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In the early years of the twentieth century, newcomer farmers and migrant Mexicans forged a new world in South Texas. In just a decade, this vast region, previously considered too isolated and desolate for large-scale agriculture, became one of the United States' most lucrative farming regions and one of its worst places to work. By encouraging mass migration from Mexico, paying low wages, selectively enforcing immigration restrictions, toppling older political arrangements, and periodically immobilizing the workforce, growers created a system of labor controls unique in its levels of exploitation. Ethnic Mexican residents of South Texas fought back by organizing and by leaving, migrating to destinations around the United States where employers eagerly hired them - and continued to exploit them. In From South Texas to the Nation, John Weber reinterprets the United States' record on human and labor rights. This important book illuminates the way in which South Texas pioneered the low-wage, insecure, migration-dependent labor system on which so many industries continue to depend.
This thought-provoking monograph analyzes long- medium- and short-term global cycles of prosperity, recession, and depression, plotting them against centuries of important world events. Major research on economic and political cycles is integrated to clarify evolving relationships between the global center and its periphery as well as current worldwide economic upheavals and potential future developments. Central to this survey are successive waves of industrial and, later, technological and cybernetic progress, leading to the current era of globalization and the changes of the roles of both Western powers and former minors players, however that will lead to the formation of the world order without a hegemon. Additionally, the authors predict what they term the Great Convergence, the lessening of inequities between the global core and the rest of the world, including the wealth gap between First and Third World nations. Among the topics in this ambitious volume: * Why politics is often omitted from economic analysis. * Why economic cycles are crucial to understanding the modern geopolitical landscape. * How the aging of the developed world will affect world technological and economic future.< * The evolving technological forecast for Global North and South. * Where the U.S. is likely to stand on the future world stage. Economic Cycles, Crises, and the Global Periphery will inspire discussion and debate among sociologists, global economists, demographers, global historians, and futurologists. This expert knowledge is necessary for further research, proactive response, and preparedness for a new age of sociopolitical change.
This work challenges the view, widely held among historians of the Bolshevik revolution, that the upsurge of labour unrest of 1920-22 was the result of the appalling living conditions caused by the Civil War, had little significant content and was largely a sideshow to the huge conflict between the Bolsheviks and the peasants. Based on a wide reading of the contemporary Soviet press, archive sources and first-hand accounts by Bolsheviks and non-Bolsheviks, this work shows how rank and file opposition to the leadership in the Bolshevik-dominated trade unions grew, and how support for non-Bolshevik trade unions and political parties developed fast.
The changing economic reality of the last decades has prompted large movements of people across and within national borders, which, in turn, have given rise to new opportunities and challenges. This volume addresses a number of key aspects of these developments, by bringing together a unique collection of chapters, written by leading scholars from three different disciplines: economics, sociology, and political science. The first part of the book - Economic Change - starts with two case studies: The mass migration from the former Soviet Union to Israel in the early 1990s, and the mass migration from rural to urban areas in China that started in the mid 1990s. The final chapter of the first part provides a thorough introduction and overview into methodologies that can help to address numerous issues faced by researchers working with migration data, of the type underlying the analysis in the first two chapters. The second part of the book - Social Challenge - discusses how societies are shaped by immigration. It investigates the pitfalls of policies that do not take account of the implications for decisions of individual migrants; explores the important aspect of family re-unification and discusses whether society should follow a path towards a multicultural society or a society that forces newcomers to adopt existing cultures. Finally, this volume ponders whether the diversity created through migration impacts negatively on the societal structure of the receiving countries. These chapters together, written by some of the foremost experts in the areas, provide intriguing insights into the complexity of migratory phenomena and the challenges to policy and society at large.
This far-sighted volume describes emerging trends and challenges in university-level social sciences education in an era marked by globalization, austerity, and inequity. It spotlights solution-focused and interdisciplinary methods of teaching, developed to match influential academic ideas, such as self-directed learning and learning in communities, as students seek to engage with and improve conditions in their immediate environments. Chapters offer real-world applications of foundational concepts in the modern practice of teaching, learning, and curriculum development. Accordingly, the editors emphasize the relationship between pedagogy and curriculum, as both are critical in encouraging student autonomyand promoting optimum academic and societal outcomes. Included in the coverage: * Towards a concept of solution-focused teaching: learning in communities. * Heutagogy and the emerging curriculum. * Collaborative working in the statutory and voluntary sectors. * Delivering a community development curriculum to students with multiple identities. * Photography and teaching in community development. * A model for change: sharing ideas and strategies. The Pedagogy of the Social Sciences Curriculum will inspire sociologists, social workers, and health and sociology educators to take a deeper role in community well-being as students, faculty, and communities collaborate to make lasting contributions to society.
Even as the robots gather on the near horizon this book argues we have choices about the manner in which we greet them. A world without work as we know it could be a good thing. The landscape of work is changing right in front of us, from Uber, Airbnb and the new share economy to automated vehicles, 3D printing and advanced AI. The question isn't whether robots will take our jobs, but what we will do when they do. The era of full-time work is coming to an end and we have to stop holding out the false promise that at some magical moment the jobs are going to reappear. So what does our future in the brave new world of non-work look like? In this timely and provocative book, Tim Dunlop argues that by embracing the changes ahead we might even find ourselves better off. Workless goes beyond the gadgetry and hype to examine the social and political ramifications of work throughout history and into the future. It argues we need to think big now, not wait until we're in a dystopian world of mass unemployment and wealth held in the hands of a minority.
Women, African Americans, and work in the modern South Embracing but moving beyond the traditional concerns of labor history, these nine original essays give a voice to workers underrepresented in the scholarship on labor in the twentieth-century South. Covering locales as diverse as Atlanta, Richmond, Tampa, and Houston, the essays encompass issues related to the specialized jobs of building ships and airplanes in the defense industries of World War II and to the unskilled work of oyster shuckers and cigar tobacco ""stemmers."" Heeding issues of race, gender, and class in labor history, Labor in the Modern South includes an analysis of how young female workers spent their wages and an account of how purported underground unions of domestic workers fed white anxieties about the loosening hold of Jim Crow. Additional materials include an interview with, and an afterword by, Gary Fink, one of the foremost senior scholars in American labor history. Filled with new insights into southerners' concerns about workplace safety, access to training, job mobility, and worker solidarity, these essays offer a sophisticated and inclusive interpretation of twentieth-century labor.
The wrenching decision facing successful women choosing between demanding careers and intensive family lives has been the subject of many articles and books, most of which propose strategies for resolving the dilemma. "Competing Devotions" focuses on broader social and cultural forces that create women's identities and shape their understanding of what makes life worth living.
Mary Blair-Loy examines the career paths of women financial executives who have tried various approaches to balancing career and family. The professional level these women have attained requires a huge commitment of time, energy, and emotion that seems natural to employers and clients, who assume that a career deserves single-minded allegiance. Meanwhile, these women must confront the cultural model of family that defines marriage and motherhood as a woman's primary vocation. This ideal promises women creativity, intimacy, and financial stability in caring for a family. It defines children as fragile and assumes that men lack the selflessness and patience that children's primary caregivers need. This ideal is taken for granted in much of contemporary society.
The power of these assumptions is enormous but not absolute. "Competing Devotions" identifies women executives who try to reshape these ideas. These mavericks, who face great resistance but are aided by new ideological and material resources that come with historical change, may eventually redefine both the nuclear family and the capitalist firm in ways that reduce work-family conflict.
This book provides theoretical and practical backgrounds for the digital creativity management and related Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) results on the basis of a set of realistic assumptions in which several topics such as knowledge network, diversity, individual creativity, team creativity, exploration and exploitation, and organizational creativity are discussed. Until now, there has been no clear-cut methodology by which creativity management can be articulated and materialized into the business process management within companies and corporate performance. Though many approaches have been proposed to tackle the creativity research issues, this book adopts a new approach which assumes that the network structure formulated by interrelationships among team members decides individual creativity and team creativity as well, and ABM-based simulations lead to robust analysis of corporate performance over time. Typical examples of network structure under consideration in this study are degree centrality and structural hole (an opportunity to broker the flow of information between people, and control the projects that bring together people from opposite sides of the hole). This book suggests detailed analysis of source code used in implementing a prototype digital creativity simulation engine with related snap-shots and ABM results, so that readers can understand hard core of how to design and implement ABM tasks related to target problems, and extract implications from the ABM results.
Prostitution bears the unique title of being both the "world's oldest profession" and one of the least understood occupations. Unlike most of the crime and family literature, prostitution appears to be have all the features of traditional markets: prices, supply and demand considerations, variety in the organizational structure, and policy relevance. Despite this, economists have largely ignored prostitution in their research and writings. This has been changing, however, over the last twenty years as greater access to data has enabled economists to build better theories and gain a better understanding of the organization of sex market. The Oxford Hanbook of the Economics of Prostitution fills the gap in our understanding. It brings together many of the top researchers in the field who explain how the prostitution markets are organized across space and time, the role of technology in shaping labor supply and demand, the intersection of prostitution with trafficking, and the optimal use of law enforcement. What makes the material unique is its explicit focus on economics as the primary methodology for organizing our understanding of prostitution. The Handbook brings to scholars' attention for the first time a collection of original writings on prostitution that provides an overview of what is known and what is not known in this area. Researchers with an interest in underground markets, labor economics, risky behaviors, marriage, and gender will find the book's contents illuminating and path breaking.
The SAGE Handbook of the Sociology of Work and Employment is a landmark collection of original contributions by leading specialists from around the world. The coverage is both comprehensive and comparative (in terms of time and space) and each 'state of the art' chapter provides a critical review of the literature combined with some thoughts on the direction of research. This authoritative text is structured around six core themes: Historical Context and Social Divisions The Experience of Work The Organization of Work Nonstandard Work and Employment Work and Life beyond Employment Globalization and the Future of Work. Globally, the contours of work and employment are changing dramatically. This handbook helps academics and practitioners make sense of the impact of these changes on individuals, groups, organizations and societies. Written in an accessible style with a helpful introduction, the retrospective and prospective nature of this volume will be an essential resource for students, teachers and policy-makers across a range of fields, from business and management, to sociology and organization studies.
Making Work and Family Work investigates the difficult choices that contemporary employees must face when juggling work and family with a view to identifying the smart choices that all parties involved-society, employers, employees and families-should make to promote greater work-life balance. Leading scholars Jeffrey Greenhaus and Gary Powell begin by identifying the factors that work against an employee's ability to be effective and satisfied in their work and family roles. From there, they examine a variety of factors that impact the decision-making process that employees and their families can use to enhance employees' feelings of work-family balance and families' well-being. Covering a comprehensive set of topics and perspectives, this fascinating book will appeal to upper-level students of human resource management, organizational behavior, industrial/organizational psychology, sociology, and economics, as well as to thoughtful and engaged professionals.
Transport labour has been a fundamental feature in every economic system and in every epoch of humanity worldwide. This volume considers the history of labour in transport from 1750 to 1950, in the context of globalisation and the evolution of capitalism. The nine articles presented in this collective work span these two centuries and address a largely neglected aspect of labour history in transport: the stories from the Global South (Africa, Asia and Latin America). The transport sectors touched upon in these studies are wide-ranging, encompassing a variety of workers, from porters to boatmen in India, from Mongolian caravanners to Filipino rickshaw drivers, from truck drivers to postal runners in west Africa, from wage-earning slave porters to immigrant railway workers in the cities of Brazil. These histories from the South are a constitutive part of the global history of labour.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book explores the implications of acknowledging uncertainty and black swans for regulation of high-hazard technologies, for stakeholder acceptability of potentially hazardous activities and for risk governance. The conventional approach to risk assessment, which combines the likelihood of an event and the severity of its consequences, is poorly suited to situations where uncertainty and ambiguity are prominent features of the risk landscape. The new definition of risk used by ISO, "the effect of uncertainty on [achievement of] one's objectives", recognizes this paradigm change. What lessons can we draw from the management of fire hazards in Edo-era Japan? Are there situations in which increasing uncertainty allows more effective safety management? How should society address the risk of potentially planet-destroying scientific experiments? This book presents insights from leading scholars in different disciplines to challenge current risk governance and safety management practice.
Schools are places of learning but they are also workplaces, and teachers are employees. As such, are teachers more akin to professionals or to factory workers in the amount of control they have over their work? And what difference does it make?
Drawing on large national surveys as well as wide-ranging interviews with high school teachers and administrators, Richard Ingersoll reveals the shortcomings in the two opposing viewpoints that dominate thought on this subject: that schools are too decentralized and lack adequate control and accountability; and that schools are too centralized, giving teachers too little autonomy. Both views, he shows, overlook one of the most important parts of teachers' work: schools are not simply organizations engineered to deliver academic instruction to students, as measured by test scores; schools and teachers also play a large part in the social and behavioral development of our children. As a result, both views overlook the power of implicit social controls in schools that are virtually invisible to outsiders but keenly felt by insiders. Given these blind spots, this book demonstrates that reforms from either camp begin with inaccurate premises about how schools work and so are bound not only to fail, but to exacerbate the problems they propose to solve.
This volume explores the role of territory in the creation, maintenance and extension of a new type of frontier, the electronic frontier, from a social and economic point of view. It departs from the earlier concepts of borders - state, social, economic, ethnic, religious, etc. - to investigate the fluidity of borders and their shift towards an axis-based paradigm within the free-movement European Union. Specifically, the authors will examine a) the metamorphoses of frontiers between the real and the virtual, b) the importance of space (territory) in the new information society and the Digital Single Market and c) the evolution of electronic frontiers in relation to globalization and the network society. What happens when the Internet collides with new social and economic borders? In the past borders have been perceived from only a national state point of view. Now new types of borders or frontiers, such as social, economic, ethnic, religious frontiers, can be discussed. The electronic frontier is the result of a socio-economic analysis of the relationship between the Internet and new frontiers in society and the economy. The European space best represents the fluidity of borders and frontiers within this transformation. Thus, the European Union is the best space to perform research on the electronic frontiers. Borders are permeable or impermeable, agents of inclusiveness or of exclusion. The relations between the real space and the virtual space, but also the influence of the Internet on society, lead us to two other important concepts for our research, namely digital divide and digital inclusion, which define connections or barriers even within the virtual space. This book attempts to answer questions such as: What types of borders have information and communication technologies created in Europe? Which is the foundation of these new frontiers? How does the network society function in Europe and which type of frontier prevails? This title aims to fill the gap in the literature in the relationship between frontiers and information and communication technologies.
For the first time, this book provides the global history of labor in Central Eurasia, Russia, Europe, and the Indian Ocean between the sixteenth and the twentieth centuries. It contests common views on free and unfree labor, and compares the latter to many Western countries where wage conditions resembled those of domestic servants. This gave rise to extreme forms of dependency in the colonies, not only under slavery, but also afterwards in form of indentured labor in the Indian Ocean and obligatory labor in Africa. Stanziani shows that unfree labor and forms of economic coercion were perfectly compatible with market development and capitalism, proven by the consistent economic growth that took place all over Eurasia between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries. This growth was labor intensive: commercial expansion, transformations in agriculture, and the first industrial revolution required more labor, not less. Finally, Stanziani demonstrates that this world did not collapse after the French Revolution or the British industrial revolution, as is commonly assumed, but instead between 1870 and 1914, with the second industrial revolution and the rise of the welfare state.
Ever since Max Weber and Frederick Taylor, public organizations have been told that effective practice lies in maximizing rationality through science. Yet science-based management reforms have had only marginal impact on performance. People in entry-level positions possess knowledge from direct experience of the work, management knowledge is often science-based and distanced from the work, and appointed top executives struggle to join bureaucratic rationality with political exigencies. Knowledge and Power in Public Bureaucracies: From Pyramid to Circle offers fresh thinking about public organizations, arguing that conflicting forms of knowledge may be found within the bureaucratic pyramid. Answering the question of why management reforms over the past century have failed on their own terms, this book examines the existence of conflicting forms of knowledge within public bureaucracies, how these contradictory perspectives interact (or fail to interact), and the ways in which these systems preserve managerial efforts to control workers. Authors Carnevale and Stivers argue that bureaucratic rationality is not the "one best way," as Taylor promised, and indeed, there is no one best way or model that can be deployed in all situations. The bureaucratic pyramid can, however, be made more effective by paying attention to circular processes that are widespread within the hierarchy, the authors argue, describing such circular processes as "facework." This book will serve as an ideal supplement to introductory public administration and organizational theory courses, as well as courses for mid-career professionals, helping to frame their work experiences.
This book considers the concept of resilience in a global society where coping with the consequence and long term impact of crisis and disaster challenges the capacity of communities to bounce back in the event of severe disruption. Catastrophic events such as the 9.11 terrorist attack, the Fukushima nuclear disaster, and the volcano eruption in Central Java entailed massive devastation on physical infrastructures, and caused significant social and economic damage. This book considers how the modern sociotechnological system facilitating human activity defines how societies survive and whether a crisis will be short-lived or prolonged. Drawing on the concept of sociotechnical resilience, this book closely examines a range of events North America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. By presenting the successes and failures of sociotechnical resilience, it offers important insights and practical lessons to build better and comprehensive understandings of resilience in a real-world setting, significantly contributing to the study of disaster resilience.
This volume explores the reasons behind, and impact of, the migration of South Asian nationals (from India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bhutan and Maldives, Afghanistan and Myanmar) in the Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE and Bahrain). The authors provide a broad overview of the demographics of the phenomenon, its mechanisms, and focus on the contribution of migrants in various sectors including construction, health and education, and the overall labour market in the Gulf. The book also taps into the regional geo-politics and its links to the South Asian Migration in the Gulf. This book is recommended reading to all those interested in international migration and labour issues.
Sonic branding, guerrilla marketing, celebrity endorsements, customer service excellence and multi-channel advertising are just some of the popular sales techniques that currently promote consumerism in contemporary capitalism. Considerable energy is devoted to encouraging consumers to desire new fashions, to celebrate 'good design', to have feelings for brands and to immerse themselves in sensory experiences, without worrying about the ethics of their practices. Work, Consumption and Capitalism looks at how consumption is produced by focusing on the multiple kinds of work that make consumption possible, from advertising creatives to fashion designers, from self-service checkouts to the hippest barista in the coolest coffee shop. The text encourages students to consider the place of consumerism in global capitalism to develop their own answers to the question: How is consumption made possible? This wide-ranging study of the relations between work, consumption and capitalism draws on interdisciplinary research in cultural and economic sociology, history, marketing studies and cultural studies. With research tasks and discussion questions at the end of each chapter and case studies throughout, it stands as an accessible introduction for students of Sociology, Business and Management, Media and Communication, Cultural Policy and Cultural Studies. Listen to a podcast about the book.
What is a global market? How does it work? At a time when new crises in world markets cannot be satisfactorily resolved through old ideas, "Market Threads" presents a detailed analysis of the international cotton trade and argues for a novel and groundbreaking understanding of global markets. The book examines the arrangements, institutions, and power relations on which cotton trading and production depend, and provides an alternative approach to the analysis of pricing mechanisms.
Drawing upon research from such diverse places as the New York Board of Trade and the Turkish and Egyptian countrysides, the book explores how market agents from peasants to global merchants negotiate, accept, reject, resist, reproduce, understand, and misunderstand a global market. The book demonstrates that policymakers and researchers must focus on the specific practices of market maintenance in order to know how they operate. Markets do not simply emerge as a relationship among self-interested buyers and sellers, governed by appropriate economic institutions. Nor are they just social networks embedded in wider economic social structures. Rather, global markets are maintained through daily interventions, the production of prosthetic prices, and the waging of struggles among those who produce and exchange commodities. The book illustrates the crucial consequences that these ideas have on economic reform projects and market studies.
Spanning a variety of disciplines, "Market Threads" offers an original look at the world commodity trade and revises prevailing explanations for how markets work.
As a stand-alone text, a self-study manual, or a supplement to a lab manual or comprehensive text, "The Joy of Stats" is a unique and versatile resource. A "Math Refresher" section and self-assessment test offer a concise review of the needed math background. A "How-To?" section provides short, handy summaries of data analysis techniques and explains when to apply them. Each chapter offers key terms, numerous examples--including real-world data--practice exercises and answers, and verbal algorithms as well as formulas. The result is an unrivalled guide for students of social science as well as for practitioners and policy-makers.
The second edition has been revised throughout and includes many new examples. A new companion website, garnerjoyofstats.com, features a data set covering close to 120 countries and 10 variables, student exercises, and a full suite of instructor support materials, including power points for lectures, lab guides, and a test bank.
For more information visit www.garnerjoyofstats.com.
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