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Increasingly, employees are being falsely treated as 'self-employed'. This phenomenon - the 'gig economy' - is seen as the inevitable shape of things to come. In this book, Colin Crouch takes a step back and questions this logic. He shows how the idea of an employee - a stable status that involves a bundle of rights - has maintained a curious persistence. Examining the ways companies are attacking these rights, from proffering temporary work to involuntary part-time work to 'gigging', he reveals the paradoxes of the situation and argues that it should not and cannot continue. He goes on to propose reforms to reverse the perverse incentives that reward irresponsible employers and punish good ones, setting out an agenda for a realistic future of secure work. Crouch's penetrating analysis will be of interest to everyone interested in the future of work, the welfare state and the gig economy.
The Dynamics of Managing Diversity was one of the first books to respond to growing academic coverage of the topic of diversity management at degree level. This fourth edition has been fully updated to reflect new working practices, statistical information and developments in equality and diversity law, as well as including new case studies and analysis of current and emerging areas of debate in the UK and across Europe. Diversity management is a term that covers not only race, disability and sex discrimination, but also broader issues such as individual and cultural differences. The Dynamics of Managing Diversity, fourth edition, provides HR and business managers of the future with the legal information and research findings to enable them to develop meaningful diversity policies in their organizations. This new edition offers: * Coverage of topical areas such as female representation on executive boards, religious diversity, and economic migration following EU enlargement * Multiple analytical perspectives, such as socio-legal and feminist approaches, to provide rich insights to the subject matter * Practical case studies to illustrate the real-life issues in a local, international and organizational context Kirton and Greene present the subject of diversity management in a logical and structured manner, beginning each chapter with aims and objectives, and ending with discussion questions, making this book the perfect support resource for those teaching or studying in the field of equality and diversity.
This book explores the connection between British and German officer cadets' perceptions of the past and their motivations for enlisting in the military forces in the United Kingdom and Germany. Drawing upon qualitative interviews and survey data conducted at officers' academies in the UK and Germany, the author offers a comparative analysis using differing approaches towards history and memory in Britain and Germany, while considering the roles of individual goals and societal orientations in the decision to enlist. Employing the notion of pragmatic professionalism, which reflects the fact that occupational and institutional reasons for enlisting are not opposite points on a single scale, Professionalism, Memory and Identity examines history-orientated reasons for enlistment by shedding light on officer cadets' values, beliefs and wider cultural understandings of the past. With attention to differences in motivation as a result of differing national backgrounds and former military training, as well as the extent to which these divergences contribute to the emergence of different types of soldiers in the two countries, this comparative, international study will appeal to scholars of sociology, politics and war studies with interests in the military profession and the role of history in contemporary Britain and Germany.
How we know ourselves, how we are known by the institutions in which we work, and how we are known by our co-workers and our families is increasingly affected in a constantly changing network of technologies and strategies. As we enter the 21st century, these include computers and telecommunications, as well as management, 'psy' fields, and accounting. In the workplace, these technological forms are lashed together into systems and strategies that reflect a form of rationality and allow norms for seeing, representing and knowing work and workers to arise. These norms and forms produce distinctly modern forms of subjectivity, 'truth' and power to make workers into subjects. Tertiary (service) labour is the fastest growing form of paid work in the economic catchment of the West. Mediation of labour through computers and telecommunication is also increasing at a remarkable rate. Nonetheless, there are few detailed analyses of subjectivity in technology-mediated tertiary labour. Drawn from ethnographic research using post-structural analytics, this book describes how a collection of technologies is taken up in a common form of tertiary labour - call centres - to produce 'truth', knowledge, power and modern forms of subjectivity and social subjects. It also challenges assumptions of Marxian and management theory by demonstrating that workers are neither dominated nor liberated, rather how they are made responsible for and caught up in the apparatus that renders them as subjects. This book provides a detailed look at the 'genealogy of subjectivity' at work. It shows 'how we are now' as a population whose selves and subjectivity are produced face-to-face with technology-mediated systems.
Diversity in Organizations argues that ensuring a diverse workforce composition has tangible benefits for business organizations. Rather than relying on touchy-feely arguments, Herring and Henderson present compelling evidence that directly links diversity to the bottom line. However, the book goes beyond merely arguing that we should embrace diversity because it is profitable; it shows that the true power of diversity lies in its potential as a catalyst and incubator for innovation.
Critical diversity is a forceful theory that argues for the relationship between workforce composition and the business case for diversity. Contrasting critical diversity with other notions of diversity (such as colorblind, segregated and snowflake diversity), the book offers real life solutions to the political problems that arise from implementing diversity initiatives, and examines why some of these initiatives remain unpopular. Readers will learn:
The theory is presented in an accessible manner without shying away from the contentious aspects of diversity that confront our society. The book also provides concrete advice and guidance to those who seek to implement diversity programs and initiatives in their organizations, and to make their companies more competitive. Not only is it a compelling read, but students taking classes in diversity, human resource management, sociology of work, and organizational psychology will find this a comprehensive, helpful resource.
What are practice theories? Where do they come from? What do they say? Do they offer something new to the study of work and organization? Practice theories are a set of conceptual tools and methodologies for investigating, analysing, and representing everyday practice. They develop the idea that phenomena such as knowledge, meaning, science, power, organized activity, sociality, and institutions are rooted in practice. The volume provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to this emerging area of study. Recognizing that a unified theory of practice does not exist, the book surveys the main scholarly traditions that have, collectively, contributed to the practice turn in social and organization studies. Each chapter examines the main assumptions and concepts of these traditions, discussing their distinctive contribution to work and organization studies. The chapters are accompanied by a fully worked example of how the theory can be applied to empirical research, making the text suitable for teaching purposes. The book will constitute a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in organization studies and management, and scholars across disciplines who are interested to know more about the topic.
Up-beat, pragmatic, and chock full of advice, What Works for Women at Work is an indispensable guide for working women. An essential resource for any working woman, What Works for Women at Work is a comprehensive and insightful guide for mastering office politics as a woman. Authored by Joan C. Williams, one of the nation's most-cited experts on women and work, and her daughter, writer Rachel Dempsey, this unique book offers a multi-generational perspective into the realities of today's workplace. Often women receive messages that they have only themselves to blame for failing to get ahead-Negotiate more! Stop being such a wimp! Stop being such a witch! What Works for Women at Work tells women it's not their fault. The simple fact is that office politics often benefits men over women. Based on interviews with 127 successful working women, over half of them women of color, What Works for Women at Work presents a toolkit for getting ahead in today's workplace. Distilling over 35 years of research, Williams and Dempsey offer four crisp patterns that affect working women: Prove-It-Again!, the Tightrope, the Maternal Wall, and the Tug of War. Each represents different challenges and requires different strategies-which is why women need to be savvier than men to survive and thrive in high-powered careers. Williams and Dempsey's analysis of working women is nuanced and in-depth, going far beyond the traditional cookie-cutter, one-size-fits-all approaches of most career guides for women. Throughout the book, they weave real-life anecdotes from the women they interviewed, along with quick kernels of advice like a "New Girl Action Plan," ways to "Take Care of Yourself", and even "Comeback Lines" for dealing with sexual harassment and other difficult situations.
In this engaging book--the first to historicize our understanding of sexual harassment in the workplace--Julie Berebitsky explores how Americans' attitudes toward sexuality and gender in the office have changed since the 1860s, when women first took jobs as clerks in the U.S. Treasury office. Berebitsky recounts the actual experiences of female and male office workers; draws on archival sources ranging from the records of investigators looking for waste in government offices during World War II to the personal papers of Cosmopolitan editor Helen Gurley Brown and Ms. magazine founder Gloria Steinem; and explores how popular sources--including cartoons, advertisements, advice guides, and a wide array of fictional accounts--have represented wanted and unwelcome romantic and sexual advances. This range of evidence and the study's long scope expose both notable transformations and startling continuities in the interplay of gender, power and desire at work.
This book re-evaluates and extends understandings about how work was conceived and what it could entail for women in the premodern period in Europe from c. 1100 to c. 1800. It does this by building on the impressive growth in literature on women's working experiences, and by adopting new interpretive approaches that expand received assumptions about what constituted 'work' for women. While attention to the diversity of women's contributions to the economy has done much to make the breadth of women's experiences of labour visible, this volume takes a more expansive conceptual approach to the notion of work and considers the social and cultural dimensions in which activities were construed and valued as work. This interdisciplinary collection thus advances concepts of work that encompass cultural activities in addition to more traditional economic understandings of work as employment or labour for production. The chapters reconceptualise and explore work for women by asking how the working lives of historical women were enacted and represented, and analyse the relationships that shaped women's experiences of work across the European premodern period.
This fascinating study unveils the workings of the Indonesian migration regime, one that sends hundreds of thousands of women abroad as domestic workers each year. Drawing on extended ethnographic research since 2007, the book literally follows migrant women from a matrilocal village in upland Central Java, women who actively place themselves in a position to enter the migration pipeline, knowing that their lives abroad will be hard and even dangerous, and that staying in the village is an option. From recruitment by local brokers to the 'training' received in secluded camps in Jakarta, employment in gated middle-class homes within Indonesia and in Malaysia and back home again, Olivia Killias tracks the moral, social, economic and legal processes by which women are turned into 'maids'. The author's analysis uncovers the colonial genealogies of contemporary domestic worker migration and demonstrates that, ironically, the legalization of the migration industry does not automatically improve the situation of the women in its care. Rather, Killias unmasks the gendered moralizing discourses on 'illegal' migration and 'trafficking' as legitimizing indentured labour and constraining migrant mobility. By exploring the workings of the Indonesian state's overseas legal labour migration regime for migrants, she brings the reader directly into the nerve-racking lives of migrant village women, and reveals the richness and ambiguity of their experiences, going beyond stereotypical representations of them as 'victims of trafficking'.
"The Work and the Gift" considers how working and giving are taken
for opposites and revealed as each other's ghostly shadow. We ask
ourselves, for instance, to work for a wage and a living, dooming
ourselves forever to the curse of daily toil; and yet we imagine
the magnum opus or the oeuvre as a labor of love. We ask ourselves
to give with no thought of return; yet we still tell ourselves to
give only to the deserving and only where our giving will do some
Everyone seeks to attain excellence and happiness in their lives, yet world-class performance is rare. Research shows that education accounts for only 1 per cent of performance levels, work experience only 3 per cent, and age in adults 0 per cent. Dr Harald S. Harung and Dr Frederick Travis looked deeply and unearthed the secret of world-class performance: Excellence in any profession or activity depends on the single variable of high mind-brain development. By mind-brain development, the authors refer to a much more comprehensive transformation than what is commonly understood - they are talking about a sequence of fundamental shifts to new realities in the way our brain functions and in the way we look upon ourselves, others, and the world. For success, who we are is far more important than the knowledge, skills, and relationships we have and what we do - because with higher mind-brain development, our knowledge and skills become more useful, our relationships more enriching, and our actions more effective. As part of presenting the secrets of world-class performance, the book details the inspiring peak experiences that underlie top performance and how top performers have a more orderly, restfully alert, and economic brain than average performers. This research-based book will show you the many benefits of higher mind-brain development and how to effortlessly attain it.
This book presents emerging work in the co-evolving fields of design-led systemics, referred to as systemic design to distinguish it from the engineering and hard science epistemologies of system design or systems engineering. There are significant societal forces and organizational demands impelling the requirement for "better means of change" through integrated design practices of systems and services. Here we call on advanced design to lead programs of strategic scale and higher complexity (e.g., social policy, healthcare, education, urbanization) while adapting systems thinking methods, creatively pushing the boundaries beyond the popular modes of systems dynamics and soft systems. Systemic design is distinguished by its scale, social complexity and integration - it is concerned with higher-order systems that that entail multiple subsystems. By integrating systems thinking and its methods, systemic design brings human-centred design to complex, multi-stakeholder service systems. As designers engage with ever more complex problem areas, it is necessary to draw on a basis other than individual creativity and contemporary "design thinking" methods. Systems theories can co-evolve with a new school of design theory to resolve informed action on today's highly resilient complex problems and can deal effectively with demanding, contested and high-stakes challenges.
Why employees of pioneering Internet companies chose to invest their time, energy, hopes, and human capital in start-up ventures. In the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, employees of Internet startups took risks-left well-paying jobs for the chance of striking it rich through stock options (only to end up unemployed a year later), relocated to areas that were epicenters of a booming industry (that shortly went bust), chose the opportunity to be creative over the stability of a set schedule. In Venture Labor, Gina Neff investigates choices like these made by high-tech workers in New York City's "Silicon Alley" in the 1990s. Why did these workers exhibit entrepreneurial behavior in their jobs-investing time, energy, and other personal resources that Neff terms "venture labor"-when they themselves were employees and not entrepreneurs? Neff argues that this behavior was part of a broader shift in society in which economic risk shifted away from collective responsibility toward individual responsibility. In the new economy, risk and reward took the place of job loyalty, and the dot-com boom helped glorify risks. Company flexibility was gained at the expense of employee security. Through extensive interviews, Neff finds not the triumph of the entrepreneurial spirit but a mixture of motivations and strategies, informed variously by bravado, naivete, and cold calculation. She connects these individual choices with larger social and economic structures, making it clear that understanding venture labor is of paramount importance for encouraging innovation and, even more important, for creating sustainable work environments that support workers.
How freedpeople in North Carolina built rewarding lives in spite of legal and social disadvantages; In Making Freedom Pay, Sharon Ann Holt reconstructs how freed men and women in tobacco-growing central North Carolina worked to secure a place for themselves in a ravaged region and hostile time. Her micro-economic history of Granville County, North Carolina, drawn extensively from public records, assembles stories of individual lives from the initial days of emancipation to the turn of the century. Making Freedom Pay uses these highly personalized accounts of the day-to-day travails and victories of ordinary people to tell a nationally significant story of grassroots uplift.
How should firms select their employees? How should they design their compensation schemes such that employees are motivated to work hard? How do the performance and compensation of teammates influence workers' motivation and productivity? Personnel economics examines human resource practices and answers questions that are of paramount importance for business leaders around the globe. In this volume, Edward P. Lazear, a founding father of personnel economics and winner of the IZA Prize in Labor Economics 2004, takes stock of the economic analysis of personnel management, and the advancements and achievements that have been made in this field over the past 30 years. The book contains an impressive selection of Lazear's most important papers. It provides a unifying approach to human resource practices and a useful reference on personnel strategies such as hiring, motivating, and training an effective work force.
This book examines the organization of domestic life in the context of recent economic change. Lydia Morris argues that relationships within the household can only be understood with reference to the social and economic environment in which it is located. Through an analysis of economic changes in post-war Britain and the United States, the author examines the structure of labour markets, systems of welfare and local social networks. She charts the theoretical positions which have been developed with respect to the connection between the household and the labour market. Aspects of this link include male unemployment, the significance of female employment, the significance of role reversal, the organization of domestic labour, the management of household finance and the position of young people in the household.
Finally, the author examines welfare provision and access to employment generally in order to assess their effects on the organization of the household. This highly original work offers a new approach to the study of the 'household', shedding new light on gender relations and the structure and processes of the labour market.
Instances of wrongdoing in and by organizations have featured heavily in news headlines in recent years. Why do organizational participants-employees, managers, senior officials-engage in illegal, unethical, and socially irresponsible behavior? The dominant view of wrongdoing as an abnormal phenomenon assumes that the perpetrator is a rational, proactive actor, working in isolation. However, Palmer develops an alternative approach in this book, examining wrongdoing as a normal occurrence, produced by boundedly rational actors whose behaviour is shaped by the immediate social context over a period of time. The book provides a comprehensive critical review of the theory and research on organizational wrongdoing. By using rich case study material, it illuminates different perspectives, potential explanations, and policy suggestions for the reduction of organizational wrongdoing.
This book offers the first ethnographic account of prison managers in England. It explores how globalised changes, in particular managerialism, have intersected with local occupational cultures, positioning managers as micro-agents in the relationship between the global and local that characterises late modernity. The Working Lives of Prison Managers addresses key aspects of prison management, including how individuals become prison managers, their engagement with elements of traditional occupational culture, and the impact of the 'age of austerity'. It offers a particular focus on performance monitoring mechanisms such as indicators, audits and inspections, and how these intersect with local culture and individual identity. The book also examines important aspects of individual agency, including values, discretion, resistance and the use of power. It also reveals the 'hidden injuries' of contemporary prison managerialism, especially the distinctive effects experienced by women and members of minority ethnic groups.
This book brings together leading international authors from a number of fields to provide an up-to-date understanding of part-time work at national, sector, industry and workplace levels. The contributors critically examine part-time employment in different institutional settings across Europe, the USA, Australia and Korea. This analysis serves as a prism to investigate wider trends, particularly in female employment, including the continued increase in part-time work and processes that are increasingly creating dualisation and inequality between 'good' and 'bad' jobs.
Since the early 2000s, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has rapidly gained significance in India, both among large companies and as a policy instrument formally intended to foster corporate contributions to the country's development goals. This book analyses this phenomenon in relation to broader political and economic changes induced by India's 'pro-business' development strategy. Using a systems-theoretical approach, the analysis shows that 'pro-business' policies have led profit-driven economic processes to increasingly override collective aspirations for social welfare, environmental protection, and democracy. In order to decipher how CSR changes the interplays between profit-making and developmental aspirations, the book provides detailed analyses of CSR in the cement industry and in regulatory policies adopted by the central government. It shows that CSR operates as an 'intermediary institution' which further enhances the autonomy of the economic system, as it makes profit-making more responsive to risks arising from competing collective values and interests.
The writings in this volume highlight Hughes's contributions to the sociology of work and professions; race and ethnicity; and the central themes and methods of the discipline. Hughes was the first sociologist to pay sustained attention to occupations as a field for study and wrote frequently and searchingly about them. Several of the essays in this collection helped orient the first generation of black sociologists, including Franklin Frazier, St. Clair Drake and Horace Cayton.
Native Americans and Wage Labor: Ethnohistorical Perspectives presents historical evidence that wage labor was prevalent among Native Americans.
In this timely collection of essays, leading ethnographers and ethnohistorians, as well as innovative younger scholars, present field and primary historical evidence that wage labor was a significant American Indian economic adaptation as early as the seventeenth century in some areas and was common in many U.S. indigenous communities by the late nineteenth century.
These well-written, well-documented case studies form a concrete picture of Indian dependence on wage labor from Maine to California and of Native Americans' place in the capitalist system.
They Leave Their Kidneys in the Fields takes the reader on an ethnographic tour of the melon and corn harvesting fields of California's Central Valley to understand why farmworkers suffer heatstroke and chronic illness at rates higher than workers in any other industry. Through captivating accounts of the daily lives of a core group of farmworkers over nearly a decade, Sarah Bronwen Horton documents in startling detail how a tightly interwoven web of public policies and private interests creates exceptional and needless suffering.
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