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Since the thirteenth century, quay walls of significant retaining height have been built in the Netherlands in urban environments. Over time, structural revisions were often carried out due to excessive deformations or the use of increasingly larger and deeper vessels. These historic quay walls were seldom designed for the current functional requirements they are subjected to. These mostly older quay walls require more maintenance and revisions to secure a certain degree of safety. In some cases they need to be demolished and completely rebuilt. Urban Quay Walls offers safety protocols and a clear approach on how to inspect, design and maintain urban quay walls. The book offers: - an insight on the development of urban quay walls; - a description of the main forms (as used in The Netherlands); - quicksteps for the inspection of existing quay walls. Urban Quay Walls presents a proposal for a uniform and standardised method to verify the actual state of current quay walls in urban environments. This handbook presents an overview of the development of urban quay walls over the course of time and describes the main types in use in the Netherlands. Subsequently, a method is presented for deciding whether or not a historic quay wall needs to be renovated, renewed or maintained.
This book highlights the relationship between the water sector and various other sectors in order to establish an improved understanding of the importance of water resources as an essential cross-cutting vector of socio-economic development. The book is both policy and practice oriented and is not constrained by existing definitions on water security. It includes actual experiences of policy, management, development and governance decisions taken within the water sector, and examples on how these have affected the energy and agricultural sectors as well as impacted the environment, and vice versa, as appropriate. It also discusses trade-offs, short and long-term implications, lessons learnt, and the way forward. The book includes case studies on cities, countries and regions such as Australia, China, Singapore, Central Asia, Morocco, Southern Africa, France, Latin America, Brazil and California.
This book explains clearly how and where groundwater occurs, how it is used and how it is at risk.
The Research Handbook on International Water Law surveys the field of the law of shared freshwater resources. In some thirty chapters, it covers subjects ranging from the general principles operative in the field and international groundwater law to the human right to water and whether international water law is prepared to cope with climate disruption. Its comprehensive survey of international water law links international water principles to case studies and examples from specific basins, to bring research into real-world relevancy. Different regional traditions and frameworks of international water law are presented in order to provide a global overview. The work is edited by three scholars and practitioners whose work deals with the law of international watercourses and features perspectives from distinguished experts in the field. This Research Handbook will be a crucial resource for academics and researchers, students, relevant government agencies, and practitioners interested in water law and humanitarian law.
There are few sectors where 'getting things done sustainably' is as important as it is for the water sector. From drinking water and sanitation to water use in agriculture, industry and ecosystems, Rafael Ziegler and his co-authors investigate the contribution of social entrepreneurship to the sustainable use of water. Using detailed case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the authors assess the role and potential of social entrepreneurship for the sustainable use of water. In addition, they examine the ethics and politics of new ideas for sustainability in the water sector. In so doing, they critically discuss the impact of these new innovations, with the emphasis on ideas changing heads rather than money changing hands. By bringing together questions from ecology, ethics, management and political science, and drawing on research in close collaboration with practitioners across the world, the approach taken is both inter- and trans-disciplinary. The result will be of significant interest to researchers and practitioners in social entrepreneurship and social innovation, as well as in water and sustainability politics.
This book outlines the current trends and challenges in monitoring rural water and sanitation services, in particular at country level. "From Infrastructure to Services" reveals important breakthroughs in country-led and country-wide monitoring of rural and small towns water supplies. It presents a state-of-the-art of strengthening monitoring water supply and sanitation in developing countries.Now that the coverage of water and sanitation in developing countries is increasing rapidly, there is a pressing need to ensure the new services continue to work. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a part; concern about value for money in development finance and the need to protect huge investments in water and sanitation all add urgency to the task. This book is essential reading for program managers and policy makers in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector, both in development agencies and government departments. It should also be read by researchers and students in the WASH sector."
This book compares water allocation policy in three rivers under pressure from demand, droughts and a changing climate: the Colorado, Columbia and Murray-Darling. Each river has undergone multiple decades of policy reform at the intersection of water markets and river basin governance - two prominent responses to the global water crisis often attempted and analyzed separately. Drawing on concepts and evidence about property rights and transaction costs, this book generates lessons about the factors that enable and constrain more flexible and sustainable approaches for sharing water among users and across political jurisdictions. Despite over 40 years of interest in water markets as a solution to water scarcity, they have been slow to develop. Intensified competition has also stimulated interest in river basins as the ideal unit to manage conflicts and tradeoffs across jurisdictions, but integration has proven elusive. This book investigates why progress has been slower and more uneven than expected, and it pinpoints the principles and practices associated with both successes and failures. Garrick synthesizes theoretical traditions in public policy and institutional economics, to examine the influence of path dependency and transaction costs on water allocation reform. Using evidence from historical sources, public policy analysis and institutional economics, the book demonstrates that reforms to water rights and transboundary governance arrangements must be combined and complementary to achieve lasting success at multiple scales. The original approach of this book, and its comparison of three prominent sites of reform, makes it an asset to practitioners of water policy, as well as water governance scholars and academics in public policy and economics who are focused on environmental policy, property rights and institutional change.
Bank filtration (BF) is a natural water treatment process which induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust and sustainable technology. From a historical perspective, BF is first mentioned in the bible, and the process has been recognized as a proven method for drinking water treatment in Europe for more than 100 years. However, the mechanisms of removal of different contaminants during BF are not fully understood. This study showed that BF is an effective multiple objective barrier for removal of different contaminants present in surface water sources including bulk organic matter and organic micropollutants (OMPs) like pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds. It was found that biodegradation and adsorption play primary and secondary roles, respectively, in the removal of OMPs during soil passage. Furthermore, using field data from BF sites and chemical properties of OMPs, models were developed to estimate the removal of OMPs during soil passage. It can be concluded that the removal efficiencies of BF for these contaminants can be maximised by proper design and operation of recovery wells taking into consideration source water quality characteristics and local hydrogeological conditions.
Water scarcity is increasing all over the world because of
growing population and increasing demands. Countries with limited
water resources are urgently in need for a new approach towards
water management by shifting from the "use and dispose" approach to
the "use, treat and reuse" approach. This book proposes a framework
for the sustainable management of scarce water resources. The
approach is based on the application of Cleaner Production thinking
to water management.
Ever increasing urbanization is impacting both the quantity and quality of urban water resources. These urban water resources and components of the water cycle are likely to be affected severely. To minimize the consequences on world water resources, the development of sustainable water resources management strategies is inevitable. An integrated urban water resources management strategy is the key to maintain sustainable water resources. A preliminary understanding of physio-chemical processes and analysis methodologies involved in each and every component of the urban water cycle is necessary. In the past these components have been investigated and published individually. With the view to aiding the development of integrated urban water resources management strategies, this book endeavors to present and explain the major urban water cycle components from a single holistic platform. The book presents the introduction, analysis and design methods of a wide range of urban water components i.e., rainfall, flood, drainage, water supply and waste water with the additions of sustainability practices in most of the components. Current "Hydrology" and "Hydraulics" books do not incorporate sustainability features and practices, while there are many books on general "Sustainability" without integrating sustainability concepts into typical engineering designs. The book starts with components and classifications of world water resources, then basic and detailed components of the hydrologic cycle, climate change and its impacts on hydrologic cycle, rainfall patterns and measurements, rainfall losses, derivations of design rainfalls, streamflow measurements, flood frequency analysis and probabilistic flood estimations, deterministic flood estimations, unit hydrograph, flood modelling, commercial modelling tools and use of Geographical Information System (GIS) for flood modelling, principles of open channel hydraulics, critical flow and flow classification indices, open channel flow profiles, uniform flow in open channel and open channel design, estimation of future population and domestic water demand, design of water supply systems, sustainable water supply system, water treatments, wastewater quantification, wastewater treatments, sustainable and decentralized wastewater treatment, stormwater drainage and urban drainage analysis, water footprint and water-energy nexus, features of water conservation, harvesting and recycling, components of sustainable urban design, stormwater treatment and integrated water management.
This new book offers an engineer's perspective on the history of
water technology and it's impact on the development of
This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: * decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators-pumping stations and pressure regulation valves- and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;* decision-making support for monitoring water balance and distribution network quality in real time, implementing fault detection and diagnosis techniques and using information from hundreds of flow, pressure, and water-quality sensors together with hydraulic and quality-parameter-evolution models to detect and locate leaks in the network, possible breaches in water quality, and failures in sensors and/or actuators;* consumer-demand prediction, based on smart metering techniques, producing detailed analyses and forecasts of consumption patterns, providing a customer communications service, and suggesting economic measures intended to promote more efficient use of water at the household level. Researchers and engineers working with drinking-water networks will find this a vital support in overcoming the problems associated with increased population, environmental sensitivities and regulation, aging infrastructures, energy requirements, and limited water sources.
Anthropogenic climate change may lead to intensification of the global hydrological cysle and to increased flooding risk of rivers across Europe. A series of extreme floods in European rivers in the last decades have stimulated discussions about the possible effects of climate variability/change and human interventions in river basins. A synoptic-climatological analysis was carried out to elucidate the observed precipitation change in the Meuse basin, in northwestern Europe. The findings of this research will be valuable to those developing improved flood protection strategies, as well as those engaged in water resource management in river basins similar to the Meuse.
This text is written by a number of authors from different countries and disciplines, affording the reader an invaluable and unbiased perspective on the subject of intensive groundwater development. Based on information gathered from the experience of many countries over the last decades, the text aims to present a clear discussion on the conventional hydrogeological aspects of intensive groundwater use, along with the ecological, legal, institutional, economic and social challenges. Divided into two main sections, the first group of authors put forward the positive and negative aspects of intensive groundwater use, whilst a second group provide an overview of the situation specific countries face as a consequence of this phenomenon. Fully revised and up-to-date, Groundwater Intensive Use makes a significant number of discoveries in a subject area that is topical in today's climate.
Groundwater is integral to many human and environmental systems but there are significant challenges in dealing with the impact of anthropogenic activities on groundwater systems. These challenges need innovative solutions. This book contains a wide range of content, from a discussion of the Australian regulatory framework for unconventional hydrocarbons, the extraction of which have the potential to significantly impact groundwater systems, to the best way to apply numerical models to help solve complex, real world problems. The impact of urbanisation on groundwater systems in the developing world is also discussed, at both a local scale in Nigeria and at a world scale. The use of innovative tools such as managed aquifer recharge, a critical tool in solving the groundwater challenges of the 21st century, is also discussed. The framework used to manage the legacy of agricultural contamination in Denmark, covering investigation to regulation and remediation, is also presented, focussing on how the many challenges in implantation were solved. This book is targeted at professional hydrogeologists, experts in governance, law and policy as well as other professionals that need to incorporate an understanding of groundwater. The book will also appeal to politicians, resource managers, regulators and others interested in sustainable water supply.
'Cruachan!' was the battle cry of the Campbells. In the early 1960s, the invasion of the 3,000 men who hollowed out Argyll's noblest and highest mountain as part of a massive hydroelectric project could have annihilated the local community. Instead, the people of Loch Awe, Dalmally and Taynuilt welcomed the invaders, embraced the project and emerged the winners. Fifty years on, an integrated community still lives under the Hollow Mountain, and the cry 'Cruachan!' signifies a Scottish success story. In this book, based on interviews, media reports, court reports and film archive material, Marian Pallister tells the story of the project - featuring the extraordinary experience of those who worked on the mountain as well as the effects on the local community of one of the biggest civil engineering projects ever to have been undertaken in Scotland. She also considers the long-term effects of the project, looking at how the community was changed by the experience.
* for post-graduate students, and implementers and managers of water supply systems* based on more than 20 years practical experience* 22 communities in 6 countries studiedCommunity management has become the leading concept for implementing water supply systems in rural areas in developing countries. In the early days it was seen as the answer to large-scale breakdown of water supply systems and the failure of government either to provide clean water itself or to devise a system whereby other agencies would supply it reliably and consistently. Now, after more than two decades of applying the concept, it is time to look back and consider the opportunities and constraints of community management in bringing water to the millions of people who need it. Is community management the right way to increase both the sustainability of water supply systems and the coverage of safe and reliable water supply in rural areas?This book is based on the experience gained over twenty years of working to strengthen the capacities of rural communities to manage their own water supply systems. The day-to-day experiences of 22 communities in six different countries - with differing geographical, socio-economic and cultural settings - are at the heart of this book. Supplemented with research findings, it shows the power and creativity with which community people work to keep their water supply systems operational, and it also shows their struggle and difficulties. The authors bring to life the little things that can go wrong, the nitty-gritty details that are so crucial in making community management work, with clear sympathy for the people in the communities and the project staff working with them.Countriesfeatured: Kenya, Colombia, Guatemala, Cameroon, Pakistan, Nepal.
This study investigates the role of coagulation in enhancing
hydraulic performance and permeate quality of UF membranes and
provides insight into options for minimizing or ideally eliminating
coagulation from UF pre-treatment to SWRO. Results show that
coagulation improves UF hydraulic performance mainly by reducing
non-backwashable fouling of the membranes. This can be achieved at
very low coagulant dose ( 0.5 mg Fe/L) by coating the membranes
with sub-micron particles.
Presenting the hydrological research carried out in the Migina catchment (260 km2), Southern Rwanda with the objective to explore the hydrological trends and climate linkages for catchments in Rwanda (26,338 km2), and to contribute to the understanding of dominant hydrological process interactions. Different Hydro-meteorological instrumentations have been installed for several months in the Migina catchment and measurements have been carried out. The trend analysis is based on Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Pettitt test on times series data varying from 30 to 56 years before 2000. The hydrometric data and modern tracer methods is used for hydrograph separation and show that subsurface runoff is dominating the total discharge even during rainy seasons at Cyihene-Kansi and Migina sub-catchments, respectively. Further, a semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model HEC-HMS is applied for assessing the spatio-temporal variation of water resources in the Migina catchment. The model results are compared with tracer based hydrograph separation results in terms of the runoff components. The model performed reasonably well in simulating the total flow volume, peak flow and timing as well as the portion of direct runoff and baseflow.
Industrial activities like textile processing and mining are typical sources of heavy metal-rich wastewaters. The sulfate reducing process has become an attractive method for the production of sulfide to precipitate metals since most of these streams also contain sulfate, which is the electron acceptor and, in less common cases, chemical oxygen demand which is the electron donor of sulfate reducing bacteria. The inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor is a system for the production of biogenic sulfide and metal precipitation in the same unit due to its configuration: the biomass floats on top of the reactor, whereas metal sulfide precipitates settle and thus can be recovered at the bottom. The main objective of this thesis was to elucidate the factors affecting simultaneous sulfate reduction and precipitation of heavy metals in an IFB reactor in order to optimize the metal recovery from wastewaters such as acid mine drainage. Therefore, this thesis focused on varying different operational conditions to study their effect on the solid-liquid separation and purity of the metal sulfide precipitates as well as on their effect on the sulfate reducing process. Furthermore, one chapter was focused on the study of strategies for sulfide control in the IFB reactor. In addition, recommendations for further research to improve the recovery of the metal sulfides in bioreactors are given.
A considerable amount of scientific evidence has been collected leading to the conclusion that urban wastewater components should be designed as one integrated system, in order to protect the receiving waters cost-effectively. Moreover, there is a need to optimize the design and operation of the sewerage network and wastewater treatment plant (WwTP) considering the dynamic interactions between them and the receiving waters. This book introduces a method called Model Based Design and Control (MoDeCo) for the optimum design and control of urban wastewater components. The book presents a detailed description of the integration of modelling tools for the sewer, the wastewater treatment plants and the rivers. The complex modelling structure used for the integrated model challenge previous applications of integrated modelling approaches presented in scientific literature. The combination of modelling tools and multi-objective evolutionary algorithms demonstrated in this book represent an excellent tool for designers and managers of urban wastewater infrastructure. This book also presents two alternatives to solve the computing demand of the optimization of integrated systems in practical applications: the use of surrogate modelling tools and the use of cloud computer infrastructure for parallel computing.
Resilience and Urban Risk Management presents the latest progress made in designing resilient towns, and identifies leads to be explored for attaining the objective of systematically integrating risks into urban environments The aim of the book is to provide guidance in designing and planning future cities, and to create a new form of risk management that does not ignore what already exists, but integrates it in the same way as if it were new. Resilience and Urban Risk Management is of interest to academics, architects, town planners and engineers concerned with the relationship between urban projects and the various aspects of the urban resilience concept via concrete applications and methodological or historical reflections. Damien SERRE, HDR, Professor Assistant at the Paris-Est University, EIVP, in charge of the "urban resilience" research section. The final objective of his research is to formalize knowledge useful for decision-making and helping in designing towns that are resilient when facing risks. His research is trans-disciplinary and in service of the city. Bruno BARROCA, Architect and Professor Assistant in Urban Engineering at the Paris-Est University, a member of the urban engineering team of the LEESU laboratory (Water, Environment and Urban Systems Laboratory). His research establishes links between geography, town planning and regional development. Applications cover assessment of urban vulnerability and integration of resilience objectives in urban projects located on territories subject to natural and technological risks. Richard LAGANIER, Professor in Geography at the Universite Paris 7 Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, the PRODIG laboratory (Centre of Research for Organization and Distribution of Geographical Information). His research activities cover the study of relationships between risks linked with water and territories and analysis of the conditions needed for developing resilience. He is the author/co-author of a large number of works on hydrological extremes and their management.
This book forms the proceedings of the 18th European ICID conference on irrigation and drainage. Water is not a free commodity and demand is becoming more and more intense for its allocation. This book focuses on the role of irrigation and drainage in the debate on water and should be of interest to planners, designers, policy makers in the water industry, national and local government, academic researchers and environment agencies.
The effects of climate change, rapid urbanization, and aging infrastructure challenge water policymakers to confront a radical paradigm shift in water resources utilization. Recent advances in sensing, networking, processing, and control have provided the means for sustainable solutions in water management, and their implementation in water infrastructures is collectively referred to as "smart water grids." Smart water grids depend upon cyber-physical system principles to effectively respond to issues regarding the scalability and reliability of dynamic and inaccessible environments. As such, unique smart water grid issues associated with front-end signal processing, communication, control, and data analysis must be jointly addressed, while sophisticated techniques for data analytics must be introduced into cyber-physical systems research. This book provides a thorough description of the best practices for designing and implementing cyber-physical systems that are tailored to different aspects of smart water grids. It is organized into three distinct, yet complementary areas, namely: the theory behind water-oriented cyber-physical systems with an emphasis on front-end sensing and processing, communication technologies, and learning techniques over water data; the applications and emerging topics of cyber-physical systems for water urban infrastructures, including real-life deployments, modern control tools, and economic aspects for smart water grids; and the applications and emerging topics across natural environments, emphasizing the evolution of fresh water resources. The structured discussion yields a rich, comprehensive body of knowledge on this emerging topic of research and engineering. As water issues intensify on a global scale, this book offers an algorithmic and practical toolkit for intermediate and advanced readers as well as professionals and researchers who are active in, or interested in, learning more about smart water grids. Key Features: Emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of this emerging topic, covering both theoretical and practical aspects of this area while providing insights on existing deployments, which can serve as design examples for new applications. Explores how modern signal processing and machine learning techniques can contribute and enrich the potential of smart water grids, well beyond conventional closed-loop control techniques. Highlights complementary aspects that will help shape the future of smart water grids, such as consumption awareness, economic aspects, and control tools in industrial water treatment as well as the impact of climate change on fresh water resources. Enables the reader to better understand this emerging topic, investing in current state-of-the-art and future technological roadmaps for smart water grids.
This work describes the role of sediment transport in operation
and maintenance of demand based downstream controlled irrigation
canals. Sediment deposition in these irrigation canals severely
affects the operation of the automatic flow control system.
Sediment transport modelling in irrigation canals are also
discussed. A simplified 1-D mathematical model SETRIC (SEdiment
TRansport in Irrigation Canals) has been improved with the
inclusion of downstream control component for the downstream
controlled irrigation canals. Based on field measurements and
sediment transport modelling a number of approaches have been
proposed for sediment management in such irrigation canals by
improvement in the design and operation of such irrigation
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