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They crawl. They fly. They jump. Insects are always in action From
leaf cutter ants carrying leaves to their nest, to buzzing bees
making honey, and dragonflies beating their four wings, and more,
these small creatures can do big things.
Artistic duo Mothmeister have created a place they call "Wounderland". It is a land in which grotesque creatures, in fascinating yet disturbing masks, stare out from barren wastelands, usually accompanied by mounted and stuffed animals. Unconventional and enchanting, the fairytale world of Mothmeister is at once reminiscent of a bygone age, while subtly criticising today's ever-present 'selfie' culture, and the beauty standards imposed by the media. Superlative and unique, the works of Mothmeister are celebrated and revered in this stunning book.
Reproductive skew is the study of how reproduction is partitioned in animal societies. In many social animals reproduction is shared unequally and leads to a reproductive skew among group members. Skew theory investigates the genetic and ecological factors causal to the partitioning of reproduction in animal groups and may yield fundamental insights into the evolution of animal sociality. This book brings together new theory and empirical work, mostly in vertebrates, to test assumptions and predictions of skew models. It also gives an updated critical review of skew theory. The team of leading contributors cover a wide range of species, from insects to humans, and discuss both ultimate (evolutionary) and proximate (immediate) factors influencing reproductive skew. Academic researchers and graduate students alike with an interest in evolution and sociality will find this material stimulating and exciting.
The definitive edition of Darwin's classic - a brilliantly entertaining and accessible exploration of human and animal behaviour, reissued to mark the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth. Why do we bite people we feel affection towards? Why do dogs wag their tails? Or cats purr? Why do we get embarrassed, and why does embarrassment make us blush? These and many other questions about the emotional life of man and animals are answered in this remarkable book. Expression is the only book in which Darwin sketches out his revolutionary ideas about human behaviour in detail: he discusses childhood learning, insanity, painting and sculpture, animal behaviour and the differences in facial expression of the world's peoples.
Infrastructure development in Africa and Asia is expanding at breakneck speed, largely in biodiversity-rich developing nations. The trend reflects governments' efforts to promote economic growth in response to increasing populations, rising consumption rates and persistent inequalities. Large-scale infrastructure development is regularly touted as a way to meet the growing demand for energy, transport and food - and as a key to poverty alleviation. In practice, however, road networks, hydropower dams and 'development corridors' tend to have adverse effects on local populations, natural habitats and biodiversity. Such projects typically weaken the capacity of ecosystems to maintain ecological functions on which wildlife and human communities depend, particularly in the face of climate change. This title is also available as Open Access via Cambridge Core.
The study of fossilised remains of herbivorous animals, particularly those rare findings with well-preserved gastrointestinal tracts filled with plant remains, is crucial to our understanding of the environment in which they lived. Summarising thirty years of research, Ukraintseva presents evidence on plants once eaten by Siberia's major herbivorous mammals. The collection of pollen and plant spores from food remains sheds light on the vegetation of these ancient habitats, enabling researchers to reconstruct local floras of the time. This also promotes further insight into the causes of the extinction of various species due to changing environmental conditions and food availability. Providing a history of the research undertaken, the book also includes specific chapters on the Cherski horse and bison, along with the vegetation and climate of Siberia in the late Anthropogene period, making it a lasting reference tool for graduate students and researchers in the field.
A Great Blue Heron wades in the shallows of the Potomac River, scanning for unsuspecting prey. Sunlight turns the water translucent as a small school of fish rises to the water's surface. The heron strikes and moments later is swallowing its quarry-predation in action! This handsome Great Blue Heron is but one of the more than 400 bird species found in Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. It shares the mid-Atlantic with kingfishers, eagles, mergansers, wood warblers, and many more. Exploring backyard birds, birds of prey, and birds of the open ocean, Smithsonian ornithologist Bruce Beehler and premier nature photographer Middleton Evans have crafted a comprehensive volume unparalleled in its beauty and captivating storytelling. Birds of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia invites readers to experience the birds' lives as they live them: where they nest, how they forage, their various behaviors, and the natural environments they need to survive. Beehler offers practical advice on bird-watching, including how to find, attract, and even garden for birds, as well as the best places to see them in season. He also discusses the best birding apps, websites, and gear; provides advice on planning a birding field trip; and recommends ornithological institutions that will help you cultivate a lifelong birding hobby. Finally, Beehler challenges the reader to think about conservation efforts to preserve local bird populations. With striking color photographs of more than 400 species, this book is a bonanza for nature lovers. A wealth of images immerse the reader in the world of these wonderful creatures. Marvel at the majesty of Ospreys, navigate the ocean with storm-petrels, and nest with Mourning Doves, all while learning about the richness of the birds' lives, the complexities of their habits, and how we can help keep their populations vibrant and aloft for generations to come.
Sentience - the ability to feel, perceive and experience - is central to the animal welfare debate as it raises the question of whether animals experience suffering in life and death. This book explores and answers these questions in an objective way, based on the latest research and empirical evidence. Beginning with an introduction to sentience, the book investigates why we are so interested in sentience, when, as a species, humans became sentient and how it has changed over time. The book defines aspects of sentience such as consciousness, memory and emotions, and discusses brain complexity in detail. Looking at sentience from a developmental perspective, it analyses when in an individual's growth sentience can be said to appear and uses evidence from a range of studies investigating embryos, foetuses and young animals to form an enlightening overview of the subject. With a full chapter covering ethical decisions such as animal protection and experimentation, this book is not only an invaluable resource for researchers and students of animal welfare and biology, but also an engaging and informative read for veterinarians and the general public.
The Horn of Africa has the highest endemism of any region in Africa, and around 70 species are found nowhere else in the world. Many of these are confined to the isolated highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but a large number of larks specialise in the arid parts of Somalia and adjoining eastern Ethiopia, whilst the island of Socotra has its own suite of endemic species. The region is also an important migration route and wintering site for many Palearctic birds. This is the first field guide to the birds of this fascinating region, and a companion to Birds of East Africa by two of the same authors. Over 200 magnificent plates by John Gale and Brian Small illustrate every species that has ever occurred in the five countries covered by the guide, and the succinct text covers the key identification criteria. Special attention is paid to the voices of the species, and over 1000 up-to-date colour distribution maps are included. This long-awaited guide is a much-needed addition to the literature on African birds and an essential companion for birders visiting the region.
This new Helm Field Guide covers the species-rich Melanesia region of the south-west Pacific, from New Caledonia and the Solomons through the Bismarcks to Vanuatu, an increasingly popular destination for tours and travellers and one that has never before had complete field-guide coverage. The cover star is the Kagu, the region's most iconic bird species and a highly sought-after endemic of New Caledonia. Superb colour plates illustrate the 650 species that occur in the region, allied with concise identification text and a series of distribution colour bars. For anyone travelling to this far-flung Pacific region, this book is indispensable.
This SpringerBrief explores the evacuation characteristics of children and their self-preservation capability during fire situations. An international survey among teachers from day-care centers and experts in child development indicates an age-limit at which pre-school children may be considered capable of evacuating a location without direct intervention by an instructor. The survey examines the ability of children to understand and follow simple instructions, walk on horizontal surfaces without physical support, and walk down stairs. It also studies how fire safety installations and fire drills differ between countries. A literature review and a presentation of the method applied are included. This data can be applied to evacuation procedures, building codes, and fire regulations. Determining Self-Preservation Capability in Pre-School Children is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing evacuation safety issues and developing methods removing potential hazards. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.
Through Green Revolution in late 1960s, India achieved self-sufficiency in food production, but still the country has not achieved self-sufficiency in production of horticultural crops. Most of the growth in food production during the green revolution period is attributed to the use of higher levels of fertilizers and pesticides which are continuing to destroy stable traditional ecosystems. The challenge before the crop protection scientist is to increase yields from the existing land without harming the environment and resource base. This can be achieved by adopting eco-friendly Biointensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) strategy.
BIPM incorporates ecological and economic factors into agricultural system design and decision making, and addresses public concerns about environmental quality and food safety. The benefits of implementing BIPM can include reduced chemical input costs, reduced on-farm and off-farm environmental impacts, and more effective and sustainable pest management. An ecology-based IPM has the potential of decreasing inputs of fuel, machinery, and synthetic chemicals-all of which are energy intensive and increasingly costly in terms of financial and environmental impact. Such reductions will benefit the grower and society.
The present book deals with the most recent biointensive integrated approaches for pest management utilizing components such as bioagents predators, parasitoids and pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses)], botanicals (biofumigation, oil cakes, FYM, compost, crop residues, green manuring and other organic amendments), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, physical methods (hot water treatment of planting material, soil solarization), cultural methods (crop rotation, summer ploughing, fallowing, intercropping, pruning, mulching, spacing, planting date, trap cropping, "etc."), biorational chemicals (pheromones) and resistant cultivars. This book can serve as a useful reference to policy makers, research and extension workers, practicing farmers and students. The material can also be used for teaching post-graduate courses."
The Science of Forensic Entomology builds a foundation of biological and entomological knowledge that equips the student to be able to understand and resolve questions concerning the presence of specific insects at a crime scene, in which the answers require deductive reasoning, seasoned observation, reconstruction and experimentation features required of all disciplines that have hypothesis testing at its core. Each chapter addresses topics that delve into the underlying biological principles and concepts relevant to the insect biology that forms the bases for using insects in matters of legal importance. The book is more than an introduction to forensic entomology as it offers in depth coverage of non-traditional topics, including the biology of maggot masses, temperature tolerances of necrophagous insects; chemical attraction and communication; reproductive strategies of necrophagous flies; archaeoentomology, and use of insects in modern warfare (terrorism). As such it will enable advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students the opportunity to gain a sound knowledge of the principles, concepts and methodologies necessary to use insects and other arthropods in a wide range of legal matters.
Honeybees make decisions collectively--and democratically. Every year, faced with the life-or-death problem of choosing and traveling to a new home, honeybees stake everything on a process that includes collective fact-finding, vigorous debate, and consensus building. In fact, as world-renowned animal behaviorist Thomas Seeley reveals, these incredible insects have much to teach us when it comes to collective wisdom and effective decision making. A remarkable and richly illustrated account of scientific discovery, "Honeybee Democracy" brings together, for the first time, decades of Seeley's pioneering research to tell the amazing story of house hunting and democratic debate among the honeybees.
In the late spring and early summer, as a bee colony becomes overcrowded, a third of the hive stays behind and rears a new queen, while a swarm of thousands departs with the old queen to produce a daughter colony. Seeley describes how these bees evaluate potential nest sites, advertise their discoveries to one another, engage in open deliberation, choose a final site, and navigate together--as a swirling cloud of bees--to their new home. Seeley investigates how evolution has honed the decision-making methods of honeybees over millions of years, and he considers similarities between the ways that bee swarms and primate brains process information. He concludes that what works well for bees can also work well for people: any decision-making group should consist of individuals with shared interests and mutual respect, a leader's influence should be minimized, debate should be relied upon, diverse solutions should be sought, and the majority should be counted on for a dependable resolution.
An impressive exploration of animal behavior, "Honeybee Democracy" shows that decision-making groups, whether honeybee or human, can be smarter than even the smartest individuals in them.
Migration is a way of life for most birds found in Ireland. Our nation sits with its back to the Old World and its face to the New World, so the variety of bird species reaching our shores is derived from two hemispheres. From across the planet, `our' birds come - to breed, stop off, or spend the winter. How these visitors reached our shores puzzled us for centuries. So how do birds navigate so successfully over enormous distances and make a return trip to the same nesting site each year? Modern tracking results are revealing journeys once thought impossible - such as sustained flight for days at a time. Feats of endurance are one thing but their homing ability is even more impressive. Most of the youngsters fly solo to faraway winter quarters they have never seen. The evidence - and some of the history behind its discovery - is pieced together in a simple way that brings a new coherence to the complex ways that birds navigate, the preparations they make before departure, and their decisions en route - such as when drifted off course by inclement weather. In a nutshell, birds' array of sense far exceeds our own. Rather than relying purely on the sun and the stars for guidance, birds make use of something we cannot sense - the Earth's magnetic field. Overall they integrate a range of global phenomena, including patterns of polarised light visible (to their specially tuned vision) in the sky. This spectacular book is a must for anyone who has ever wondered how and why these seemingly fragile creatures make such gruelling journeys.
The Welfare of Animals used in Research: Practice and Ethics gives a complete and balanced overview of the issues surrounding the use of animals in scientific research. The focus of the book is on the animal welfare implications and ethics of animals in research. It covers the topics with sufficient depth to show a real understanding of varied and complex subjects, but conveys the information in a beautifully reader-friendly manner. Key features: * Provides those who are not working in the field with a reasonable understanding as to why and how animals are used in research. * Gives an introduction to the ethical issues involved in using animals, and explains how these are addressed in practice. * Details the advances in animal welfare and the use and development of the 3Rs principles, and how these have become fundamental to the everyday use and regulation of animals used in research. * The focus is on principles making it suitable for an international audience. This book is a useful introduction to the issues involved in laboratory animal welfare for those who intend to work in research involving animals. It is also useful to prospective animal care staff and animal welfare scientists, and to those involved in ethical review. It will help inform debate amongst those who are not involved in experimentation but who are interested in the issues. Published as a part of the prestigious Wiley-Blackwell UFAW Animal Welfare series. UFAW, founded 1926, is an internationally recognised, independent, scientific and educational animal welfare charity. For full details of all titles available in the series, please visit the
This new field guide is a complete and convenient reference to every species of cetacean, pinniped and sirenian in the world, along with the Marine and Sea Otters and the Polar Bear. Every species is illustrated with magnificent colour paintings and a stunning collection of photographs, chosen to illustrate the key field marks which can be used to separate each species in the field. The author's unique depth of experience and knowledge, coupled with the artist's unrivalled skill, have come together to produce a neat, practical field guide that will enable any observer to quickly identify any mammals they may encounter at sea.
A humorous look at what happens when taxidermy goes terribly wrong,
by the founder of the hit website crappytaxidermy.com.
This book traces the evolution of the dog, from its origins about 15,000 years ago up to recent times. The timing of dog domestication receives attention, with comparisons between different genetics-based models and archaeological evidence. Allometric patterns between dogs and their ancestors, wolves, shed light on the nature of the morphological changes that dogs underwent. Dog burials highlight a unifying theme of the whole book: the development of a distinctive social bond between dogs and people; the book also explores why dogs and people relate so well to each other. Though cosmopolitan in overall scope, the greatest emphasis is on the New World, with an entire chapter devoted to dogs of the arctic regions, mostly in the New World. Discussion of several distinctive modern roles of dogs underscores the social bond between dogs and people.
Few reptiles command more respect than the mighty boas and pythons. Prized for their size, relative docility, and spectacular coloration and patterning, they are the most dramatic snakes in the world. But the same snakes that many consider gentle giants--the Green Anaconda can exceed twelve yards in length--are also finely tuned killing machines. In "Boas and Pythons of the World," renowned snake expert Mark O'Shea takes readers on an exciting continent-by-continent journey to look at these snakes in their native habitats. Stunning color photographs and intriguing stories from O'Shea's encounters with these snakes in the wild bring these reptiles to life.
There is a tremendous variety of boas and pythons. While the largest are measured in yards, the smallest, the Javelin Sand Boa, is no longer than thirty-two inches. And they inhabit a vast range of habitats on five continents, from stony desert to lush tropical forest. In more than one hundred detailed species accounts, "Boas and Pythons of the World" examines snakes as different as the cryptically patterned Madagascan Ground Boa and Australasia's beautiful Green Tree Python.
Although some of these snakes are capable of attacking and killing humans, boas and pythons are much more likely to be man's victims. Across the world, these snakes are retreating in the face of habitat destruction, hunting, and climate change. Addressing the dire risks they face, O'Shea discusses what can be done to help save what are among our most fascinating reptiles. Snake expert Mark O'Shea's tour of the fascinating world of boas, pythons, and basal snakes--from primitive blindsnakes to the mighty anaconda Dramatic accounts of O'Shea's personal encounters with these great snakes in their natural habitats--on five continents Detailed information about the snakes' habitats and behaviors Over 150 superb color photographs that capture the diverse beauty of more than 100 species, including rarely seen and endangered species Two world maps showing the distribution of the various families of boas, pythons, and basal snakes
The volume is designed to provide an integrated overview of the results from the last fifteen years of research on Chromogranins in relation to cell biology, physiology and biomedicine. The different chapters highlight novel activities of these proteins, including their role in granule biogenesis, hormone co-storage, stimulus-processing-secretion coupling, autonomic sympathetic/parasympathetic balance, immune and cardiocirculatory function, and the response to stress. Biomedical aspects are also illustrated with focus on the prognostic and diagnostic significance of Chromogranin in the presence of tumors, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. The volume is of interest for laboratory and clinical scientists, PhD and Post-doc students that will be inspired to go deep inside the molecular, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological and clinical aspects of these fascinating multifaceted proteins.
Whether it is the sight of the summer's first Swallow or the sound of a spring Cuckoo, the return of our summer migrants delivers a reassuring sense of a globe that, as the poet Ted Hughes once described, `is still working'. That birds should undertake such long and dangerous migratory journeys is something that has long fascinated us, prompting works of art and literature, not to mention many thousands of scientific studies.The BTO's Flight Lines project, a joint initiative with the Society of Wildlife Artists (SWLA), highlights through art and narrative the challenges that migrant birds face and brings to a wider audience the research and conservation work that is being done to help them.By pairing artists, storytellers and photojournalists with the researchers and volunteers studying our summer migrants, the book tells the stories of our migrant birds, and the work being done to secure a future for them. Includes artwork by SWLA member artists Carry Akroyd, Kim Atkinson, Federico Gemma, Richard Johnson, Szabolcs Kokay, Harriet Mead, Bruce Pearson, Greg Poole, Dafila Scott, Jane Smith, John Threlfall, Esther Tyson, Matt Underwood, Michael Warren, Darren Woodhead and others.
The first comprehensive, interdisciplinary accounting of Nabokov's scientific work, its significance in his artistry, and his contribution to evolutionary theory This landmark book is the first full appraisal of Vladimir Nabokov's long-neglected contributions as a scientist. Although his literary achievements are renowned, until recently his scientific discoveries were ignored or dismissed by many. Nabokov created well over 1,000 technical illustrations of the anatomical structures of butterflies, seeking to understand the evolutionary diversity of small butterflies called Blues. But only lately have scientists confirmed his meticulous research and vindicated his surprising hypotheses. This volume reproduces 154 of Nabokov's drawings, few of which have ever been seen in public, and presents essays by ten leading scientists and Nabokov specialists. The contributors underscore the significance of Nabokov's drawings as scientific documents, evaluate his visionary contributions to evolutionary biology and systematics, and offer insights into his unique artistic perception and creativity.
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