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The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end of the Cold War but also the rise of a melancholic vision of history as a series of losses. For the political left, the cause lost was communism, and this trauma determined how leftists wrote the next chapter in their political struggle and how they have thought about their past since. Throughout the twentieth century, argues Left-Wing Melancholia, from classical Marxism to psychoanalysis to the advent of critical theory, a culture of defeat and its emotional overlay of melancholy have characterized the leftist understanding of the political in history and in theoretical critique. Drawing on a vast and diverse archive in theory, testimony, and image and on such thinkers as Karl Marx, Walter Benjamin, Theodor W. Adorno, and others, the intellectual historian Enzo Traverso explores the varying nature of left melancholy as it has manifested in a feeling of guilt for not sufficiently challenging authority, in a fear of surrendering in disarray and resignation, in mourning the human costs of the past, and in a sense of failure for not realizing utopian aspirations. Yet hidden within this melancholic tradition are the resources for a renewed challenge to prevailing regimes of historicity, a passion that has the power to reignite the dialectic of revolutionary thought.
What is philosophy? Is philosophy an academic discipline that produces arguments and theories, or is philosophy also about understanding the world through stories, metaphors, analogies, ambience, and even through feelings? Alphonso Lingis approaches philosophy the way a travel writer approaches a strange new land, with his eyes open and with a conscious desire for experience. Using the genealogical approach of Nietzsche and Foucault, his work continues the phenomenological tradition. Alexander E. Hooke's Alphonso Lingis and Existential Genealogy is the first book-length study of Lingis' philosophical works.
In The Lives of Michel Foucault, David Macey quotes the iconic French philosopher as speaking "nostalgically...of 'an unforgettable evening on LSD, in carefully prepared doses, in the desert night, with delicious music, [and] nice people'." This came to pass in 1975, when Foucault spent Memorial Day weekend in Southern California at the invitation of Simeon Wade-ostensibly to guest-lecture at the Claremont Graduate School where Wade was an assistant professor, but in truth to explore what he called the Valley of Death. Led by Wade and Wade's partner Michael Stoneman, Foucault experimented with psychotropic drugs for the first time; by morning he was crying and proclaiming that he knew Truth. Foucault in California is Wade's firsthand account of that long weekend. Felicitous and often humorous prose vaults readers headlong into the erudite and subversive circles of the Claremont intelligentsia: parties in Wade's bungalow, intensive dialogues between Foucault and his disciples at a Taoist utopia in the Angeles Forest (whose denizens call Foucault "Country Joe"); and, of course, the fabled synesthetic acid trip in Death Valley, set to the strains of Bach and Stockhausen. Part search for higher consciousness, part bacchanal, this book chronicles a young man's burgeoning friendship with one of the twentieth century's greatest thinkers.
In Zizek's long-awaited magnum opus, he theorizes the "parallax gap" in the ontological, the scientific, and the political-and rehabilitates dialectical materialism. The Parallax View is Slavoj Zizek's most substantial theoretical work to appear in many years; Zizek himself describes it as his magnum opus. Parallax can be defined as the apparent displacement of an object, caused by a change in observational position. Zizek is interested in the "parallax gap" separating two points between which no synthesis or mediation is possible, linked by an "impossible short circuit" of levels that can never meet. From this consideration of parallax, Zizek begins a rehabilitation of dialectical materialism. Modes of parallax can be seen in different domains of today's theory, from the wave-particle duality in quantum physics to the parallax of the unconscious in Freudian psychoanalysis between interpretations of the formation of the unconscious and theories of drives. In The Parallax View, Zizek, with his usual astonishing erudition, focuses on three main modes of parallax: the ontological difference, the ultimate parallax that conditions our very access to reality; the scientific parallax, the irreducible gap between the phenomenal experience of reality and its scientific explanation, which reaches its apogee in today's brain sciences (according to which "nobody is home" in the skull, just stacks of brain meat-a condition Zizek calls "the unbearable lightness of being no one"); and the political parallax, the social antagonism that allows for no common ground. Between his discussions of these three modes, Zizek offers interludes that deal with more specific topics-including an ethical act in a novel by Henry James and anti-anti-Semitism. The Parallax View not only expands Zizek's Lacanian-Hegelian approach to new domains (notably cognitive brain sciences) but also provides the systematic exposition of the conceptual framework that underlies his entire work. Philosophical and theological analysis, detailed readings of literature, cinema, and music coexist with lively anecdotes and obscene jokes.
As people struggle with a sense of crisis and confusion they search for clarity and meaning. Increasingly they turn to psychotherapists and counsellors, who will find in this book a powerful existential approach to therapy that helps people to make sense of themselves by addressing their social, cultural and political context as well as their personal and interpersonal issues. It makes room for paradox and the acceptance of the inevitable. It allows for questioning and re-evaluation. The existential approach lends itself to time-limited work. Existential therapists do not encourage dependence. But this book also shows that such a brief, tough approach does not mean it is task oriented or superficial, rather that it is possible to allow for the free play of existential concerns and cover much territory in limited time. Clients and therapists will find this approach effective, topical and relevant. "… an important contribution to the literature on existential psychotherapy. The book brings forward two valuable innovations. One is the demonstration of the idea that brief or time-limited therapy can be done very effectively on existential principles, dealing with deep life issues. The other contribution is the idea of the Existential Wheel which is embodied in charts that depict and clarify the essential concepts and methods of existential psychotherapy, a powerful device that will be useful to experienced therapists as well as those less familiar with existential therapy." Bo Jacobsen, University of Copenhagen "… provides an overview of the principal ideas and concerns of existential therapy and an accessible exposition of the authors’ model from an applied standpoint. Case material derived from the authors’ practice illuminates and makes plain that, even if time limited, their approach makes accessible many of the deep issues that are usually viewed as emerging only in long term therapy. These instructive, and often deeply moving, contributions succeed in conveying the human meeting that exemplifies the authors’ work with clients, and personifies the existential approach to the therapeutic encounter." From the Foreword by Emesto Spinelli, London
In 1971, at a time of enormous political and social change, two of the world's leading intellectuals, Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault, were invited by the Dutch philosopher Fons Elders to debate the question: is there an 'innate' human nature independent of our experiences and external influences? Their debate was one of the most provocative and original debates to have occurred between contemporary philosophers and serves as a concise introduction to their respective philosophical theories. While the debate began rooted in linguistics and theory of knowledge (the core interests of the two philosophers who are arguably the defining academic minds of the late twentieth-century) it became a much wider discussion, encompassing topics from history and behaviourism to creativity, freedom and the struggle for political justice. This is an intellectually exciting record of a meeting between two important philosophers and it also serves as the best possible introduction to the essential concerns and ideas of contemporary philosophy.
The work of Giorgio Agamben, one of Italy's most important and
original philosophers, has been based on an uncommon erudition in
classical traditions of philosophy and rhetoric, the grammarians of
late antiquity, Christian theology, and modern philosophy.
Recently, Agamben has begun to direct his thinking to the
constitution of the social and to some concrete, ethico-political
conclusions concerning the state of society today, and the place of
the individual within it.
In recent years numerous attempts have been made by analytic philosophers to naturalize various different domains of philosophical inquiry. All of these attempts have had the common goal of rendering these areas of philosophy amenable to empirical methods, with the intention of securing for them the supposedly objective status and broad intellectual appeal currently associated with such approaches. This volume brings together internationally recognised analytic philosophers, including Alvin Plantinga, Peter van Inwagen and Robert Audi, to question the project of naturalism. The articles investigate what it means to naturalize a domain of philosophical inquiry and look at how this applies to the various sub-disciplines of philosophy including epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophy of the mind. The issue of whether naturalism is desirable is raised and the contributors take seriously the possibility that excellent analytic philosophy can be undertaken without naturalization. Controversial and thought-provoking, Analytic Philosophy Without Naturalism examines interesting and contentious methodological issues in analytic philosophy and explores the connections between philosophy and science.
At the heart of this book is the argument that the fact that so many post-structuralist French intellectuals have a strong ?colonial? connection, usually with Algeria, cannot be a coincidence. The ?biographical? fact that so many French intellectuals were born in or otherwise connected with French Algeria has often been noted, but it has never been theorised. Ahluwalia makes a convincing case that post-structuralism in fact has colonial and postcolonial roots. This is an important argument, and one that ?connects? two theoretical currents that continue to be of great interest, post-structuralism and postcolonialism.
The re-reading of what is now familiar material against the background of de-colonial struggles demonstrates the extent to which it is this new condition that prompted theory to question long-held assumptions inscribed in the European colonial enterprise. The wide-ranging discussion, ranging across authors as different as Foucault, Derrida, Fanon, Althusser, Cixous, Bourdieu and Lyotard, enables the reader to make connections that have remained unnoticed or been neglected. It also brings back into view a history of struggles, both political and theoretical, that has shaped the landscape of critique in the social sciences and humanities.
This clear and lucid discussion of important and often difficult thinkers will be widely read and widely debated by students and academics alike.
The thirty-three essays in "Relativism: A Contemporary Anthology" grapple with one of the most intriguing, enduring, and far-reaching philosophical problems of our age. Relativism comes in many varieties. It is often defined as the belief that truth, goodness, or beauty is relative to some context or reference frame, and that no absolute standards can adjudicate between competing reference frames.
Michael Krausz's anthology captures the significance and range of relativistic doctrines, rehearsing their virtues and vices and reflecting on a spectrum of attitudes. Invoking diverse philosophical orientations, these doctrines concern conceptions of relativism in relation to facts and conceptual schemes, realism and objectivity, universalism and foundationalism, solidarity and rationality, pluralism and moral relativism, and feminism and poststructuralism. Featuring nine original essays, the volume also includes many classic articles, making it a standard resource for students, scholars, and researchers.
Alain Badiou takes on the standard bearer of the "linguistic turn" in modern philosophy, and anatomizes the "anti-philosophy" of Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Addressing the crucial moment where Wittgenstein argues that much has to be passed over in silence showing what cannot be said, after accepting the limits of language and meaning Badiou argues that this mystical act reduces logic to rhetoric, truth to an effect of language games, and philosophy to a series of esoteric aphorisms. in the course of his interrogation of Wittgenstein's anti-philosophy, Badiou sets out and refines his own definitions of the universal truths that condition philosophy. Bruno Bosteels' introduction shows that this encounter with Wittgenstein is central to Badiou's overall project and that a continuing dialogue with the exemplar of anti-philosophy is crucial for contemporary philosophy.
Many have wondered about the similarity in name of American critical realism and the movement of the same name begun by Roy Bhaskar. The figure of Maurice Mandelbaum complicates the relationship, not only due to his career bridging the two movements but also Mandelbaum's concern not only with traditional concerns of American critical realism (epistemology and philosophy of science) but the nature of society, the nature of social explanation, and naturalism.
This volume reflects both on Mandelbaum's own career and the relation of his thought to Bhaskar's critical realism. By examining Mandelbaum's commitments to phenomenology within critical realism, as well as his goal to enlighten social scientific and above all historiographical categories, it is possible to see how Mandelbaum went beyond the scientific realism of his predecessors. At the same time, a fruitful comparison with Bhaskar's and others? thought is undertaken by examining mandelbaum's solutions to the problems of the ontology of sociology and social laws, the dynamics of cultural change and the overriding master narratives that govern late capitalism. By explaining Mandelbaum's scrupulous attempt to address the horrors of the twentieth century, it is possible to appreciate his significance for the twenty-first.
A timely and important book, Maurice Mandelbaum and American Critical Realism is essential reading for all serious students of critical realism and twentieth century philosophy.
In this work, originally released in 1983, Barry Smart examines the relevance of Foucault's work for developing an understanding of those issues which lie beyond the limits of Marxist theory and analysis - issues such as 'individualising' forms of power, power-knowledge relations, the rise of 'the social', and the associated socialisation of politics. He argues that there exist clear and substantial differences between Foucault's genealogical analysis and that of Marxist theory. Smart thus presents Foucault's work as a new form of critical theory, whose object is a critical analysis of rationalities, and of how relations of power are rationalised.
Reinterpreting Sartre's main methodologies and removing Hegelian dialectics from his notion of violence, this book demolishes the supposed hostile intersubjective relations that characterizes all concrete relations. Furthering this stance, it reconstructs an interpretation of the "violent Sartre" and crafts an alternative response: one that rejects terrorist tactics, preemptive war and Western hegemony through democratization. Based on the latest debate on Sartre's works on ethics and politics, this project examines the relevancy and new importance they hold for contemporary concerns -- the reactionary nature of terrorism, the extremity of counter-violence, and limitations of democratization efforts -- all claiming to be justified in the name of "freedom" and "liberation." While it is the concern over the "terrorist'" nature of his writings that dominates the current debate, this project starts from the premise that it is as important to ask why violence is unjustified when it can put an end to a situation that disparages humanity. In arguing for the need for moral limitations to all violent struggles, and the need for seeing others as ends-for-themselves, it proceeds to outline a response based on existential humanist ethics that can reaffirm our moral compass.
Touching on the work of philosophers including Richardson, Kant, Hume, Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, and Dewey, this study examines the history of what philosophers have had to say about "Shakespeare" as a subject of philosophy, from the seventeenth-century to the present. Stewart's volume will be of interest to Shakespeareans, literary critics, and philosophers.
W. V. Quine was one of the most influential figures of twentieth-century American analytic philosophy. Although he wrote predominantly in English, in Brazil in 1942 he gave a series of lectures on logic and its philosophy in Portuguese, subsequently published as the book O Sentido da Nova Logica. The book has never before been fully translated into English, and this volume is the first to make its content accessible to Anglophone philosophers. Quine would go on to develop revolutionary ideas about semantic holism and ontology, and this book provides a snapshot of his views on logic and language at a pivotal stage of his intellectual development. The volume also includes an essay on logic which Quine also published in Portuguese, together with an extensive historical-philosophical essay by Frederique Janssen-Lauret. The valuable and previously neglected works first translated in this volume will be essential for scholars of twentieth-century philosophy.
This is a revised and enlarged edition of John Moriarty's first book from 1994 -- a Book of Revelations mediated by stories and personal excursions into literature, philosophy, and sacred writings. He articulates the wisdom of humanity, drawing on cultural landscapes in India, China, Egypt, Australia, Native America, and Europe. Now recognized as a classic of spiritual writing, it enlarges our capacity for symbolic understanding in an age of millennial anxiety. John Moriarty taught at Manitoba University for a number of years before returning to Ireland. His three volume spiritual odyssey, Turtle Was Gone a Long Time, was completed last year (all volumes available from Dufour).
After his father's early death Jean-Paul Sartre was brought up at his grandfather's home in a world even then eighty years out of date. In Words Sartre recalls growing up within the confines of French provincialism in the period before the First World War, an illusion-ridden childhood made bearable by his lively imagination and passion for reading and writing. A brilliant work of self-analysis, Words provides an essential background to the philosophy of one of the profoundest thinkers of the twentieth century.
Neil Gascoigne provides the first comprehensive introduction
Richard Rorty's work. He demonstrates to the general reader and to
the student of philosophy alike how the radical views on truth,
objectivity and rationality expressed in Rorty's widely-read essays
on contemporary culture and politics derive from his earliest work
in the philosophy of mind and language. He avoids the partisanship
that characterizes much discussion of Rorty's work whilst providing
a critical account of some of the dominant concerns of contemporary
'A concise introduction to existential counselling is a superb addition to the literature on existential counselling and psychotherapy. Martin Adams provides an excellent overview of the field for those who are new to it at the same time as distilling key features in a way which will be valuable for experienced practitioners' - Meg Barker, Senior Lecturer in Psychology at the Open University
A Concise Introduction to Existential Counselling is just that: a brief and accessible pocket guide to the underlying theory & practice of the existential approach.
Addressing everything a new trainee needs to know and do in a way that is entirely accessible and jargon-free, this book:
- Provides a short history of the existential tradition
- Puts key concepts into contexts, showing how theory translates into practice
- Discusses issues in the therapeutic process
- Shows how to work effectively with whatever the client brings to the session
- Addresses the significance of existential thought in the wider world
This book will be the perfect companion to new trainees looking to embark on their path to thinking and practicing existentially.
Martin Adams is a practitioner and supervisor in private practice and a Lecturer at the New School of Psychotherapy and Regents College, both in London.
Antonio Gramsci is widely known today for his profound impact on social and political thought, critical theory and literary methodology. This volume brings together twelve eminent scholars from humanities and social sciences to demonstrate the importance and relevance of Gramsci to their respective fields of inquiry. They bring into focus a number of central issues raised in Gramsci's Prison Notebooks and in such other writings as his Prison Letters including: hegemony, common sense, civil society, subaltern studies, cultural analysis, media and film studies, postcolonial studies, international relations, linguistics, cultural anthropology, and historiography.
The book makes an important, and up-to-date, contribution to the many academic debates and disciplines which utilize Gramsci's writings for theoretical support; the essays are highly representative of the most advanced contemporary work on Gramsci. Contributors include: Michael Denning ? highly respected in the field of cultural studies; Stephen Gill ? an eminent figure in international relations; Epifanio San Juan, Jr. ? a major writer in post-colonial theory; Joseph Buttigieg ?translator of Gramsci's Prison Notebooks ?; Stanley Aronowitz, a distinguished sociologist, Marcia Landy ? an important scholar of film studies; and Frank Rosengarten ? editor of Gramsci's Prison Letters.
This book will be of interest to students and scholars of political philosophy, economics, film and media studies, sociology, education, literature, post-colonial studies, anthropology, subaltern studies, cultural studies, linguistics and international relations.
The aim of this book is to explain and assess the relevance of the ideas of Gramsci to a world fundamentally transformed from that in which his thought was developed. It takes some of Gramsci 's best-known concepts hegemony, civil society, passive revolution, the national-popular, trasformismo, the integral state - and uses them creatively to analyse features of present-day politics, assessing to what extent his ideas can aid our understanding of the contemporary political world.
The book contains essays focused on: aspects of global politics (the development of a global civil society, the validity of the knowledge claims of neo-Gramscian IR specialists and the politics of the WTO and the Alternative Globalisation Movement); contemporary feminism; the problem of adjusting Gramsci 's theory of political agency to modern conditions; Turkish and Israeli politics; and a series of essays on present-day British politics. The book concludes that while there remain considerable problems in applying Gramsci 's concepts to the contemporary world, his political thought still retains an attraction and validity that will continue to inspire political analysts well into the future.
Bringing together a range of essays representing some of the latest research in the field, Gramsci and Global Politics: Hegemony and Resistance opens up new perspectives on Gramsci which will be of vital interest to students and scholars in International Relations and Political Science, Sociology and History.
An innovative, ambitious, tradition-crossing study drawing on the work of Husserl, Heidegger, Horkheimer, Adorno, and Habermas to propose a new and transformative concept of truth. The idea of truth is a guiding theme for German continental philosophers from Husserl through Habermas. In this book, Lambert Zuidervaart examines debates surrounding the idea of truth in twentieth-century German continental philosophy. He argues that the Heideggerian and critical theory traditions have much in common-despite the miscommunication, opposition, and even outright hostility that have prevailed between them-including significant roots in the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. Zuidervaart sees the tensions between Heideggerian thought and critical theory as potentially generative sources for a new approach to the idea of truth. He argues further that the "critical retrieval" of insights from German continental philosophy can shed light on current debates in analytic truth theory. Zuidervaart structures his account around three issues: the distinction between propositional truth and truth that is more than propositional (which he calls existential truth); the relationship between propositional truth and the discursive justification of propositional truth claims, framed in analytic philosophy by debates between epistemic and nonepistemic conceptions of truth; and the relationship between propositional truth and the objectivity of knowledge, often presented in analytic philosophy as a conflict between realists and antirealists over the relation between "truth bearers" and "truth makers." In an innovative and ambitious argument, drawing on the work of Husserl, Heidegger, Horkheimer, Adorno, and Habermas, Zuidervaart proposes a new and transformative conception of truth.
If Edmund Husserl's true philosophy lay in his unpublished research manuscripts, as he argues, then it is in these - rather than the "introductions" and fragmentary studies he published during his lifetime - that we may possibly find a systematic of his philosophy. This work constitutes a study of the full range of Husserl's writings with the special task of uncovering there the systematic presentation or presentations of the transcendental phenomenological problematic. Sandmeyer's study contains an overview of Husserl's total set of writings, a translation of Husserl correspondence with Georg Misch, a translation of a draft outline of the "system of phenomenological philosophy" produced by Husserl in collaboration with his assistant, Eugen Fink, and it also closely traces the influence of Wilhelm Dilthey on Husserl's philosophy.
A century after 'On Denoting' was published, the debate it initiated continues to rage. On the one hand, there is a mass of new historical scholarship, about both Russell and Meinong, which has not circulated very far beyond specialist scholars. On the other hand, there are continuing problems and controversies concerning contemporary Russellian and Meinongian theories, many of them involving issues that simply did not occur to the original protagonists. This work provides an overview of the latest historical scholarship on the two philosophers as well as detailed accounts of some of the problems facing the current incarnations of their theories.
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