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The Merit System Principles (MSPs) promote an effective Federal workforce free of Prohibited Personnel Practices (PPPs). The MSPs serve as the foundation of Federal employment policy and practice, workplace fairness, and the Federal Government's ability to effectively accomplish its goals. The Merit System Principles guide Federal supervisors to base their workforce decisions on objective criteria, such as assessments of ability or performance, rather than personal feelings and/or relationships, lest they be viewed as practising personal favouritism. Favouritism is distinct from discrimination on legally protected bases and is frequently more difficult to clearly identify when it is occurring given the absence of visible cues on which the preference is made. However, like discrimination, favouritism is contrary to the ideals of the Federal merit systems. This book summarises the findings of MSPB's research into employee perspectives regarding the extent to which they believe that favouritism occurs within the Federal merit systems and its potential effects.
In The Tumbleweed Society, Allison Pugh offers a moving exploration of sacrifice, betrayal, defiance, and resignation, as people cope in a society where relationships and jobs seem to change constantly. Based on eighty in-depth interviews with parents who have varied experiences of job insecurity and socio-economic status, Pugh finds most seem to accept job insecurity as inevitable but still try to bar that insecurity from infiltrating their home lives. Rigid expectations for enduring connections and uncompromising loyalty in their intimate relationships, however, can put intolerable strain on them, often sparking instability in the very social ties they yearn to protect. By shining a light on how we prepare ourselves and our children for an uncertain environment, Pugh gives us a detailed portrait of how we compel ourselves to adapt emotionally to a churning economy, and what commitment and obligation mean in an insecure age.
This book provides a long-overdue account of online technology and its impact on the work and lifestyles of professional employees. It moves between the offices and homes of workers in the knew "knowledge" economy to provide intimate insight into the personal, family, and wider social tensions emerging in today s rapidly changing work environment. Drawing on her extensive research, Gregg shows that new media technologies encourage and exacerbate an older tendency among salaried professionals to put work at the heart of daily concerns, often at the expense of other sources of intimacy and fulfillment. New media technologies from mobile phones to laptops and tablet computers, have been marketed as devices that give us the freedom to work where we want, when we want, but little attention has been paid to the consequences of this shift, which has seen work move out of the office and into cafes, trains, living rooms, dining rooms, and bedrooms. This professional "presence bleed" leads to work concerns impinging on the personal lives of employees in new and unforseen ways. This groundbreaking book explores how aspiring and established professionals each try to cope with the unprecedented intimacy of technologically-mediated work, and how its seductions seem poised to triumph over the few remaining relationships that may stand in its way.
Blending the hot topics of new technology, market spaces, competitive strategy and customer behaviour, Customer Capitalism stands conventional wisdom on its head by introducing a new business model which shows how any business can generate increasing returns and gain a massive competitive advantage. Taking examples from companies as diverse as Amazon.com and Mondex, Microsoft and Monsanto, the author explains how businesses can escape the traps of a traditional mindset and originate for the customer rather than the product. These entreprises transform classic product/service categories, moving them away from market share into new "market spaces" where they find new ways of doing for customers. Customer Capitalism does what old capitalism could never do -- it gives corporations a sustainable edge. Sandra Vandermerwe shows how to relate the ten principles of customer capitalism to your business and achieve the multiple and exponential rewards of increasing returns. Customer Capitalism generates growing customer value streams from ever--deepening and expanding relationships with individuals who lock--on to an organisation. These customers become an "installed customer base" who want the organisation as their dominant or sole choice on an ongoing basis. The new enterprise becomes the standard for these new ways of doing things by gathering market momentum. A growing number of individuals see and use the new way of doing things, making the enterprise ever more prevalent, and its brand increasingly infectious to others. Central to the concept of customer capitalism are six positive feedback loops which ensure customer lock--on and accelerating growth. Once the loops go into motion as one interlinking, reiterative system then the real forces of the new market and economic dynamics of customer capitalism come into play. Customers become the competitive barrier. Advantage leads to more advantage, success to more success, accumulating increasing returns in new market spaces.
The history of Kupat Holim, the health organization of workers in Israel, began at the 2nd Convention of Jewish agricultural workers in Judea in December 1911. Due to the lack of health services within the economic means of the workers, and the refusal of the farmer-employers to extend health services to their employees, the Jewish agricultural workers in Eretz-Israel -- at that time, a distant province of the far-flung Ottoman empire -- decided to establish a workers' health fund (kupat holim in Hebrew). In the years 1912-15, two funds similar to the ones in Judea were also established in the north and center of the country. In the first years, the health funds did not provide workers with medical assistance on their own. Only in 1913, with the outbreak of the First World War, were the health funds transformed from insuring organizations into ones that provided medical assistance services themselves. With the establishment of the General Federation of Labor (1920), the health funds were amalgamated into a single organization -- the Federation's Kupat Holim (1921). The unification of Kupat Holim ultimately determined the organization's future -- transforming it from a small, local, temporary body with a few dozen members into a national entity and a key factor in health services in Israel to this day. This volume seeks to describe the growth of Kupat Holim up to the point where it was transformed into a central health organization in Israel; its relationship with its parent-organization, the General Federation of Labor and its rivalry with its competitor in the health field, Hadassah; its evolution from an organization solely for laborers to one open to all; the efforts on the part of Kupat Holim during the British Mandate (1918-1948) to bring about legislation for a compulsory health insurance law; and the formulation of the basic principle that underlie the work of Kupit Holim to this day -- the principle of national and social responsibility for the provision of equal health services to all. Dr. Shifra Shvarts is the head of the Health Systems Management Department of the Faculty of Health Sciences and School of Management at Ben-Gurion University.
This book interrogates the existing theories of convergence culture and audience engagement within the media and communication disciplines by providing grounded examples of social media use as a social mobilization tool within the media industries. As digital influencers garner large audiences across platforms such as YouTube and Instagram, they sway opinions and tastes towards often-commercial interests. However, this everyday social media practice also presents an opportunity for socially and morally motivated intermediaries to impact on public issues. Cultural Intermediaries: Audience Participation in Media Organisations is intended to provide an explicit overview of how one notable media organization, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), incorporates participation into its production methodology, while maintaining its role as a public service media organisation. The book provides several cases studies of successful audience participation across socially motivated projects. Finally, the book provides an updated framework to understand how cultural intermediation can facilitate authentic audience participation in media organisations.
What makes domestic work a bad job, even after efforts to formalize and improve working conditions? Erynn Masi de Casanova's case study, based partly on collaborative research conducted with Ecuador's pioneer domestic workers' organization, examines three reasons for persistent exploitation. First, the tasks of social reproduction are devalued. Second, informal work arrangements escape regulation. And third, unequal class relations are built into this type of employment. Accessible to advocates and policymakers as well as academics, this book provides both theoretical discussions about domestic work and concrete ideas for improving women's lives. Drawing on workers' stories of lucha, trabajo, and sacrificio-struggle, work, and sacrifice-Dust and Dignity offers a new take on an old occupation. From the intimate experience of being a body out of place in an employer's home, to the common work histories of Ecuadorian women in different cities, to the possibilities for radical collective action at the national level, Casanova shows how and why women do this stigmatized and precarious work and how they resist exploitation in the search for dignified employment. From these searing stories of workers' lives, Dust and Dignity identifies patterns in domestic workers' experiences that will be helpful in understanding the situation of workers elsewhere and offers possible solutions for promoting and ensuring workers' rights that have relevance far beyond Ecuador.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This edited volume examines how economic processes have worked upon social lives and social realities in Latin America during the past decades. Through tracing the effects of the neoliberal epoch into the era of the so-called pink tide, the book seeks to understand to what extent the turn to the left at the start of the millennium managed to challenge historically constituted configurations of inequality. A central argument in the book is that in spite of economic reforms and social advances on a range of arenas, the fundamental tenants of socio-economic inequalities have not been challenged substantially. As several countries are now experiencing a return to right-wing politics, this collection helps us better understand why inequalities are so entrenched in the Latin American continent, but also the complex and creative ways that it is continuously contested. The book directs itself to students, scholars and anyone interested in Latin America, economic anthropology, political anthropology, left-wing politics, poverty and socio-economic inequalities.
This book examines management and management-related activities as a feature of everyday life. Any person or group that attempts to influence or shape the behaviors or experiences of others may be understood as engaging in management activities. The study of management involves the study of achieving understanding, providing direction and coordinating activities with others across an endless array of humanly engaged terrains. Management Motifs provides a research agenda for an interactionist approach to the study of management activities. Moving well beyond more organizationally-based understandings of managers and management, it examines the pragmatic accomplishment of management activities and the generic social processes that accompany them. This work addresses diverse issues related to management such as: holding and doing office, pursuing cooperation, developing policy, envisioning and advocating for missions, establishing teams and generating team identities, sustaining team endeavors and managing self. By attending to management-related concerns as a generic feature of human group life, the authors develop and articulate a research framework for the study of managing and management.
This book provides a systematic framework for interpreting the fertility decline in Japan. It situates the change in fertility rates in a broader context, such as family life and working customs. The basic argument it puts forward is that Japan has failed to establish a "dual-earner" society: women still face the trade-off between having a career or starting a family, which has led to an extremely low fertility rate in Japanese society. Further to this rather common explanation, which could also be applied to other low-fertility societies such as Germany and Italy, the author presents an original view. Japan has had its own momentum in holding on to its strong "men as breadwinners and women as housekeepers" model by creating a unique regime, namely, a Japanese model of a welfare society. This regime places special emphasis on the welfare provided by private companies and family members instead of by the government. Private firms are expected to secure men's jobs and income to the greatest extent, taking advantage of Japanese employment customs. On the other hand, women are expected to provide care for their family members. The book argues that the familialist orientation is still dominant in Japan and is repeatedly reinforced in the policy context.
This book includes a selection of the best research papers presented at the annual conference of the Italian chapter of the Association for Information Systems (AIS), which took place in Verona, Italy in October 2016. Tracing various aspects of the ongoing phenomenon of evolution towards a global society, and consequently the ever-innovating digital world, it first discusses emerging technologies and the new practices in the information-systems world. It then examines the new businesses and ongoing business transformations. Lastly, it considers the economic and societal changes brought about by access to and exploitation of socio-technical networks. The plurality of views offered makes the book particularly relevant for users, companies, scientists and governments.
Today 4.7 million Americans have been unemployed for more than six
months. In France more than ten percent of the working population
is without work. In Israel itOCOs above seven percent. And in
Greece and Spain, that number approaches thirty percent. Across the
developed world, the experience of unemployment has become
frighteningly commonOCoand so are the seemingly endless tactics
that job seekers employ in their quest for new work.
Based on new empirical evidence, this book provides a comparative analysis of the transition from school to work across the European Union. It examines the negative impacts of the recent employment turbulences on school leavers' integration into the labour market, as well as identifying the individual, social, and economic factors that facilitate smooth transitions.
"A fascinating read, representing the sociological imagination at its freest and finest. Hochschild has a mind nimble enough to dance -- but always to the beat of generous and compassionate heart."--Barbara Ehrenreich, author of "Nickel and Dimed, On (Not) Getting By in America
"In this set of penetrating and engaging essays, Arlie Hochschild explores the persistent problems of intimacy, family, and care in an increasingly globalized consumer capitalism. Hochschild applies the trademark perception, originality, and human-ness that has made her one of the country's most distinguished and productive sociologists. With their impressive weave of sociological theory, ethnographic research, and analyses of popular culture, these essays are a tour de force."--Juliet Schor, author of "The Overspent American
"In her new book Arlie Hochschild takes a major step beyond "The Second Shift and "The Time Bind by illuminating the achievements and pitfalls of what she rightly characterizes as the stalled revolution for gender equality. Hochschild shows that the idea of the traditional nuclear family, or 'family values, ' is not the solution to all our social problems, but a monumental hoax. Only major changes in the institutional context of family and work can create the conditions for the warm family life that most Americans want."--Robert Bellah, Professor of Sociology, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley
"In these remarkable essays, Hochschild breaks the well-established academic rule that to be profound you also have to be obscure. She subtly traces the cultural and structural trends that have objectified and commodified intimacy, emotion, personal commitment, and family life. Hermessages are rarely rosy, but never fatalistic, and in all cases carry us beyond conventional wisdom on these elusive topics. Her prose is simultaneously scholarly, insightful, graceful, and full of surprises. What a pleasure it is to welcome this latest work."--Neil J. Smelser, author of "The Social Edges of Psychoanalysis
"Hochschild's work is innovative. It combines close ethnographic study and attention to the details of family and emotional life, with analyses of wider cultural and social trends. The broad scope of her understanding of social life makes her work unusually insightful."--Demie Kurz, author of "For Richer, For Poorer: Mothers Confront Divorce
This book studies the variety of organizational strategies selected to cope with critical uncertainties during crises. This research formulates and applies an institutional sense-making model to explain the selection of strategies for coping with uncertainties during crises to answer the question why some organizations select a rule-based strategy to cope with uncertainties, whereas others pursue a more ad hoc-based strategy. It finds that the level of institutionalization does not affect strategy selection in the initial phase of responding to crises; that three rigidity effects can be identified in the selection of sense-making strategies once organizations have faced the failure of their selected strategies; that discontinuities in the feedback loop of sense-making do not necessarily move organizations to switch their sense-making strategies, but interact with institutionalization to contribute to switching sense-making strategies. This book bridges the gap between institutional thinking and crisis management theorizing. A major step forward in the world of crisis management studies! --Professor Arjen Boin, Leiden University, the Netherlands In a world of increasingly complex, sociotechnical systems interacting in high-risk environments, Professor Lu's analysis of how organizations manage uncertainty is both timely and profound. --Professor Louise K. Comfort, Director, Center for Disaster Management, University of Pittsburgh, USA Prof. Lu greatly enhances our understanding of how organizations cope with uncertainty and make sense of their challenges under the pressures of catastrophe. --Dr. Arnold M. Howitt, Faculty Co-Director, Program on Crisis Leadership, Harvard Kennedy School, USA This book provides not only a theory of crisis management but also a key concept around which research and practice can be conducted. --Professor Naim Kapucu, Director of School of Public Administration, University of Central Florida, USA A generic institutional model for analyzing and managing hazards, disasters and crises worldwide. --Professor Joop Koppenjan, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands This book has done an excellent job in opening the black box of how organizations make sense of the crisis situations they face and develop strategies to respond. It should be read by all of us who wish for a peaceful and safe world. --Professor Lan Xue, Dean of School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, China
Television has never been exclusive to the home. In Television at Work, Kit Hughes explores the forgotten history of how U.S. workplaces used television to secure industrial efficiency, support corporate expansion, and manage the hearts, minds, and bodies of twentieth century workers. Challenging our longest-held understandings of the medium, Hughes positions television at the heart of a post-Fordist reconfiguration of the American workplace revolving around dehumanized technological systems. Among other things, business and industry built private television networks to distribute programming, created complex CCTV data retrieval systems, encouraged the use of videotape for worker self-evaluation, used video cassettes for training distributed workforces, and wired cantinas for employee entertainment. In uncovering industrial television as a prolific sphere of media practice, Television at Work reveals how labor arrangements and information architectures shaped by these uses of television were foundational to the rise of the digitally mediated corporation and to a globalizing economy.
How do the class and gender inequalities found in horseracing affect the working practices of women within the industry? Drawing on the work of Bourdieu and his concepts of field, capital and habitus, this book shows the inequalities that are prevalent within the world of racing, both historically and currently, by illustrating the classed and gendered nature of racing and how it has developed since the eighteenth century when it was the sport of the aristocracy. Using research obtained through her year-long ethnographic study of a racing yard, Deborah Butler demonstrates that the racing field is an arena of power conflicts, and that men and women who work in racing acquire a contradictorily gendered racing habitus. This is achieved by learning certain elements in a formal setting but mainly informally, by `doing', developing practical skills and participating in a (gendered) community of practice. For female stable staff this means adapting their behaviour and working practices in order to be accepted as `one of the lads'. This book will appeal to both scholars and students of the sociology of sport, the sociology of work and gender studies.
Engaging with discussions surrounding the culture of disease, Disrupting Breast Cancer Narratives explores politically insistent narratives of illness. Resisting the optimism of pink ribbon culture, these stories use anger as a starting place to reframe cancer as a collective rather than an individual problem. Disrupting Breast Cancer Narratives discusses the ways emotion, gender, and sexuality, in relation to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, all become complicated, relational, and questioning. Providing theoretically informed close-readings of breast cancer narratives, this study explores how disruption functions both personally and politically. Highlighting a number of contributors in the field of health and gender studies including Barbara Ehrenreich, Kathlyn Conway, Audre Lorde, and Teva Harrison, this work takes into account documentary film, television, and social media as popular mediums used to explore stories of disease.
This edited collection provides a structured and in-depth analysis of the current use of quota strategies for resolving the pressing issue of gender inequality, and the lack of female representation on corporate boards. Filling the gap in existing literature on this topic, the two volumes of Gender Diversity in the Boardroom offers systematic overviews of current debates surrounding the optimisation of gender diversity, and the suggested pathways for progress. Focusing on sixteen European countries, the skilled contributors explore the current situation in relation to women on boards debates and approaches taken. They include detailed reflections from critical stakeholders, such as politicians, practitioners and policy-makers. Volume 1 focuses on eight European countries having adopted quotas and is a promising and highly valuable resource for academics, practitioners, policy makers and anyone interested in gender diversity because it examines and critiques the current corporate governance system and national strategies for increasing the share of women not only on boards, but within companies beyond the boardroom.
This book is about how people construct career stories: the stories we use to make sense of our work life. Mark Scillio explores the idea of security in the current turbulent employment climate, investigating employment experiences in developed, wealthy countries like Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom-where careers have become fragmented, complex, and uncertain. Using Anthony Giddens' notion of ontological security, Scillio develops a concept of career security that goes beyond economic and financial concerns and encompasses the personal and social meaning of work. The ramifications of succeeding (or failing) to forge a good career narrative are explored through a series of detailed case studies.
This book is a study of labor relations and the first generation of skilled workers in colonial Korea, a subject crucial to the understanding of modernization in twentieth-century Korea. Born in rural Korea, these workers confronted both the colonial experience and the modern workplace as they interacted with Japanese managers and workers. Based on the archives of the Onoda Cement Factory and interviews with surviving workers, this work analyzes the complex relationship between colonialism and modernization.
This text illustrates how the reform process linked the social, economic and political order of eighteenth-century Russia with the radical transformations that culminated in 1917.
David Moon traces the origins of the abolition of serfdom back to reforms in related areas in 1762 and forward to the culmination of the process in 1907. An up-to-date interpretation of this important development in Russian history, drawing on recent research by Russian and Western historians, this is the latest book in the Seminar Studies in History series. It includes a documents from sources previously unavailable in English translation, a glossary of specialist terms, a chronology of the main events, a who's who identifying the main people and a guide to additional reading.
New industrial centres are emerging in the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), where large numbers of plants have been constructed in recent years, creating many manufacturing jobs. But what does industrial work look like in these locations? Up until now, much of the interest in developing country industrialization has concentrated on the poor working conditions that characterize some export-oriented sectors in emerging economies, most notoriously in the garment industry. In contrast, the concern of this book is with the modern facilities of multinational or local manufacturers that reflect aspirations for a process of industrial upgrading that might foreshadow the future for these countries. The book provides an analysis of work, its context, and the situation of employees in plants in the BRICs focussing on three main questions: What differences and common features can be ascertained in a comparison both of countries and firms in terms of workplace HR management and production systems? What evidence is there for either a 'high road' or 'low road' developmental path in the BRICs? How are corporate standards implemented in these local contexts? The book addresses an academic audience as well as managers and trade unionists. For the former, it offers a systematic comparison of the four countries and the companies under study. For the latter, it offers a vivid account of challenges the companies face in the BRIC countries as well as the solutions adopted by the companies.
This book employs an interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral lens to explore the collaborative dynamics that are currently disrupting, re-creating and transforming the production and consumption of tourism. House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting, social enterprise and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other things, de-industrialization processes and post-capitalist forms of production and consumption, postmaterialism, the rise of the third sector and collaborative governance. Addressing that gap, this book explores the character, depth and breadth of these disruptions, the creative opportunities for tourism that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized.
This book presents a comprehensive, state-of-the-art portrait of entrepreneurship and small business management issues in Iran, and among the Iranian Diaspora. The major contributions in this book address topics such as innovation, female entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, migrant entrepreneurship, corporate entrepreneurship, institutional support of entrepreneurial initiatives and more. This book is the outcome of an extensive research endeavor spanning several years and includes the latest contributions from highly respected authors and experts from Iran and beyond.
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