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Books > Humanities > Philosophy > Western philosophy

The Four Types Of Western Philosophy (Paperback): Herman Johan Pietersen The Four Types Of Western Philosophy (Paperback)
Herman Johan Pietersen
R327 Discovery Miles 3 270 Shipped within 10 - 15 working days

Four fundamental and interrelated intellectual orientations were found to characterize the thought of a global range of thinkers, disciplines, and cultures (Western, Eastern and African). This volume consists of a review of the four types in Western philosophy.

Professor Pietersen has made contributions to philosophy, theology, sociology, psychology, jurisprudence, and business and human resource management.

Ancient Philosophy - A Companion to the Core Readings (Paperback): Andrew Stumpf Ancient Philosophy - A Companion to the Core Readings (Paperback)
Andrew Stumpf
R408 Discovery Miles 4 080 In stock

This unique text is designed as a guide to the most important and influential works of ancient Greek philosophy. The book begins with mythology and the pre-Socratics, then proceeds to examine a number of the most important works from Plato and Aristotle, including Euthyphro, Meno, Republic the Categories, the Physics and the Nicomachean Ethics. Student readers who might otherwise struggle with the primary texts will find an exceedingly helpful guide in Stumpf's clear explanations and analyses. Maps, diagrams and images are provided to aid comprehension.

Object-Oriented Philosophy - The Noumenon's New Clothes (Paperback): Peter Wolfendale Object-Oriented Philosophy - The Noumenon's New Clothes (Paperback)
Peter Wolfendale; Afterword by Ray Brassier
R348 R314 Discovery Miles 3 140 Save R34 (10%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

A remarkably clear explication of the tenets of Object-Oriented Philosophy and an acute critique of the movement's ramifications for philosophy today. How does the patience and rigour of philosophical explanation fare when confronted with an irrepressible desire to commune with the object and to escape the subjective perplexities of reference, meaning, and sense? Moving beyond the hype and the inflated claims made for "Object-Oriented" thought, Peter Wolfendale considers its emergence in the light of the intertwined legacies of twentieth-century analytic and Continental traditions. Both a remarkably clear explication of the tenets of OOP and an acute critique of the movement's ramifications for philosophy today, Object-Oriented Philosophy is a major engagement with one of the most prevalent trends in recent philosophy.

The Far Reaches - Phenomenology, Ethics, and Social Renewal in Central Europe (Paperback): Michael D. Gubser The Far Reaches - Phenomenology, Ethics, and Social Renewal in Central Europe (Paperback)
Michael D. Gubser
R541 R485 Discovery Miles 4 850 Save R56 (10%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

When future historians chronicle the twentieth century, they will see phenomenology as one of the preeminent social and ethical philosophies of its age. The phenomenological movement not only produced systematic reflection on common moral concerns such as distinguishing right from wrong and explaining the status of values; it also called on philosophy to renew European societies facing crisis, an aim that inspired thinkers in interwar Europe as well as later communist bloc dissidents.
Despite this legacy, phenomenology continues to be largely discounted as esoteric and solipsistic, the last gasp of a Cartesian dream to base knowledge on the isolated rational mind. Intellectual histories tend to cite Husserl's epistemological influence on philosophies like existentialism and deconstruction without considering his social or ethical imprint. And while a few recent scholars have begun to note phenomenology's wider ethical resonance, especially in French social thought, its image as stubbornly academic continues to hold sway. "The Far Reaches" challenges that image by tracing the first history of phenomenological ethics and social thought in Central Europe, from its founders Franz Brentano and Edmund Husserl through its reception in East Central Europe by dissident thinkers such as Jan Patocka, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), and Vaclav Havel.

The Lives of Michel Foucault (Paperback): David Macey The Lives of Michel Foucault (Paperback)
David Macey
R452 Discovery Miles 4 520 Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

When he died of an AIDS-related condition in 1984, Michel Foucault had become the most influential French philosopher since the end of World War II. His powerful studies of the creation of modern medicine, prisons, psychiatry, and other methods of classification have had a lasting impact on philosophers, historians, critics, and novelists the world over. But as public as he was in his militant campaigns on behalf of prisoners, dissidents, and homosexuals, he shrouded his personal life in mystery.In The Lives of Michel Foucault written with the full cooperation of Daniel Defert, Foucault's former lover David Macey gives the richest account to date of Foucault's life and work, informed as it is by the complex issues arising from his writings. In this new edition, Foucault scholar Stuart Elden has contributed a new postface assessing the contribution of the biography in the light of more recent literature.

Tao Te Ching - Slip-Cased Edition (Hardcover): Lao Tzu Tao Te Ching - Slip-Cased Edition (Hardcover)
Lao Tzu
R396 R308 Discovery Miles 3 080 Save R88 (22%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days
Catherine & Diderot - The Empress, the Philosopher, and the Fate of the Enlightenment (Hardcover): Robert Zaretsky Catherine & Diderot - The Empress, the Philosopher, and the Fate of the Enlightenment (Hardcover)
Robert Zaretsky
R520 R387 Discovery Miles 3 870 Save R133 (26%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

A dual biography crafted around the famous encounter between the French philosopher who wrote about power and the Russian empress who wielded it with great aplomb. In October 1773, after a grueling trek from Paris, the aged and ailing Denis Diderot stumbled from a carriage in wintery St. Petersburg. The century's most subversive thinker, Diderot arrived as the guest of its most ambitious and admired ruler, Empress Catherine of Russia. What followed was unprecedented: more than forty private meetings, stretching over nearly four months, between these two extraordinary figures. Diderot had come from Paris in order to guide-or so he thought-the woman who had become the continent's last great hope for an enlightened ruler. But as it soon became clear, Catherine had a very different understanding not just of her role but of his as well. Philosophers, she claimed, had the luxury of writing on unfeeling paper. Rulers had the task of writing on human skin, sensitive to the slightest touch. Diderot and Catherine's series of meetings, held in her private chambers at the Hermitage, captured the imagination of their contemporaries. While heads of state like Frederick of Prussia feared the consequences of these conversations, intellectuals like Voltaire hoped they would further the goals of the Enlightenment. In Catherine & Diderot, Robert Zaretsky traces the lives of these two remarkable figures, inviting us to reflect on the fraught relationship between politics and philosophy, and between a man of thought and a woman of action.

Searching for Stars on an Island in Maine (Hardcover): Alan Lightman Searching for Stars on an Island in Maine (Hardcover)
Alan Lightman
R446 R328 Discovery Miles 3 280 Save R118 (26%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days
A History of Ambiguity (Hardcover): Anthony Ossa-Richardson A History of Ambiguity (Hardcover)
Anthony Ossa-Richardson
R1,032 R694 Discovery Miles 6 940 Save R338 (33%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Ever since it was first published in 1930, William Empson (TM)s Seven Types of Ambiguity has been perceived as a milestone in literary criticism "far from being an impediment to communication, ambiguity now seemed an index of poetic richness and expressive power. Little, however, has been written on the broader trajectory of Western thought about ambiguity before Empson; as a result, the nature of his innovation has been poorly understood. A History of Ambiguity remedies this omission. Starting with classical grammar and rhetoric, and moving on to moral theology, law, biblical exegesis, German philosophy, and literary criticism, Anthony Ossa-Richardson explores the many ways in which readers and theorists posited, denied, conceptualised, and argued over the existence of multiple meanings in texts between antiquity and the twentieth century. This process took on a variety of interconnected forms, from the Renaissance delight in the ~elegance (TM) of ambiguities in Horace, through the extraordinary Catholic claim that Scripture could contain multiple literal "and not just allegorical "senses, to the theory of dramatic irony developed in the nineteenth century, a theory intertwined with discoveries of the double meanings in Greek tragedy. Such narratives are not merely of antiquarian interest: rather, they provide an insight into the foundations of modern criticism, revealing deep resonances between acts of interpretation in disparate eras and contexts. A History of Ambiguity lays bare the long tradition of efforts to liberate language, and even a poet (TM)s intention, from the strictures of a single meaning.

Simulacra and Simulation (Paperback): Jean Baudrillard Simulacra and Simulation (Paperback)
Jean Baudrillard; Translated by Sheila Glaser
R362 R343 Discovery Miles 3 430 Save R19 (5%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

The first full-length translation in English of an essential work of postmodernism.The publication of ""Simulacra et Simulation"" in 1981 marked Jean Baudrillard's first important step toward theorizing the postmodern. Moving away from the Marxist/Freudian approaches that had concerned him earlier, Baudrillard developed in this book a theory of contemporary culture that relies on displacing economic notions of cultural production with notions of cultural expenditure.Baudrillard uses the concepts of the simulacra - the copy without an original - and simulation. These terms are crucial to an understanding of the postmodern, to the extent that they address the concept of mass reproduction and reproduceability that characterizes our electronic media culture.Baudrillard's book represents a unique and original effort to rethink cultural theory from the perspective of a new concept of cultural materialism, one that radically redefines postmodern formulations of the body.

The Man Without Content (Paperback): Giorgio Agamben The Man Without Content (Paperback)
Giorgio Agamben; Translated by Georgia Albert
R406 R352 Discovery Miles 3 520 Save R54 (13%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

In this book, one of Italy's most important and original contemporary philosophers considers the status of art in the modern era. He takes seriously Hegel's claim that art has exhausted its spiritual vocation, that it is no longer through art that Spirit principally comes to knowledge of itself. He argues, however, that Hegel by no means proclaimed the "death of art" (as many still imagine) but proclaimed rather the indefinite continuation of art in what Hegel called a "self-annulling" mode.
With astonishing breadth and originality, the author probes the meaning, aesthetics, and historical consequences of that self-annulment. In essence, he argues that the birth of modern aesthetics is the result of a series of schisms--between artist and spectator, genius and taste, and form and matter, for example--that are manifestations of the deeper, self-negating yet self-perpetuating movement of irony.
Through this concept of self-annulment, the author offers an imaginative reinterpretation of the history of aesthetic theory from Kant to Heidegger, and he opens up original perspectives on such phenomena as the rise of the modern museum, the link between art and terror, the natural affinity between "good taste" and its perversion, and kitsch as the inevitable destiny of art in the modern era. The final chapter offers a dazzling interpretation of Durer's "Melancholia" in the terms that the book has articulated as its own.
"The Man Without Content" will naturally interest those who already prize Agamben's work, but it will also make his name relevant to a whole new audience--those involved with art, art history, the history of aesthetics, and popular culture.

How to Win an Argument - An Ancient Guide to the Art of Persuasion (Hardcover): Marcus Tullius Cicero How to Win an Argument - An Ancient Guide to the Art of Persuasion (Hardcover)
Marcus Tullius Cicero; Edited by James M. May
R310 R235 Discovery Miles 2 350 Save R75 (24%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

All of us are faced countless times with the challenge of persuading others, whether we're trying to win a trivial argument with a friend or convince our coworkers about an important decision. Instead of relying on untrained instinct--and often floundering or failing as a result--we'd win more arguments if we learned the timeless art of verbal persuasion, rhetoric. How to Win an Argument gathers the rhetorical wisdom of Cicero, ancient Rome's greatest orator, from across his works and combines it with passages from his legal and political speeches to show his powerful techniques in action. The result is an enlightening and entertaining practical introduction to the secrets of persuasive speaking and writing--including strategies that are just as effective in today's offices, schools, courts, and political debates as they were in the Roman forum. How to Win an Argument addresses proof based on rational argumentation, character, and emotion; the parts of a speech; the plain, middle, and grand styles; how to persuade no matter what audience or circumstances you face; and more. Cicero's words are presented in lively translations, with illuminating introductions; the book also features a brief biography of Cicero, a glossary, suggestions for further reading, and an appendix of the original Latin texts. Astonishingly relevant, this unique anthology of Cicero's rhetorical and oratorical wisdom will be enjoyed by anyone who ever needs to win arguments and influence people--in other words, all of us.

The Lyotard Reader and Guide (Paperback): Keith Crome, James Williams The Lyotard Reader and Guide (Paperback)
Keith Crome, James Williams
R787 Discovery Miles 7 870 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

"The Lyotard Reader and Guide" is a one-stop companion to Lyotard's thought. It covers the full range of his works, from his three main books ( "Discours, figure"; "Libidinal Economy"; and "The Differend") and up to his influential essays in "The Inhuman" and "Postmodern Fables."

The readings are organized into sections on philosophy, politics, art, and literature. Several have never before been translated into English. Detailed introductions to each section by two leading Lyotard scholars explain the philosopher's key ideas and provide crucial social, political, aesthetic, and philosophical context. As a sourcebook and guide, this is the most up-to-date and comprehensive volume on Lyotard. It is indispensable to students and scholars in philosophy, literature, the arts, and politics.

The Nicomachean Ethics (Paperback): Aristotle The Nicomachean Ethics (Paperback)
Aristotle; Translated by David Ross; Edited by Lesley Brown
R189 R146 Discovery Miles 1 460 Save R43 (23%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

A student of Plato and a teacher of Alexander the Great, Aristotle is one of the towering figures in Western thought. A brilliant thinker with wide-ranging interests, he wrote important works in physics, biology, poetry, politics, morality, metaphysics, and ethics. In the Nicomachean Ethics, which he is said to have dedicated to his son Nicomachus, Aristotle's guiding question is what is the best thing for a human being? His answer is happiness. "Happiness," he wrote, "is the best, noblest, and most pleasant thing in the world." But he means not something we feel, not an emotion, but rather an especially good kind of life . Happiness is made up of activities in which we use the best human capacities, both ones that contribute to our flourishing as members of a community, and ones that allow us to engage in god-like contemplation. Contemporary ethical writings on the role and importance of the moral virtues such as courage and justice have drawn inspiration from this work, which also contains important discussions on responsibility, practical reasoning, and on the role of friendship in creating the best life. This new edition combines David Ross's classic translation, lightly revised by Lesley Brown, with a new and invaluable introduction and explanatory notes. A glossary of key terms and comprehensive index, as well as a fully updated bibliography, add further value to this exceptional new edition. Features * This new edition of one of the founding texts of moral philosophy combines David Ross's classic translation, lightly revised by Lesley Brown, with a new and invaluable introduction and notes to aid readers in their understanding of Aristotle's intricate arguments. * Widely admired translation, sparingly revised to retain its qualities while paying special attention to key terms, enhancing understanding, eliminating unintentional ambiguity, and incorporating the latest scholarly thinking. * Invaluable introduction covers Aristotl

How the French Think - An Affectionate Portrait of an Intellectual People (Paperback): Sudhir Hazareesingh How the French Think - An Affectionate Portrait of an Intellectual People (Paperback)
Sudhir Hazareesingh 1
R215 R169 Discovery Miles 1 690 Save R46 (21%) Shipped within 4 - 8 working days

WINNER OF THE GRAND PRIX DU LIVRE D'IDEES The French: serious and frivolous, charming and infuriating, rational and mystical, pessimistic, pleasure-loving - and perhaps more than any other people, intellectual. This original and entertaining book shows exactly what makes the French so ... French.

Enlivenment - Toward a Poetics for the Anthropocene (Paperback): Andreas Weber Enlivenment - Toward a Poetics for the Anthropocene (Paperback)
Andreas Weber
R283 R229 Discovery Miles 2 290 Save R54 (19%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

A new understanding of the Anthropocene that is based on mutual transformation with nature rather than control over nature. We have been told that we are living in the Anthropocene, a geological era shaped by humans rather than by nature. In Enlivenment, German philosopher Andreas Weber presents an alternative understanding of our relationship with nature, arguing not that humans control nature but that humans and nature exist in a commons of mutual transformation. There is no nature-human dualism, he contends, because the fundamental dimension of existence is shared in what he calls "aliveness." All subjectivity is intersubjectivity. Self is self-through-other. Seeing all beings in a common household of matter, desire, and imagination, an economy of metabolic and economic transformation, is "enlivenment." This perspective allows us to move beyond Enlightenment-style thinking that strips material reality of any subjectivity. To take this step, Weber argues, we need to supplant the concept of techne with the concept of poiesis as the element that brings forth reality. In a world not divided into things and ideas, culture and nature, reality arises from the creation of relationships and continuous fertile transformations; any thinking in terms of relationships comes about as a poetics. The self is always a function of the whole; the whole is equally a function of the individual. Only this integrated freedom allows humanity to reconcile with the natural world. This first English edition of Enlivenment has been expanded and updated from the German edition.

Cambridge Companions to Philosophy - The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Ethics (Paperback): Christopher Bobonich Cambridge Companions to Philosophy - The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Ethics (Paperback)
Christopher Bobonich
R549 R432 Discovery Miles 4 320 Save R117 (21%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

The field of ancient Greek ethics is increasingly emerging as a major branch of philosophical enquiry, and students and scholars of ancient philosophy will find this Companion to be a rich and invaluable guide to the themes and movements which characterised the discipline from the Pre-Socratics to the Neo-Platonists. Several chapters are dedicated to the central figures of Plato and Aristotle, and others explore the ethical thought of the Stoics, the Epicureans, the Skeptics, and Plotinus. Further chapters examine important themes that cut across these schools, including virtue and happiness, friendship, elitism, impartiality, and the relationship between ancient eudaimonism and modern morality. Written by leading scholars and drawing on cutting-edge research to illuminate the questions of ancient ethics, the book will provide students and specialists with an indispensable critical overview of the full range of ancient Greek ethics.

A Commentary to Kant's `Critique of Pure Reason' (Paperback, 3rd ed. 2003): Norman Kemp Smith, Sebastian Gardner A Commentary to Kant's `Critique of Pure Reason' (Paperback, 3rd ed. 2003)
Norman Kemp Smith, Sebastian Gardner
R2,110 Discovery Miles 21 100 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Of all the major philosophical works, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is one of the most rewarding, yet one of the most difficult. Norman Kemp Smith's Commentary elucidates not only textural questions and minor issues, but also the central problems which arise, he contends, from the conflicting tendencies of Kant's own thinking. Kemp Smith's Commentary continues to be in demand with Kant scholars, and it is being reissued here with a new introduction by Sebastian Gardner to set it in its contemporary context.

African American Philosophers and Philosophy - An Introduction to the History, Concepts and Contemporary Issues (Paperback):... African American Philosophers and Philosophy - An Introduction to the History, Concepts and Contemporary Issues (Paperback)
Stephen Ferguson II, John McClendon III
R464 Discovery Miles 4 640 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

This book presents the first introduction to African American academic philosophers, exploring their concepts and ideas and revealing the critical part they have played in the formation of philosophy in the USA. The book begins with the early years of educational attainment by African American philosophers in the 1860s. To demonstrate the impact of their philosophical work on general problems in the discipline, chapters are broken down into four major areas of study: Axiology, Social Science, Philosophy of Religion and Philosophy of Science. Providing personal narratives on individual philosophers and examining the work of figures such as H. T. Johnson, William D. Johnson, Joyce Mitchell Cooke, Adrian Piper, William R. Jones, Roy D. Morrison, Eugene C. Holmes, and William A. Banner, the book challenges the myth that philosophy is exclusively a white academic discipline. Packed with examples of struggles and triumphs, this engaging introduction is a much-needed approach to studying philosophy today.

What Is a People? (Hardcover): Judith Butler, Georges Didi-Huberman, Pierre Bourdieu, Alain Badiou, Sadri Khiari, Jacques... What Is a People? (Hardcover)
Judith Butler, Georges Didi-Huberman, Pierre Bourdieu, Alain Badiou, Sadri Khiari, …
R532 R345 Discovery Miles 3 450 Save R187 (35%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

What Is a People? seeks to reclaim "people" as an effective political concept by revisiting its uses and abuses over time. Alain Badiou surveys the idea of a people as a productive force of solidarity and emancipation and as a negative tool of categorization and suppression. Pierre Bourdieu follows with a sociolinguistic analysis of "popular" and its transformation of democracy, beliefs, songs, and even soups into phenomena with outsized importance. Judith Butler calls out those who use freedom of assembly to create an exclusionary "we," while Georges Didi-Huberman addresses the problem of summing up a people with totalizing narratives. Sadri Khiari applies an activist's perspective to the racial hierarchies inherent in ethnic and national categories, and Jacques Ranciere comments on the futility of isolating theories of populism when, as these thinkers have shown, the idea of a "people" is too diffuse to support them. By engaging this topic linguistically, ethnically, culturally, and ontologically, the voices in this volume help separate "people" from its fraught associations to pursue more vital formulations. Together with Democracy in What State?, in which Giorgio Agamben, Alain Badiou, Daniel Bensaid, Wendy Brown, Jean-Luc Nancy, Jacques Ranciere, Kristin Ross, and Slavoj Zizek discuss the nature and purpose of democracy today, What Is a People? expands an essential exploration of political action and being in our time.

Kant on Laws (Hardcover): Eric Watkins Kant on Laws (Hardcover)
Eric Watkins
R1,672 R1,546 Discovery Miles 15 460 Save R126 (8%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

This book focuses on the unity, diversity, and centrality of the notion of law as it is employed in Kant's theoretical and practical philosophy. Eric Watkins argues that, by thinking through a number of issues in various historical, scientific, and philosophical contexts over several decades, Kant is able to develop a univocal concept of law that can nonetheless be applied to a wide range of particular cases, despite the diverse demands that these contexts give rise to. In addition, Watkins shows how Kant comes to view both the generic conception of law which he develops and its different particular instances as crucial components of his systematic philosophy as a whole. This volume's new and unified account of a major current running through Kant's work will be important for scholars interested in numerous aspects of his philosophy, from the theoretical and abstract to the practical and empirical.

Happiness (Paperback): Alain Badiou Happiness (Paperback)
Alain Badiou; Translated by A., J. Bartlett, Adam Bartlett, Justin Clemens 1
R349 R259 Discovery Miles 2 590 Save R90 (26%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

`All philosophy is a metaphysics of happiness...or it's not worth an hour of trouble' claims Alain Badiou in this lively intervention into one of the most persistent themes in philosophy: what is happiness? And what do I need to do to be happy? The desire to be happy is one of our most universal goals and yet there doesn't seem to be any easy answers or formulas for achieving happiness. And the concept has become so commodified and corrupted to be almost unrecognizable as something worth pursuing. In light of this, should we just give up the aspiration to be happy altogether? Alain Badiou thinks not. While eschewing futile procedures for magically becoming `happy', Badiou does passionately maintain that in order to be truly happy we need philosophy. And, bolder still, that a life lived philosophically is the happiest life of all!

Wittgenstein - Meaning and Mind (Volume 3 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations), Part 2: Exegesis,... Wittgenstein - Meaning and Mind (Volume 3 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations), Part 2: Exegesis, Section 243-427 (Hardcover, 2nd Edition)
Peter M Hacker
R1,565 R1,408 Discovery Miles 14 080 Save R157 (10%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Wittgenstein: Meaning and Mind, Part 2 - Exegesis 243-427 explores and clarifies the patterns, developments, and conclusions of Wittgenstein's arguments in 243-427 of Philosophical Investigations. Each numbered remark in Wittgenstein's text is systematically analysed. Problematic expressions, phrases and sentences are clarified, source remarks in Wittgenstein's Nachlass that shed light on the text are elaborated. The bearing of the remarks on deep philosophical problems is made clear. This volume of exegesis of 243-427 has been extensively revised, incorporating numerous references to original and secondary texts of Wittgenstein that were not known to exist in 1990. New comprehensive tables of correlation between the remarks of the Investigations and the source of the remarks in the Nachlass have been added. A variety of controversies of the last quarter of a century concerning the private language arguments, the nature of thought and imagination, consciousness and the self are addressed and settled explicitly or implicitly in the new exegesis. All references to Wittgenstein's text have been adjusted to the fourth edition, although page references to the first and second editions have been retained in parenthesis. These revisions bring the book up to the high standard of the extensively revised editions of Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning (2005) and Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity (2009). They ensure that this survey of Investigations 243-427 will remain the essential reference work on Wittgenstein's masterpiece for the foreseeable future.

Why I am So Wise (Paperback, Revised ed): Friedrich Nietzsche Why I am So Wise (Paperback, Revised ed)
Friedrich Nietzsche 2
R113 R76 Discovery Miles 760 Save R37 (33%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Throughout history, some books have changed the world. They have transformed the way we see ourselves and each other. They have inspired debate, dissent, war and revolution. They have enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. They have enriched lives and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the great thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose ideas shook civilization, and helped make us who we are.

On Purpose (Hardcover): Michael Ruse On Purpose (Hardcover)
Michael Ruse
R601 R399 Discovery Miles 3 990 Save R202 (34%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

A brief, accessible history of the idea of purpose in Western thought, from ancient Greece to the present Can we live without the idea of purpose? Should we even try to? Kant thought we were stuck with purpose, and even Darwin's theory of natural selection, which profoundly shook the idea, was unable to kill it. Indeed, teleological explanation--what Aristotle called understanding in terms of "final causes"--seems to be making a comeback today, as both religious proponents of intelligent design and some prominent secular philosophers argue that any explanation of life without the idea of purpose is missing something essential. In On Purpose, Michael Ruse explores the history of the idea of purpose in philosophical, religious, scientific, and historical thought, from ancient Greece to the present. Accessibly written and filled with literary and other examples, the book examines "purpose" thinking in the natural and human world. It shows how three ideas about purpose have been at the heart of Western thought for more than two thousand years. In the Platonic view, purpose results from the planning of a human or divine being; in the Aristotelian, purpose stems from a tendency or principle of order in the natural world; and in the Kantian, purpose is essentially heuristic, or something to be discovered, an idea given substance by Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection. On Purpose traces the profound and fascinating implications of these ways of thinking about purpose. Along the way, it takes up tough questions about the purpose of life and whether it's possible to have meaning without purpose, revealing that purpose is still a vital and pressing issue.

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