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This volume examines the role of women workers who are joining the workforce in urban India. Employment opportunities have opened up and are constantly expanding for women, but this book interrogates whether their working status is breaking gender stereotypes or reaffirming them. It argues that whether women are working in offices or from home, contributing to the IT sector or labouring as petty producers, they are unable to break out of the gendered codes that place them at the lower rungs of the occupational ladder. More importantly, the hierarchical social order, comprising caste, class and ethnic identities, seems to echo in the gendered structure of the labour market as well. This volume studies the intertwining of work with embedded patriarchal notions of women's places in designated spheres, and the overt and covert processes of resistance that women offer in defining new roles and old ones anew.
Every working mother's path is unique and should be celebrated, not lamented. Yet all too frequently, working mothers are presented with advice, rules to follow or guidelines as if all women's experiences are the same and a one-size-fits-all solution is appropriate. Maternal Optimism: Forging Positive Paths through Work and Motherhood aims to provide readers with stories and research that support the notion of women owning and feeling confident in the choices they make, as they navigate a complex series of work and family transitions. This book challenges the impulse to reduce work/life challenges to a single point in time, such as the decision to return to work after the birth of a child; instead, it recognizes that work and family decisions are anything but stagnant. They shift as life and career shift and are often filled with unpredictable events. By understanding and anticipating these shifts, working mothers can develop the resiliency they need at home and at work. This book is a resource for all professional women as they approach the difficulties and the joys of growing a family and a career.
In this seminal study, Robert Cox offers a new approach to the study of power by identifying the connections between production, the state, and world order.
"One of the symptoms of an approaching nervous breakdown is the belief that one's work is terribly important." - Bertrand Russell Work is one of the most universal features of human life; virtually everybody spends some part of their life at work. It is often associated with tedium and boredom, in conflict with the things we would otherwise love to do. The idea of work primarily as a burden was also shared by the philosophers in ancient Greece, who generally regarded work as a curse. And yet research shows that it prolongs life and is generally good for people's physical and mental health. Why is this? What is the meaning of work? To what extent does it determine our social identity? Should we expect to find work fulfilling? In this book, Lars Svendsen explores these questions and more. He argues that we need to complete this reorientation of our feelings about work and collapse the differences between leisure and work. Work is always with us. But to overcome the sense of being burnt out, we must think of work as not only productive but recreative - in other words, a lot more like leisure. Revised and updated in light of the global financial crisis, this second edition also includes a new chapter on work and globalization.
Men in reserve focuses on working class civilian men who, as a result of working in reserved occupations, were exempt from enlistment in the armed forces. It uses fifty six newly conducted oral history interviews as well as autobiographies, visual sources and existing archived interviews to explore how this group articulated their wartime experiences and how they positioned themselves in relation to the hegemonic discourse of military masculinity. It considers the range of masculine identities circulating amongst civilian male workers during the war and investigates the extent to which reserved workers draw upon these identities when recalling their wartime selves. It argues that the Second World War was capable of challenging civilian masculinities, positioning the civilian man below that of the 'soldier hero' while, simultaneously, reinforcing them by bolstering the capacity to provide and to earn high wages, frequently in risky and dangerous work, all which were key markers of masculinity. -- .
This volume analyses occupation, earning, and standard of living of the low income households from slum clusters in Delhi, and lays emphasis on strategies and efforts initiated by the slum dwellers to cope with uncertainties they face. The role of informal institutions or networks in accessing information pertaining to the urban labour market, and in experiencing an upward mobility, constitutes an important dimension of the analysis. Transfer of resources - monestary and/or non-monetary - across individuals/households, which can be either based on altruistic behaviour or motivated by the principle of exchange (or strategic exchange) takes the central position in the analysis. This helps derive the domain of public policy, which would not be in conflict with the existing institutions, and would emerge as supportive measures instead of appearing as direct interventions. Interspatial variations in economic activities performed in the city and their impact on the labour market in terms of physical segmentation, constitute the other major aspect that the study focuses on. Differences in occupational choices, incomes and consumption expenditure across seems in the broad context of intra-household inequality are dealt with. Finally, it reviews the past and ongoing programmes relating to urban poverty, and compares them with the policy directives following from the present study.
In the most comprehensive analysis to date of the world of open air
marketplaces of West Africa, Gracia Clark studies the market women
of Kumasi, Ghana, in order to understand the key social forces that
generate, maintain, and continually reshape the shifting market
How successive generations of fighters took part in the struggles of the U.S. labor movement, seeking to build a leadership that could advance the class interests of workers and small farmers and link up with fellow toilers around the world.
In this book, Mauro F. Guillen explores differing historical patterns in the adoption of the three major models of organizational management: scientific management; human relations; and structural analysis. Moving beyond Reinhard Bendix's "Work and Authority", "Models of Management" takes a fresh look at how managers have used these models in four countries during the 20th century. Guillen's study of two liberal-democratic societies (the United States and Great Britain) and two corporatist societies (Germany and Spain) reveals significant differences in the way managerial elites and firms have adopted the three models. His data show that ideas themselves - independent of material interests and technology - can cause organizational change. Throughout the book, contrasts between modernist-technocratic and liberal-humanist mentalities, as well as between Protestant and Catholic religious backgrounds, emerge as decisive factors in determining managerial ideology and practice. In addition to analyzing management methods in organizations, Guillen explores larger issues: the interaction among managerial, government and labour elites; the impact of the state and the professions on managerial behaviour; and the role that managers play in modern societies. This book won the Marvin B. Sussman Prize, Yale University and the President's Book Award, Social Science History Association.
The ebook edition of this title is Open Access, thanks to Knowledge Unlatched funding, and freely available to read online. The post-Brexit environment introduces notable challenges for regional policy; however, it also offers the opportunity to reassess regional needs and appropriate funding formulae. Regional Success After Brexit: The Need for New Measures examines the metrics currently used to evaluate regional performance within the UK and, in the wake of Brexit, suggests better alternatives. Alongside an in-depth critique of GVA/capita, the book challenges current thinking based on nominal productivity differences and advocates measures based on real incomes, real living standards and real labour productivity. The book is an illuminating read for academics, researchers and policy-makers working within regional economics as it exposes the need to replace European regional funding with a new formula that takes regional prices into account and redistributes authority over the UK's revenue and spending to the regions.
This book focuses on the experience of social dialogue in Turkey, which is a European Union candidate country. It argues that social dialogue constitutes one of the fundamental pillars of European social model and therefore should be analysed not only at the supranational level but also at the national, sectoral and workplace levels. The book critically examines social dialogue processes and mechanisms in Turkey at various levels, with focus on the workplace because it is shaped by socio-cultural elements which contain many variables. The book also identifies the shortcomings and structural impediments of social dialogue, and provides an empirically grounded theoretical explanation of social dialogue in Turkey. In the process, the book explains and clarifies key concepts to help readers grasp important points relevant to social dialogue, and contains interviews with social partners to take into consideration their views and recommendations on social dialogue. These in-depth interviews also provide a rare insight into the dynamics of social dialogue on the ground. By looking at social dialogue at various levels, the book offers a balanced view of its strengths and weaknesses in Turkey. This book is a valuable tool for students, academics and researchers interested in understanding the complex dynamics of social dialogue and workplace relations in Turkey.
This is a collection of essays by an array of contributors from the Global Labour Column, which highlights and examines class struggle as the core of resistance against capitalism today. It provides insights into the dynamics of neoliberalism and its persistence and stimulates debates about the continued impact of the economic crisis, focusing on labour as both a victim and a crucial social force which can push for an alternative. Examples of the subjects it covers include the Indonesian Sportswear Industry, Chinese construction companies in Africa, mining in South Africa, job quality in Europe, globalised 'T-shirt economics' and the marketisation and securitisation of UK international aid, amongst many others. The Global Labour Column, managed by the Corporate Strategy and Industrial Development research programme at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, is part of the Global Labour University.
Written by a world-renowned authority, Hierarchy takes readers on a journey which traverses how hierarchy has evolved, is understood in various disciplines, and is applied in practice. Referring a wide range of sources, the book provides an inspirational introduction to understanding what is perhaps the key idea in business and management. As a fundamental organizational principle, hierarchy is everywhere. Perhaps because of its ubiquity, the significance of hierarchy has become under-analyzed in view of the growing strains on society imposed by organizational inequality. This book analyzes the advantages and disadvantages that hierarchy brings as a form of organization, providing an accessible overview of this fundamental idea within both business and society. This concise book provides a useful overview of existing research, for both students and scholars of business.
Work Want Work considers in captivating detail how a logic of work has become integral to everything we do, even as the place of formal work has become increasingly precarious. With reference to sociological data, philosophy, political theory, legislation, the testimonies of workers and an eclectic mix of cultural texts - from Lucian Freud to Google, Anthony Giddens to selfies, Jean-Luc Nancy to Amy Winehouse - Pfannebecker and Smith lay out how the capitalism of globalized technologies has put our time, our subjectivities, our experiences and our desires to work in unprecedented ways. As every part of life is colonized by work without securing our livelihoods, new questions need to be asked: whether a nostalgia for work can save us, how ideas of work change conceptions of political community, how employment and unemployment alike have become malemployment, and whether the work of our desire online can be disentangled from capitalist exploitation. The biggest question, at a time when the end of work and a fully automated future are proclaimed by Silicon Valley idealists as well as by social democratic politicians and left-wing theorists, is this: how can we propose a post-work society and culture that we will actually want?
The condition of precariousness not only provides insights into a segment of the world of work or of a particular subject group, but is also a standpoint for an overview of the condition of the social on a global scale. Because precariousness is multidimensional and polysemantic, it traverses contemporary society and multiple contexts, from industrial to class, gender, family relations as well as political participation, citizenship and migration. This book maps the differences and similarities in the ways precariousness and insecurity in employment and beyond unfold and are subjectively experienced in regions and sectors that are confronted with different labour histories, legislations and economic priorities. Establishing a constructive dialogue amongst different global regions and across disciplines, the chapters explore the shift from precariousness to precariat and collective subjects as it is being articulated in the current global crisis. This edited collection aims to continue a process of mapping experiences by means of ethnographies, fieldwork, interviews, content analysis, where the precarious define their condition and explain how they try to withdraw from, cope with or embrace it. This is valuable reading for students and academics interested in geography, sociology, economics and labour studies.
This new handbook builds on The Handbook of Community Movements and Local Organizations published in 2007, and is the only resource defining the field of study related to small nonprofit organizations and to studying communities from the standpoint of associations that make up communities. It explores the history and conceptualizations of community, theoretical concepts in community organizations, social movements ranging from health to crime, and community practice methods. Further it provides authoritative statements of major theory areas, gives examples of different sub areas of the field, provides guidance to people working as practitioners in the field, and nicely coincides with the increasing interest in clinical sociology. This handbook is of great interest to academics, students and practitioners with an interdisciplinary resource to understand and collaborate in work with contemporary communities.
Language and Culture at Work provides an overview of the complex role that culture plays in workplace contexts. Eight chapters cover the core aspects of culture at work, comprising: Face and politeness Decision making Leadership Identity Gender Work-life balance The authors draw on a significant corpus of authentic workplace data collected in numerous professional and medical settings involving participants from a variety of different socio-cultural backgrounds (including Chinese, Filipino, Indian, British, Dutch, Hong Kong, Taiwanese and Australian). Using in-depth analyses of authentic interactions and interviews, the book proposes a new integrated framework for researching culture at work from a sociolinguistic perspective. This is key reading for researchers and recommended for those working in the areas of sociolinguistics, communication studies, discourse analysis and applied linguistics. It will be of particular interest to students of professional and workplace communication, intercultural communication and intercultural pragmatics.
The book outlines how cooperatives can be used as a tool for development and reconciliation in post-conflict contexts. This book also examines the successes and challenges for emerging and existing cooperatives in Africa, while delivering both practical lessons and insights into the theory. It presents completely new materials on the cooperative movement, against a backdrop of increasing global recognition of the roles of cooperatives and collective action in socio-economic development. Readers are invited to consider how, as an economic model that seeks to advance member collective interests, cooperatives are invaluable tools for human, economic and social development. Social and human geographers find this a remarkably impactful contribution to the literature surrounding cooperatives in Africa and cooperative theory in general. Policy experts and students also find the research informative and insightful.
The call center industry is booming in the Philippines. Around the year 2005, the country overtook India as the world's "voice capital," and industry revenues are now the second largest contributor to national GDP. In Lives on the Line, Jeffrey J. Sallaz retraces the assemblage of a global market for voice over the past two decades. Drawing upon case studies of sixty Filipino call center workers and two years of fieldwork in Manila, he illustrates how offshore call center jobs represent a middle path for educated Filipinos, who are faced with the dismaying choice to migrate abroad in search of prosperity versus stay at home as an impoverished professional. A rich ethnographic study, this book challenges existing stereotypes regarding offshore service jobs and sheds light upon the reasons that the Philippines has become the world's favored location for "voice." It looks beyond call centers and beyond India to advance debates concerning global capitalism, the future of work, and the lives of those who labor in offshored jobs.
The image of a job captures our imagination from an early age, usually prompted by the question 'What do you want to be when you grow up?'. Work - paid, unpaid, voluntary, or obligatory - is woven into the fabric of all human societies. For many of us, it becomes part of our identity. For others it is a tedious necessity. Living is problematic without paid work, and for many it is catastrophic. Steve Fineman tells the fascinating story of work - how we strive for security, reward, and often, meaning. Looking at how we classify 'work'; the cultural and social factors that influence the way we work; the ethics of certain types of work; and the factors that will affect the future of work, from globalization to technology, this Very Short Introduction considers work as a concept and as a practical experience, drawing upon ideas from psychology, sociology, management, and social history. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
In recent years, the world has been re-introduced to the constituency of "white working class" people. In a wave of revolutionary populism, far right parties have scored victories across the transatlantic political world: Britain voted to leave the European Union, the United States elected President Donald Trump to enact an "America First" agenda, and Radical Right movements are threatening European centrists in elections across the Continent. In each case, white working class people are driving a broad reaction to the inequities and social change brought by globalization, and its cosmopolitan champions. In the midst of this rebellion, a new group consciousness has emerged among the very people who not so long ago could take their political, economic, and cultural primacy for granted. Who are white working class people? What do they believe? Are white working class people an "interest group"? What has driven them to break so sharply with the world's trajectory toward a more borderless, interconnected meritocracy? How can a group with such enduring power feel marginalized? This perplexing constituency must be understood if the world is to address and respond to the social and political backlash they are driving. The White Working Class: What Everyone Needs to Know (R) provides the context for understanding the politics of this large, perplexing group of people. The book begins by explaining what "white working class" means in terms of demographics, history, and geography, as well as the ways in which this group defines itself and has been defined by others. It will address whether white identity is on the rise, why white people perceive themselves as marginalized, and the roles of racism and xenophobia in white consciousness. It will also look at whether the white working class has distinct political attitudes, their voting behavior, and their prospects for the future. This accessible book provides a nuanced view into the forces driving one of the most complicated and consequential political constituencies today.
The fourth edition of Career Choice and Development brings together the most current ideas of the recognized authorities in the field of career development. This classic best-seller has been thoroughly revised and expanded to include the most influential theories of career choice and development, and it contains up-to-date information regarding the application of these theories to counseling practice. This edition contains a wide range of career development theories that explore how people develop certain traits, personalities, self-precepts, and how these developments influence career decision making. This information will challenge teachers, researchers, and those involved in fostering career development to reexamine their assumptions and practices.
Examining the subtle forms of aggression, violence, and harassment that occur in our society and manifest in institutions and places of work, the expert contributors collected here describe the experience of social marginalization and expose how vulnerable individuals work to navigate exclusionary climates. This volume explores how bodies disrupt the status quo in multiple contexts and locations; provides insights into how institutions are structured and how practices that may cause harm are maintained; and, finally, considers progressive and proactive alternatives. This book will be a key resource for academics and professionals in education, sociology, nursing, law, business and political science, as well as organizations and policymakers grappling with aggression in the workplace.
Recent years have seen a surge of interest in the workings of financial institutions and financial markets beyond the discipline of economics, which has been accelerated by the financial crisis of the early twenty-first century. The Oxford Handbook of the Sociology of Finance brings together twenty-nine chapters, written by scholars of international repute from Europe, North America, and Asia, to provide comprehensive coverage on a variety of topics related to the role of finance in a globalized world, and its historical development. Topics include global institutions of modern finance, types of actors involved in financial transactions and supporting technologies, mortgage markets, rating agencies, and the role of financial economics. Particular attention is given to financial crises, which are discussed in a special section, as well as to alternative forms of finance, including Islamic finance and the rise of China. The Handbook will be an indispensable tool for academics, researchers, and students of contemporary finance and economic sociology, and will serve as a reference point for the expanding international community of scholars researching these areas from a broadly-defined sociological perspective.
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