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Water and wastewater professionals spend their careers inside the "green maze" of environmental law. If you have ever felt a bit lost, you are not alone. Now, there is a new guide to help you find your way around the green maze. This book is an easy-to-understand introduction to the complex maze of environmental laws that directly or indirectly affect water and wastewater utilities. Laws and regulations that affect water and wastewater utilities include the Safe Drinking Water Act, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Superfund, Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, Endangered Species Act, and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act. Each of these major pieces of legislation is explained in clear, nonlegal language and is placed in the context of water and wastewater utility regulation. Selected state environmental regulations, riparian water rights, prior appropriation rights, and ordinances are also discussed. Author Joseph Bernosky includes a brief history of environmental regulations, the scope and nature of regulations that affect water and wastewater utilities, overlaps and gaps in the laws, environmental advocacy, public participation, stakeholders' roles and relationships to each other, and future regulatory trends. He does not delve into the specific requirements of individual regulations, e.g., MCLs. This readable guide is ideal for all water and wastewater professionals, legislators and regulators, and anyone who needs to have knowledge of the federal laws affecting the day-to-day workings of water and wastewater treatment utilities.
This Volume presents applications of hydrocarbon microbiology in the context of environmental pollutant degradation, covering pollutants such as petroleum and related wastes (i.e. oil sludge), biofuels, lipid-rich wastes, chlorinated solvents and BTEX, in several environments (marine, soil, groundwater). The approaches presented range from laboratory experiments and treatment in reactors to field applications. Two chapters highlight innovative approaches to address relevant questions in pollutant degradation, such as low environmental concentrations of pollutants, and the biodegradation of complex pollutant mixtures using biofilms. Rather than presenting the applications in the form of protocols, some of the chapters in this Volume include detailed practical information on the opportunities offered by and limitations of the different approaches, providing valuable information for researchers planning to perform bioremediation experiments. Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology Protocols There are tens of thousands of structurally different hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon derivatives and lipids, and a wide array of these molecules are required for cells to function. The global hydrocarbon cycle, which is largely driven by microorganisms, has a major impact on our environment and climate. Microbes are responsible for cleaning up the environmental pollution caused by the exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs and will also be pivotal in reducing our reliance on fossil fuels by providing biofuels, plastics and industrial chemicals. Gaining an understanding of the relevant functions of the wide range of microbes that produce, consume and modify hydrocarbons and related compounds will be key to responding to these challenges. This comprehensive collection of current and emerging protocols will facilitate acquisition of this understanding and exploitation of useful activities of such microbes.
Cementitious materials are an essential part in any radioactive waste disposal facility. Conditioning processes such as cementation are used to convert waste into a stable solid form that is insoluble and will prevent dispersion to the surrounding environment. It is incredibly important to understand the long-term behavior of these materials. This book summarises approaches and current practices in use of cementitious materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It gives a unique description of the most important aspects of cements as nuclear waste forms: starting with a description of wastes, analyzing the cementitious systems used for immobilization and describing the technologies used, and ending with analysis of cementitious waste forms and their long term behavior in an envisaged disposal environment. Extensive research has been devoted to study the feasibility of using cement or cement based materials in immobilizing and solidifying different radioactive wastes. However, these research results are scattered. This work provides the reader with both the science and technology of the immobilization process, and the cementitious materials used to immobilize nuclear waste. It summarizes current knowledge in the field, and highlights important areas that need more investigation. The chapters include: Introduction, Portland cement, Alternative cements, Cement characterization and testing, Radioactive waste cementation, Waste cementation technology, Cementitious wasteform durability and performance assessment.
This student workbook for the Basic Science Concepts and Applications textbook provides assignments, review questions, and a convenient method of keeping organized notes of important points as the text is reviewed. It is designed for use in either classroom or independent study.
This book provides guidance to utilities that are involved in or may face legal challenges to its rates and fees. It explains key legal concepts encountered in water ratemaking with citations to relevant court cases, offers guidance in preparing for litigation or alternative dispute resolution, and describes successful litigation strategies that have been used by water utilities.
Poison in the Well provides a balanced look at the policy decisions, scientific conflicts, public relations strategies, and the myriad mishaps and subsequent cover-ups that were born out of the dilemma of where to house deadly nuclear materials. Hamblin traces the development of the issue in Western countries from the end of World War II to the blossoming of the environmental movement in the early 1970s.
The most important resources at any utility are human resources. People make all the difference in the success or failure of your utility's operation. Managing utility workforce issues is the focus of this practical handbook for water utility human resources managers.The Water Workforce: Recruiting & Retaining High-Performance Employees examines the special human resource challenges facing utilities and offers tested strategies to address them. It will help you recruit, train, motivate, and retain high-quality employees-and build a stable and productive workforce that will meet the short- and long-term needs of your utility. The book focuses on the specific technical work needs of utilities and how to successfully apply workforce management principles in a water utility environment.The book discusses workforce planning methodology, recruiting, and retention, and presents a comprehensive approach to workforce improvement and organizational capacity building. It outlines four workforce development processes:* Defining the organization's work processes* Recruiting* Capacity building* Retention and succession planningUtilities can implement effective solutions to workforce problems with a planned approach to organization and work design, followed by action to improve the capacity of individual employees and their units, and ultimately, the whole organization. Although all utilities face workforce management issues, there are considerable differences between large and small utilities. This book addresses the needs of both with strategies to apply workforce management principles in even the smallest utility.Contents1. Workforce Challenges and Strategies for Success2. Jobs in Water and Wastewater Utilities3. A Strategic Approach to Workforce Planning4. Utilities as Employers of Choice5. Organization Change and Workforce Development6. Job Analysis and Position Descriptions7. Recruiting and Selecting Your Workforce8. Work Planning and Performance Evaluation9. Learning Organizations and Knowledge Management10. Training and Development Programs11. Employee Retention12. Succession Management13. Solutions for Smaller UtilitiesThe book includes several appendices, including general competencies for water and wastewater jobs, utility positions in AWWA's compensation study, occupational data on technical positions, a model training program for utilities, and a comprehensive listing of major water associations in the US that can be used as a resource for recruiting and training.
With rampant industrialization, the management of waste generated by various industries is becoming a mammoth problem. Wastewater discharges from industrial and commercial sources may contain pollutants at levels that could affect the quality of receiving waters or interfere with potable water supplies. Thousands of small and large-scale industrial units dump their waste, which is often toxic and hazardous, in open spaces and nearby water sources. Over the last three decades, many cases of serious and permanent damage to the environment and human health on the part of these industries have come to the fore. This book mainly focuses on the biological treatment of wastewater from various industries, and provides detailed information on the sources and characteristics of this wastewater, followed by descriptions of the biological methods used to treat them. Individual chapters address the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills; tanneries; distilleries, sugar mills; the dairy industry; wine industry; textile industry; pharmaceutical industry; food processing industry; oil refinery/petroleum industry; fertilizer industry and beverage/ soft drink bottling industry; and include the characteristics of wastewater, evaluation of biological treatment methods, and recycling of wastewater. Easy to follow, with simple explanations and a good framework for understanding the complex nature of biological wastewater treatment processes, the book will be instrumental to quickly understanding various aspects of the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. It will serve as a valuable reference book for scientists, researchers, educators, and engineers alike.
"Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Resource Recovery, " 5/e is a thorough update of McGraw-Hill's authoritative book on wastewater treatment. No environmental engineering professional or civil or environmental engineering major should be without a copy of this book - describing the rapidly evolving field of wastewater engineering technological and regulatory changes that have occurred over the last ten years in this discipline, including: a new view of a wastewater as a source of energy, nutrients and potable water; more stringent discharge requirements related to nitrogen and phosphorus; enhanced understanding of the fundamental microbiology and physiology of the microorganisms responsible for the removel of nitrogen and phosphorus and other constituents; an appreciation of the importance of the separate treatment of return flows with respect to meeting more stringent standards for nitrogen removal and opportunities for nutrient recovery; increased emphasis on the treatment of sludge and the management of biosolids; increased awareness of carbon footprints impacts and greenhouse gas emissions, and an emphasis on the development of energy neutral or energy positive wastewater plants through more efficient use of chemical and heat energy in wastewater.
This revision contains a strong focus on advanced wastewater treatment technologies and stresses the reuse aspects of wastewater and biosolids.
Most water operators cite mathematics as the subject giving them the most difficulty on their operator certification exams, as well as on the job. This math study text is designed to help water distribution operators improve their math skills, pass certification exams, perform their jobs better, and advance their careers.The book provides hundreds of math problems in all areas of water distribution operations, from beginner to advanced. Each problem is immediately followed by the answer and the method for solving the problem. Many problems include explanatory comments to aid your understanding of the mathematical logic behind the solution.Appendixes provide common conversion factors, a summary of the equations used in the book, chemistry tables, maximum contaminant level charts, and abbreviations to which you can refer when working out the problems.Take your operator exams in confidence and improve your on-the-job performance.
Water utility customer service representatives face a variety of customer problems and complaints every day. They need specific training in how to deal with customer problems quickly and provide satisfactory solutions. Focus First on Service: The Voice and Face of Your Utility is a new employee training workbook written specifically for water utility customer service representatives. Designed for either classroom or individual study, the workbook covers all aspects of water utility customer service, from what is meant by water utility customer service and why it is important, to specific types of issues and problems employees will encounter on the job.Chapters include exercises that allow trainees to immediately apply what they learn to solve a variety of customer problems that they might encounter on the job. Sample scenarios provide typical conversations between customers and the utility representatives on a variety of problems, such as a billing question or service cutoff. The scenarios offer acceptable and unacceptable ways of handling a variety of common customer encounters.Sample letters and e-mails are included to reply to customer problems, such as high bill complaints or taste-and-odor problems.
This workbook is a companion to Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators (ISBN: 9780877628095) and part of the Applied Math for Wastewater Plant Operators Set (ISBN: 9781566769891). It contains self-teaching guides for all wastewater treatment calculations, skill checks, hundreds of worked examples, and practice problems.
Sustainable Resource Recovery and Zero Waste Approaches covers waste reduction, biological, thermal and recycling methods of waste recovery, and their conversion into a variety of products. In addition, the social, economic and environmental aspects are also explored, making this a useful textbook for environmental courses and a reference book for both universities and companies.
This book focuses on exciting new research in polymer science. The first section of the book deals with new advancements in polymer technology, which includes polymers that are responsible for progress in the field of energy, electronics, and medical sciences. It focuses on the most promising polymer nanocomposites and nanomaterials. Composites are becoming more important because they can help to improve quality of life. The second section of the book highlights this aspect of macromolecules, while the third section emphasizes biopolymers, their development, and applications.
Almost 30 years ago, Congress addressed increasing concerns regarding the management of the nation's growing stockpile of nuclear waste by calling for the federal collection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for safe, permanent disposal. Passed in 1982, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) was an effort to establish an explicit statutory basis for the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose of the nation's most highly radioactive nuclear waste. The NWPA requires DOE to remove spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, in exchange for a fee, and transport it to a permanent geologic repository or an interim storage facility before permanent disposal. This book explores the effects of a termination of the Yucca Mountain Repository Program with a focus on the need for a comprehensive DOE strategy that supports environmental cleanup decisions.
With the advent of landfill tax, the waste management strategy, the landfill directive and producer responsibility, there is a growing realization that the land filling of unprocessed waste may pose environmental problems for future generations. There is considerable interest in alternative and/or improved methods of waste management including minimization, recycling and energy recovery. "Engineering for Profit from Waste" brings together a collection of reviewed papers that highlight opportunities for new products, technologies, systems and operating techniques and their implementation. This volume provides examples of current technologies, on-going research and development, and feedback from case studies. Topics covered include: incineration; pyrolysis; alternatives; materials recovery; and organic processes. "Engineering for Profit from Waste" provides an update in new legislation and regulations, alternative methods of waste management with emphasis on energy recovery, and current and competitive technologies. It should be of interest to waste managers, planners, developers, consulting engineers and designers, equipment manufacturers and suppliers.
The socio-economic activities due to world development are promoting increasing pressures on land, creating competition and conflicts, resulting in suboptimal use of resources. Integrated planning and management of land resources is a top subject of Agenda 21 (managed by FAO), which deals with the cross-sectoral aspects of decision-making for the sustainable use and development of natural resources. This is essential for life-support systems and its productive capacity. In this context, there is a need to find new strategies for sustainable development that links social and economic progress with environmental protection and enhancement. Electrokinetic transport processes (EK) uses a low-level direct current as the "cleaning agent". EK has been applied to the remediation of polluted soils and other contaminated matrices. It also shows a great potential to be used in different fields, as in saline soil restoration, nutrients recovery from wastes or repair and maintenance of building structures. EK may be an integrated approach for new strategies aiming at sustainable development and to support waste strategies, with worldwide interest. EK can also be coupled with phytoremediation and integrated with nanotechnology, enlarging the scope of its application. The conciliation of the EK in the recovery of secondary resources, remediation and conservation is a multidisciplinary novel approach that opens new technical possibilities for waste minimization, through upgrading of particulate waste products and the recovery of secondary resources for industrial, agricultural or social use.
The papers from this IMechE conference deal with all aspects of environmental management relating to land, water and air, describing the technologies applicable to these areas. With the advent of Landfill Tax and the growing realization that the landfilling of unprocessed wastes may pose environmental problems for future generations, there is considerable interest in alternative and /or improved methods of waste management including minimization, recycling and energy recovery. Environmental concerns are raising awareness amongst engineers and also highlighting opportunities for new products, systems and operating techniques. The papers identify these opportunities through current technologies, on-going research and deveopment and feedback from case studies.
Landfills have been targeted by geophysical methods in order to investigate their environmental impacts. In fact, landfills have been the classic way to deposit domestic and industrial waste and have generated a large range of negative environmental impacts in groundwater and soils. These problems often persist even after the effective use of the landfills and subsequent recovery processes. Owing to their characteristics, landfills are difficult to access and because of the general lack of accurate information regarding the shape, nature of the refuse, history and development of the landfill, non-invasive, non-destructive methods and sometimes autonomous data acquisition devices must be used to monitor impacts and to investigate and prevent groundwater and soil contamination. This book discusses processing systems, environmental impacts and adverse health effects of landfills and other recycling centers.
The expert coverage you need to design automated wastewater systems
Especially written for design professionals, Automation of Wastewater Treatment Facilities discusses the selection of instruments, installation, sizing of control elements, and the best choice for controllers and computers for automated wastewater plants.
Hazardous waste is a waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Hazardous waste generally exhibits one or more of these characteristics: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity. The universe of hazardous wastes is large and diverse. Hazardous wastes can be liquids, solids, contained gases, or sludges. They can be the by-products of manufacturing processes or simply discarded commercial products, like cleaning fluids or pesticides. One major type is radioactive waste. This new book brings together the latest research in this diverse field.
Methane emission monitoring has become increasingly essential for diffusive area sources, especially for landfills, which contribute to a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic methane emission globally. In this study, a new method is proposed based on experimental results, which utilizes a TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) instrument GasFinder2.0 system and a dispersion model LASAT (Lagrangian Simulation of Aerosol Transport) as the measurement device and calculation model, respectively. With this method, site-specific measurement approaches can be designed for not only landfills, but also different diffusive area sources with less workload and lower cost compared to conventional FED (Flame ionization Detector) method.
Strategic and tactical decision-making is easy with the Hazardous Materials: Managing the Incident Field Operations Guide. In order to minimize the risks associated with hazardous materials emergencies, responders need clear and defined response guidelines that help to define their roles within the response plan. The Eight-Step Process (c) for managing hazardous materials incidents has been used by thousands upon thousands of responders to safely and systematically deal with HazMat emergencies. The Hazardous Materials: Managing the Incident Field Operations Guide (FOG) will help you incorporate the Eight-Step Process (c) to standardize procedures, bring consistency to the tactical operation, and, as a result, minimize risks at the incident scene. The FOG includes: * Detailed tactical checklists that follow the Eight Step Process, * A section on identification and recognition of containers * Data cards on the top 50 hazardous materials and chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives (CBRNE's). * Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) matrix and drug lab precursor chemicals.
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