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This paper focuses on a novel effect of active labor market policies: the effect of workfare on crime. First, the study examines how a series of Danish labor market reforms implemented between the late 1980s and the 1990s affected crime. The reforms introduced more rapid and extensive workfare requirements for unemployed without unemployment insurance, and are therefore useful for determining the effect of workfare on crime. Second, the paper investigates whether the crime-preventive impact of the reforms varies by individual labor market attachment. Third, the study examines whether the crime-reducing effect is weekday-specific, or also affects behavior during weekends when workfare programs are closed.
The City of London has one of the strongest unbroken traditions of livery companies in the world. Over one hundred companies, some six centuries old, maintain strong, colourful, beneficial, traditional and independent lives, and many of them have beautiful halls. This book traces the history of the guilds and liveries in various countries and shows their influence on the government of the City, on which the Westminster model is based, on the actual trades, on royalty and on the history of Britain and other lands. The author compares the guilds of Britain with those of Europe and describes each of the City guilds, their history, traditions, work and influence.
How are men responding to feminism? In particular, at work dealing with the challenge to their power and privilege represented by positive action for sex equality? The 1980s saw many organizations, from major companies to left-wing local councils, take action to improve women's chances. The research on which this book is based evaluates the part of men in the equality process. The author demonstrates the social mechanisms through which women's aspirations for change are thwarted and draws lessons from experience for feminist activism in organizations in the 1990s. '...an important and valuable contribution to the study of organisations, to an analysis of gendered social processes, and to those who actively remain committed to creating a better world for women.' Jalna Hanmer, Times Higher Education Supplement. '...an engrossing study of resistance to the implementation of equality policies in different kinds of organizations.'Elizabeth Meehan, Queen's University, Belfast '...the book has the triple virtues of increasing specialized knowledge, compelling the attention of readers generally interested in politics and society and being moving for all who are concerned about human dignit
The theory and practice of management accounting should be seen within the context of varieties of global capitalism, to appreciate its role as a 'calculative technology of capitalism' which is practiced on factory floors, corporate boards, computer networks, spreadsheets, and so forth. This new textbook is the first to introduce the field from a rounded social science perspective. Strategizing Management Accounting offers a theoretical discussion on management accounting's strategic orientation by accommodating two interrelated lines of analyses, from historical and contemporary perspectives. The book illustrates how 'new management accounting' has evolved into the form in which it exists today in its neoliberal context and how those new management accounting practices have become manifestos for the managers, as calculative technologies of decision making, performance management, control, corporate governance, as well as global governance, and development within various forms of organizations across the globe. Each chapter draws on Foucauldian analysis of biopolitics explaining how neoliberal market logic informs a set of strategies and mechanisms through which various social entities and discourses are made governable by considering them as biopolitical entities of global governance. Written by two recognized accounting experts, this book is vital reading for all students of management accounting and will also be a useful supplementary resource for those wanting to understand and research accounting's vital role in contemporary society.
Moral struggles in and around markets abound in contemporary societies where markets have become the dominant form of economic coordination. The present volume advances our current understanding of markets by highlighting the sources, processes and outcomes of moral struggles in and around markets. It traces the creation, reproduction and change of underlying moral orders and reveals the role of status and power differentials, alliances and political strategies as well as the general cultural, social and political contexts in which the struggles unfold. The contributions to this volume reflect the 'moral turn' that can currently be observed in organization studies and economic sociology, and connect to recent developments in the sociology of morality.
In Segregated Scholars Francille Rusan Wilson explores the lives and work of fifteen black labor historians and social scientists as seen through the prisms of gender, class, and time. This collective biography offers complex and vital portraits of these seminal figures, many of whom knew and worked with each other, following them through their educations, their often groundbreaking work in economic and labor studies, and their invaluable public advocacy.
The careers Wilson considers include many of the most brilliant of their eras. She sheds new light on the interplay of the professional and political commitments of W. E. B. Du Bois, Abram L. Harris, Robert C. Weaver, Carter G. Woodson, George E. Haynes, Charles H. Wesley, R. R. Wright Jr.--a succession of scholars bent on replacing myths and stereotypes regarding black labor with rigorous research and analysis.
Equally important is the special emphasis Wilson places on little-known female social scientists such as Gertrude McDougald, Emma Shields Penn, and Elizabeth Haynes. The result is more than simply a balanced picture; it is an act of recovery. Many of Wilson's portraits are the most extensive available. Their extraordinary lives are an opportunity to examine the ways in which labor history--and, more broadly, women's and black intellectual history--have developed as separate and parallel discourses and disciplines.
Segregated Scholars makes a crucial and unprecedented contribution to our understanding of the black intellectual heritage, as well as the history of the social sciences, and of many of the practices and policies with which we now live and work.
This book includes an excellent analysis of the material and demographic foundations of patriarchal society, which will force historians to reevaluate the profitability of the estate economy and the standard of living among Russian serfs....This is an important book which should be read by anyone interested in peasant studies and servile systems of production.
Children who live and work on the streets or work in commercial situations at a young age, are subjected to gross injustice and are frequently neglected by national law --- despite the fact that almost every country has signed and ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.This is a one-stop guide both for experienced advocates and for non-specialists in the field. It explains how to use regional and international treaties and mechanisms for the protection and defense of street and working children when national law fails. The last fifty years have seen the emergence of a range of human rights treaties together with permanent monitoring systems established by the UN. While these are imperfect tools, they can be very useful in supporting national campaigns, and creating pressure for legislative reform or an end to particular violations.This manual, which presents information in an accessible question-and-answer format, is divided into three sections for ease of reference: the first section defines substantive rights --- survival, fair treatment, and empowerment; the second section provides practical guidelines on how to use regional and international human rights systems such as the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, or the UN Committee on Torture; the last section contains a comprehensive list of human rights documents with tables by country detailing the status and the stage in the implementation process of each of the convention in each country.
This book employs an interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral lens to explore the collaborative dynamics that are currently disrupting, re-creating and transforming the production and consumption of tourism. House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting, social enterprise and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other things, de-industrialization processes and post-capitalist forms of production and consumption, postmaterialism, the rise of the third sector and collaborative governance. Addressing that gap, this book explores the character, depth and breadth of these disruptions, the creative opportunities for tourism that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized.
"Servants of the State" traces the halting rise of a pluralistic attitude in hiring and promotion procedures within the federal government. Ranging from the Great Depression to World War II to the early days of both the civil rights movement and the Cold War, Margaret Rung reveals how circumstances in each of these eras shaped how federal managers conceptualized merit for female and African American workers. At the same time, Rung shows how labor relations, as practiced by the nation's most prominent employer, reflected and fostered broader social and cultural debates concerning American identity in a diverse and democratic society.
Rung draws on an impressive array of sources, including previously unexamined archival materials, oral histories, and personnel manuals, as she tells how federal administrators and employees destabilized earlier patterns of discrimination based on white male privilege--only to confront new challenges engendered by personnel trends grounded in sociology and psychology. In the end, a renewed commitment to democracy and social justice in the 1930s and 1940s did not entail a complete restructuring of government labor relations policy or the merit system. By midcentury, labor segmentation based on race and gender within the federal civil service still existed, as did the tension between managers' desire to support individual initiative and their desire to remedy categorical discrimination against blacks and women.
Questions of individual merit versus group rights remain central to our discussions about the relationship between equality and pluralism. "Servants of the State" highlights the fluid meaning of merit by focusing on this critical concept in the public-sector workplace. By covering an area frequently ignored by historians, it adds an important historical dimension to current affirmative action debates and other issues that touch on pluralism and individual opportunity.
21st century Western neoliberalism has seen the transformation of self-interest from an economic imperative to a centrally constitutive part of dominant modes of subjective existence. Against this celebration of competitive individualism, Emmanuel Levinas' philosophy stands as a haunting reminder of an ethics that passively disturbs the self from its egoistic slumber, awakening it to the incessant demands of the other. Ethics stands as an anxious affective state of being where one is held to account by others, each one demanding care, attention and respect. Focussing on business activities and organizations, this book explores how this ethical demand of being for the other becomes translated, in a necessarily impure way, into political action, contestation and resistance. Such a response to ethics invokes a disturbance of organizational order, including an order that might itself be labelled 'ethical'. On these grounds, the book offers an explication of an ethics for organizations which disturbs the selfishness of neoliberal morality, and can inform a democratic politics rested on a genuine concern for the other and for justice. Disturbing Business Ethics: Emmanuel Levinas and the Politics of Organization offers an unconventional and enlightening approach to ethical thinking and practice in politics and organisations, and will be of interest to students of business, management, leadership, political science and organizational theory.
Through a series of case studies of low-status interactive and embodied servicing work, "Working Bodies" examines the theoretical and empirical nature of the shift to embodied work in service-dominated economies. Defines 'body work' to include the work by service sector employees on their own bodies and on the bodies of othersSets UK case studies in the context of global patterns of economic changeExplores the consequences of growing polarization in the service sectorDraws on geography, sociology, anthropology, labour market studies, and feminist scholarship
The site of industrial struggle is shifting. Across the Global South, peasant communities are forced off the land to live and work in harsh and impoverished conditions. Inevitably, new methods of combating the spread of industrial capitalism are evolving in ambitious, militant and creative ways. This is the first book to theorise and examine the present and future shape of global class struggles. Immanuel Ness looks at three key countries: China, India and South Africa. In each case he considers the broader historical forces at play - the effects of imperialism, the decline of the trade union movement, the class struggle and the effects of the growing reserve army of labour. For each case study, he narrows his focus to reveal the specifics of each grassroots insurgency: export promotion and the rise of worker insurgency in China, the new labour organisations in India, and the militancy of the miners in South Africa. This is a study about the nature of the new industrial worker in the Global South; about people living a terrifying, precarious existence - but also one of experimentation, solidarity and struggle.
Did socialist policies leave the economies of Eastern Europe
unprepared for current privatization efforts? Under communist rule,
were rural villages truly left untouched by capitalism? In this
historical ethnography of rural Hungary, Martha Lampland argues not
only that the transition to capitalism was well under way by the
1930s, but that socialist policies themselves played a crucial role
in the development of capitalism by transforming conceptions of
time, money, and labor.
Rural workers in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century England were not passive victims in the face of rapid social change. Carl J. Griffin shows that they deployed an extensive range of resistances to defend their livelihoods and communities. Locating protest in the wider contexts of work, poverty and landscape change, this new text offers the first critical overview of this growing area of study.
This book contains a unique set of pieces which examine the plight of Hispanics in today's workforce. A diverse set of scholars share their perspectives and insight on extant research to create the definitive collection of readings on Hispanic Workforce issues. This volume covers issues as diverse as occupations and their propensity toward and interaction with racioethnicity, to specific challenges of the Hispanic Workforce such as work-family balance and the impact of machismo.
This comparative study examines the processes of development and the configurations of export industries in northern Morocco and on the northern border of Mexico. As the contributors explore the similar characteristics of these two borders, they also examine how the global economy circulates around "places of production"-sites advantageous to the development of export industries. Focusing on transnational firms and the working conditions, settlement processes, and migratory flows they engender, this volume considers if a convergence toward a global culture is inevitable in places of production, or if local resistance emerges in response to the impact of the global.
In the last two decades there has been an explosion of research inspired by Michel Foucault's suggestion of a new concept, 'governmentality'. The distinctive feature of modern governmentality is that across all sorts of fields, rule is predicated upon the active subject as the vehicle through which-and by which-power is exercised. The appeal of governmentality is that, whether we are considering the workplace, the school or welfare regimes, it opens up new ways of looking at familiar institutions. Foucault and Managerial Governmentality is about Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality. The novelty of this concept is that looks at the ways that populations and organisations are imagined in ways that premise collective gains through expanding individual freedoms. Specifically, how are technologies of freedom devised that improve the overall performance-health, productivity, or parental responsibility-of a given population? Understanding the operation of technologies of control is a simple enough task, argues Foucault, but also one that blinds us to the increasing prevalence of technologies of freedom. Foucault and Managerial Governmentality aims not just to locate this concept in Foucault's wider research project but to apply it to all sorts of management techniques. By applying governmentality to questions of management and organization we will also develop Foucault's original, somewhat sketchy concept. This book has three innovative narratives: an awareness of the historicity of the concept; the application of governmentality to specific forms of management means that we escape the temptation to read any and all forms of technology and organization as an expression of neoliberalism; and, finally, the interviews with Peter Miller and Nikolas Rose provide unique intellectual and personal insights into the development of the governmentalist project over the last thirty years.
"With insight and compassion, Pamela Stone shows convincingly that,
far from representing a return to tradition, the decision of some
women to relinquish high-powered careers is a reluctant and
conflict-ridden response to the growing mismatch between privatized
families and time-demanding jobs. By charting the institutional
obstacles and cultural pressures that continue to leave even the
most advantaged women facing impossible options, "Opting Out?" gets
beneath the hype and offers the real story behind the misleading
headlines. This groundbreaking study is required reading for anyone
who cares about the fate of families, work, and gender equality in
contemporary America."--Kathleen Gerson, author of "Hard Choices:
How Women Decide About Work, Career, and Motherhood"
This book examines the nature and regulation of the informal economy by means of a collective case study in a highly regulated Western country. The book, situated at the intersection of criminology and sociology, investigates the relation between formal, informal and criminal work in three urban and rural labour markets (seasonal work, street trade and sex work) alongside the impact of state policies on informality. Boels uncovers the differential position authorities take regarding these labour markets, notwithstanding the presence of informality and often vulnerable position of workers in each one of them. With a distinctive focus on informal workers, and through in-depth interviews, this study explores the life and work of informal workers, including their experiences with regulators, their motivations for working informally and their perceptions of state policy. In short, this book gives a voice to often ignored but crucial participants of the informal economy. The detailed discussion of the results and the links to theoretical frameworks will ensure this book is of particular interest to scholars of urban economics and governance, criminology, and sociology.
Based on a novel class scheme and a unique compilation of German and American data, this book reveals that intergenerational class mobility increased over most of the past century. While country differences in intergenerational mobility are surprisingly small, gender, regional, racial and ethnic differences were initially large but declined over time. At the end of the 20th century, however, mobility prospects turned to the worse in both countries. In light of these findings, the book develops a narrative account of historical socio-political developments that are likely to have driven the basic resemblances across countries but also account for the initial decline and the more recent increase in intergenerational inequality.
This book presents an institutional ethnography of budgeting processes of commissioning contracts within welfare, education, and health ministries as case studies. With the historical surge in the power position of economic globalization organizations and their impact on public sectors' withdrawal from the role of primary women's employers, a gap between care worker employees and public sector administrators with respect to skill recognition has emerged in Israel. The book examines precisely how this gap is produced, enacted, and turned into a force that shapes the experiences of women in service and caring jobs. Increasingly more researchers are interested in the unexpected consequences of outsourcing; this account enters the Israel studies researchers' debate over the extent to which the neo-liberalization of Israel had restructured its welfare orientation. Exposing the operation of service delivery in the gendering of women's work may thus be intriguing for those participating in this debate. The analysis of the data presented here enables a portrayal of the negotiating and budgeting processes at work, which in turn sheds light on the salience of deskilling and de-professionalization to women's disenfranchisement.
Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that today's young people, those age 16 through 24, attain the education and employment experience necessary to make the transition to adulthood as skilled workers and taxpayers. In the wake of the December 2007-June 2009 recession, questions remain about the employment prospects of youth today and the possible effects on their future earnings and participation in the labour market. This book provides context for policy-makers on the youth employment situation. It includes data on labour force participation, employment, and unemployment in the post-World War II period, with a focus on trends since 2000. This discussion compares rates based on age, gender, race/ethnicity, and income, where applicable and also explores the factors that influence youth participation in the labour force and their prospects for employment.
In the early years of the twentieth century, newcomer farmers and migrant Mexicans forged a new world in South Texas. In just a decade, this vast region, previously considered too isolated and desolate for large-scale agriculture, became one of the United States' most lucrative farming regions and one of its worst places to work. By encouraging mass migration from Mexico, paying low wages, selectively enforcing immigration restrictions, toppling older political arrangements, and periodically immobilizing the workforce, growers created a system of labor controls unique in its levels of exploitation. Ethnic Mexican residents of South Texas fought back by organizing and by leaving, migrating to destinations around the United States where employers eagerly hired them - and continued to exploit them. In From South Texas to the Nation, John Weber reinterprets the United States' record on human and labor rights. This important book illuminates the way in which South Texas pioneered the low-wage, insecure, migration-dependent labor system on which so many industries continue to depend.
This work challenges the view, widely held among historians of the Bolshevik revolution, that the upsurge of labour unrest of 1920-22 was the result of the appalling living conditions caused by the Civil War, had little significant content and was largely a sideshow to the huge conflict between the Bolsheviks and the peasants. Based on a wide reading of the contemporary Soviet press, archive sources and first-hand accounts by Bolsheviks and non-Bolsheviks, this work shows how rank and file opposition to the leadership in the Bolshevik-dominated trade unions grew, and how support for non-Bolshevik trade unions and political parties developed fast.
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