance provides the tools, concepts, policies, and information required to develop an air quality compliance plan and to assess the labor and capital requirements to maintain the plan's viability.
The focus of the book is on how to use mass and heat balances to simulate and design biological wastewater treatment processes. All the main processes for biological wastewater treatment are covered viz. activated sludge processes for carbon and nitrogen removal, anaerobic digestion, sequencing batch reactors, and attached growth processes.
Environmental protection and resource recovery are two crucial issues facing our society in the 21st century. Anaerobic biotechnology has become widely accepted by the wastewater industry as the better alternative to the more conventional but costly aerobic process and tens of thousands of full-scale facilities using this technology have been installed worldwide in the past two decades. Anaerobic Biotechnology is the sequel to the well-received Environmental Anaerobic Technology: Applications and New Developments (2010) and compiles developments over the past five years. This volume contains contributions from 48 renowned experts from across the world, including Gatze Lettinga, laureate of the 2007 Tyler Prize and the 2009 Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize, and Perry McCarty, whose pioneering work laid the foundations for today's anaerobic biotechnology. This book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in the field, as well as decision-makers on energy and environmental policies.
Sanitation remains one of the biggest development challenges of our time, and a long neglected issue associated with taboos and stigma. Despite growing attention and efforts, many top-down approaches to sanitation have failed, reflecting that simply providing people with a toilet does not necessarily guarantee its use. The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach offers a more promising alternative, focusing on facilitating a profound change in people s behavior through participatory techniques. By raising local people s awareness of the linkages between open defecation and disease through the release of powerful emotions such as disgust and shame, they are encouraged to analyze their own sanitation situation and take action themselves.The approach has proved immensely successful, being implemented in more than 20 countries, and has a big potential in terms of achieving several Millennium Development Goals. However, like any development success story, challenges still remain regarding scaling up with quality, inclusion of the poorest and sustainability and there is a danger that accounts of success may be exaggerated. This book addresses both the potential and challenges of CLTS by drawing on research in Bangladesh, India and Indonesia as well as experiences from Africa.With chapters by leading scholars and practitioners in sanitation policy and practice as well as critical reflections from key players in CLTS, "Shit Matters" offers important insights into the workings of CLTS on the ground, covering critical aspects of the social, ecological, technological, financial and institutional dynamics surrounding CLTS. It will be essential reading for anyone interested in development, health, public policy and sanitation issues."
The objective of this thesis is the development of an improvement system for the reduction of water consumption in industrial production and the environmental impact by wastewater discharge. A concept is constructed, by which the critical water use from processes through cells to the factory level will be identified and thus the improvement measures can be undertaken based on that water analysis.
Incidents in the past have made scientists aware of the need for accurate methods of radionuclide analyses in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is an authoritative, up-to-date collection of research contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists from across the globe it presents information on radiochemical analysis, measurement of radioactivity, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactively contaminated land, fate of radionuclides in natural and engineered environments and behaviour and analysis of radionuclides in radioactive wastes. This essential work will be a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.
Activated carbon is simple to operate as an adsorption medium for water, serves as a proactive barrier for contamination, and does not produce by-products from its use. Used in treatment worldwide, activated carbon produces very high-quality water. Its implementation helps utilities gain regulatory compliance and position themselves to meet future requirements. This solutions-oriented book for water treatment providers, engineers, and students covers three major areas of concern.1. Fundamentals of activated carbon adsorption to provide a basic understanding of activated carbon technologies for drinking water treatment.2. Adsorption applications, approaches, and case studies that demonstrate how and where activated carbon has been implemented to solve specific water quality challenges.3. System design and procurement approaches to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in the use of granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon.
Water quality modeling is a powerful tool to help in understanding the processes and factors that influence water quality in potable water distribution systems. This book will help you set up a realistic mathematical simulation of your distribution system and your water quality to let you determine the fate of contaminants as they travel through the distribution system. You'll see how to model a wide range of operational and design variables. Experiment with various scenarios to model and monitor TTHMs, disinfectant decay, chemical reactions, supply-and-demand over time, hydraulics, tank mixing, blended waters, and many other parameters. Whether you are new to water quality modeling or a long-time practitioner, you'll find a vast wealth of knowledge from an esteemed expert in the field and pioneering developer of EPANET, author Robert M. Clark.
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