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Tucked away in Siberia, there are furry, four-legged creatures with wagging tails and floppy ears that are as docile and friendly as any lapdog. But, despite appearances, these are not dogs they are foxes. They are the result of the most astonishing experiment in breeding ever undertaken imagine speeding up thousands of years of evolution into a few decades. In 1959, biologists Dmitri Belyaev and Lyudmila Trut set out to do just that, by starting with a few dozen silver foxes from fox farms in the USSR and attempting to recreate the evolution of wolves into dogs in real time in order to witness the process of domestication. This is the extraordinary, untold story of this remarkable undertaking. Most accounts of the natural evolution of wolves place it over a span of about 15,000 years, but within a decade, Belyaev and Trut's fox breeding experiments had resulted in puppy-like foxes with floppy ears, piebald spots and curly tails. Along with these physical changes came genetic and behavioral changes, as well. The foxes were bred using selection criteria for tameness, and with each generation, they became increasingly interested in human companionship. Trut has been there the whole time, and has been the lead scientist on this work since Belyaev's death in 1985, and with Lee Dugatkin, biologist and science writer, she tells the story of the adventure, science, politics, and love behind it all. In How to Tame a Fox, Dugatkin and Trut take us inside this path-breaking experiment in the midst of the brutal winters of Siberia to reveal how scientific history is made and continues to be made today. To date, fifty-six generations of foxes have been domesticated, and we continue to learn significant lessons from them about the genetic and behavioral evolution of domesticated animals. How to Tame a Fox offers an incredible tale of scientists at work, while also celebrating the deep attachments that have brought humans and animals together throughout time.
CCTV for Wildlife Monitoring is a handbook on the use of CCTV in nature watching, conservation and ecological research. CCTV offers a unique ability to monitor wildlife in real time, stream video to the web, capture imagery of fast-moving species or cold animals such as wet otters or fish and maintain monitoring over long periods of time in a diverse array of habitats. Wildlife watchers can take advantage of a huge range of CCTV cameras, recording devices and accessories developed for use in non-wildlife applications. CCTV allows intimate study of animal behaviour not possible with other technologies. With expert experience in engineering, photography and wildlife, Susan Young describes CCTV equipment and techniques, giving readers the confidence to tackle what initially may seem technically challenging. The book enables the reader to navigate the technical aspects of recording: basic analogue, high definition HD-TVI and IP cameras, portable CCTV, digital video recorders (DVR) and video processing by focusing on practical applications. No prior knowledge of CCTV is required - step-by-step information is provided to get anyone started recording wildlife. In-depth methods for recording foxes, badger, deer, otters, small mammals and fish are also included, and the book makes comparisons with trail cameras where appropriate. Examples of recorded footage illustrate the book along with detailed diagrams on camera set-ups and links to accompanying videos on YouTube. Case-studies show real projects, both the equipment used and the results. This book will be of interest to amateur naturalists wishing to have a window into the private world of wildlife, ecological consultants monitoring protected species and research scientists studying animal behaviour.
The Science of Forensic Entomology builds a foundation of biological and entomological knowledge that equips the student to be able to understand and resolve questions concerning the presence of specific insects at a crime scene, in which the answers require deductive reasoning, seasoned observation, reconstruction and experimentation features required of all disciplines that have hypothesis testing at its core. Each chapter addresses topics that delve into the underlying biological principles and concepts relevant to the insect biology that forms the bases for using insects in matters of legal importance. The book is more than an introduction to forensic entomology as it offers in depth coverage of non-traditional topics, including the biology of maggot masses, temperature tolerances of necrophagous insects; chemical attraction and communication; reproductive strategies of necrophagous flies; archaeoentomology, and use of insects in modern warfare (terrorism). As such it will enable advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students the opportunity to gain a sound knowledge of the principles, concepts and methodologies necessary to use insects and other arthropods in a wide range of legal matters.
Aquarists, biologists, conservationists, ecologists, shell-collectors and a host of others will find this a useful title. Until now there has been no readily title information on southern African freshwater snails and mussels. Specialists and hobbyists alike will welcome this concise and up-to-date reference work - in particular the new key to the identification of the southern African species. The chapter on Bilharzia and its snail hosts is especially important at this time when Primary health care programmes are being implemented throughout South Africa, and access to safe drinking water is regarded as a fundamental human right.
Over half a billion years ago life on earth took an incredible step in evolution, when animals learned to build skeletons. Using many different materials, from calcium carbonate and phosphate, and even silica, to make shell and bone, they started creating the support structures that are now critical to most living forms, providing rigidity and strength. Manifesting in a vast variety of forms, they provided the framework for sophisticated networks of life that fashioned the evolution of Earth's oceans, land, and atmosphere. Within a few tens of millions of years, all of the major types of skeleton had appeared. Skeletons enabled an unprecedented array of bodies to evolve, from the tiniest seed shrimp to the gigantic dinosaurs and blue whales. The earliest bacterial colonies constructed large rigid structures - stromatolites - built up by trapping layers of sediment, while the mega-skeleton that is the Great Barrier Reef is big enough to be visible from space. The skeletons of millions of coccolithophores that lived in the shallow seas of the Mesozoic built the white cliffs of Dover. These, and insects, put their scaffolding on the outside, as an exoskeleton, while vertebrates have endoskeletons. Plants use tubes of dead tissue for rigidity and transport of liquids - which in the case of tall trees need to be strong enough to extend 100 m or more from the ground. Others simply stitch together a coating from mineral grains on the seabed. In Skeletons, Jan Zalasiewicz and Mark Williams explore the incredible variety of the skeleton innovations that have enabled life to expand into a wide range of niches and lifestyles on the planet. Discussing the impact of climate change, which puts the formation of some kinds of skeleton at risk, they also consider future skeletons, including the possibility that we might increasingly incorporate metal and plastic elements into our own, as well as the possible materials for skeleton building on other planets.
This is the first comprehensive photographic guide to the marine mammals of the North American Pacific (from Baja California in Mexico to southeast Alaska), featuring stunning color photographs of all 39 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as 6 species of seals and sea lions, and the sea otter. It provides detailed information on all 39 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises, the 6 species of seals and sea lions, and the sea otter, focusing on identification, behavior, and distribution. It includes 45 remarkable color plates showing typical views of marine mammals as most people see them - from land or from a boat. These have been produced using the latest digital image technology, and include photographs of some species that have never before been published. It features a comprehensive section on behavior, packed with amazing photographs, which aims to help the reader get more out of their whale-watching experience than ever before. It also includes detailed sections on where, when, and how to go whale watching, and four accounts by leading experts of outstanding days on the water. Easy-to-use format helps whale-watchers identify any species they encounter, whether they are a beginner or an expert.
This book puts emphasis on the isolation, taxonomy, diagnosis (phenotypic, serology and molecular biology), epizootiology, pathogenicity mechanisms, and methods of disease control (by vaccination, immunostimulation, probiotics, prebiotics, plant products, and antimicrobial compounds. Co-infections, which are attributed to more than one microbial species have been discussed. Shortcomings in knowledge have been highlighted. This sixth edition is the successor to the original version, first published in 1987, and which fills the need for an up-to-date comprehensive text on the biological aspects of the bacterial taxa which cause disease in finfish. The book is primarily targeted at researcher workers, including postgraduate students, and diagnosticians. It is anticipated that the readership will include veterinary microbiologists, public health scientists and microbial ecologists.
Visitors to tropical forests generally come to see the birds, mammals, and plants. Aside from butterflies, however, insects usually do not make it on the list of things to see. This is a shame. Insects are everywhere, they are often as beautiful as the showiest of birds, and they have a fascinating natural history. With their beautifully illustrated guide to insects and other arthropods, Paul E. Hanson and Kenji Nishida put the focus on readily observable insects that one encounters while strolling through a tropical forest in the Americas. It is a general belief that insects in the tropics are larger and more colorful than insects in temperate regions, but this simply reflects a greater diversity of nearly all types of insects in the tropics. On a single rainforest tree, for example, you will find more species of ant than in all of England. Though written for those who have no prior knowledge of insects, this book should also prove useful to those who study them. In addition to descriptions of the principal insect families, the reader will find a wealth of biological information that serves as an introduction to the natural history of insects and related classes. Sidebars on insect behavior and ecological factors enhance the descriptive accounts. Kenji Nishida's stunning photographs-many of which show insects in action in their natural settings-add appeal to every page. A final chapter provides a glimpse into the intriguing world of spiders, scorpions, crabs, and other arthropods.
With the worldwide success of the movie March of the Penguins, these fascinating flightless birds have become a symbol of the fragile nature of our ecosystem. Faced with global warming, invasive tourism, pollution and loss of habitat, penguins need our help more than ever to survive. Over the last 18 years, Wayne Lynch has travelled thousands of miles to Antarctica, the Galapagos Islands, Argentina, Chile, New Zealand and a dozen remote island clusters in the tempestuous Southern Ocean to study and photograph the 17 species of penguins in their natural habitats. In Penguins of the World, he documents the extraordinary life cycle of these tough, resourceful and beautiful birds in some of the harshest environments imaginable. Lynch's prose is engaging and easy-to-read, and his beautiful photographs capture the birds in a wide variety of activities and behaviours. Penguins of the World is a book not to be missed by anyone interested in the future of life on this planet.
With over 1800 species, Peru has the second richest avifauna of any country in the world. As a consequence it is one of the most popular birding destinations in South America. This will be the first comprehensive and fully illustrated field guide to the birds of Peru. Text is arranged opposite the plates, in conventional field guide manner. The combination of authoritative text and superb artwork will set new standards for South American field guides.
What does -it mean to live and die in relation to other animals? Animal Intimacies posits this central question alongside the intimate--and intense--moments of care, kinship, violence, politics, indifference, and desire that occur between human and nonhuman animals. Built on extensive ethnographic fieldwork in the mountain villages of India's Central Himalayas, Radhika Govindrajan's book explores the number of ways that human and animal interact to cultivate relationships as interconnected, related beings. Whether it is through the study of the affect and ethics of ritual animal sacrifice, analysis of the right-wing political project of cow-protection, or examination of villagers' talk about bears who abduct women and have sex with them, Govindrajan illustrates that multispecies relatedness relies on both difference and ineffable affinity between animals. Animal Intimacies breaks substantial new ground in animal studies, and Govindrajan's detailed portrait of the social, political and religious life of the region will be of interest to cultural anthropologists and scholars of South Asia as well.
Frogs from the genus Xenopus have long been used as model organisms in basic and biomedical research. These frogs have helped unlock key fundamental developmental and cellular processes that have led to important scientific breakthroughs and have had practical application in embryology, cancer research and regenerative medicine. Xenopus Development is a vital resource on the biology and development of these key model organisms, and will be a great tool to researchers using these frogs in various disciplines of biological science. Xenopus Development is divided into four sections, the first three highlight key processes in Xenopus development from embryo to metamophosis. These sections focus on the cellular processes, organogenesis and embryo development. The final section highlights novel techniques and approaches being used in Xenopus research. Providing thorough and detailed coverage, Xenopus Development, will be a timely and welcome volume for those working in cell and molecular biology, genetics, developmental biology and biomedical research. * Provides broad overview of the developmental biology of both Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis * Explores cellular to systems development in key biomedical model organisms * Timely synthesis of the field of Xenopus biology * Highlights key biomedical and basic biological findings unlocked by Xenopus
A rapidly growing interdisciplinary field, disease ecology merges key ideas from ecology, medicine, genetics, immunology, and epidemiology to study how hosts and pathogens interact in populations, communities, and entire ecosystems. Bringing together contributions from leading international experts on the ecology of diseases among invertebrate species, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the field. Beginning with an introductory overview of general principles and methodologies, the book continues with in-depth discussions of a range of critical issues concerning invertebrate disease epidemiology, molecular biology, vectors, and pathogens. Topics covered in detail include: Methods for studying the ecology of invertebrate diseases and pathogens Invertebrate pathogen ecology and the ecology of pathogen groups Applied ecology of invertebrate pathogens Leveraging the ecology of invertebrate pathogens in microbial control Prevention and management of infectious diseases of aquatic invertebrates Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases is a necessary and long overdue addition to the world literature on this vitally important subject. This volume belongs on the reference shelves of all those involved in the environmental sciences, genetics, microbiology, marine biology, immunology, epidemiology, fisheries and wildlife science, and related disciplines.
Phosphatases, such as TNAP are fundamental in regulating the roles of cellular, and consequently numerous body functions. TNAP is a ubiquitous enzyme with a wide spectrum of substrates and specificity. Regulation at the cellular level and the lack of TNAP activity is a lethal condition. Recent findings of a highly specific regional, laminar and subcellular localization of TNAP in the cerebral cortex indicates that in addition to its metabolic and skeletal functions, TNAP also plays a role in regulating cerebral functions, most probably cognition. In fact, TNAP disturbance could result in complex diseases such as epilepsy, developmental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Available data suggest that, regarding brain functions, TNAP is a potentially important target of clinical research. This book aims to provide an overview of our current understanding of the functions of TNAP in the brain and on other tissues and organs.
This volume focuses on small mammal fossils from extinct Asian faunas of about 1 to 7 million years ago in North China. These played a role in the emergence of vertebrate paleontology as a modern science in that country. This second volume of the sub-series Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China: Geology and Fossil Mammals in the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series deals with a rich microfauna fossil record; megafauna follow in subsequent volumes. This research on Yushe Basin fossils provides a view of changes in northeast Asian terrestrial faunas during the Late Neogene, and therefore is a key to the biochronology for a vast part of the continent. The faunas recovered by the multinational team working in this region represent changes in small mammal communities of the Yushe Basin, revealed on a finer time scale that has not been achieved previously. Detailed systematic studies on small mammal groups proceeded under the care of specialists are outlined in the chapters of this volume. Paleontologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists will find this book appealing.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
This text explains the importance of priority in relation to names in ornithology. The compilers bring together reports on 148 books and 121 periodicals in zoology which, between them, present almost all the challenges that can make date determination problematic.
Science is now providing some remarkable insights into animal behavior, with crocodiles, for example, emerging as devoted parents, and elephants - like whales - able to communicate with each other across long distances by ultrasound, which is inaudible to our ears. There seems little doubt that animals experience a range of emotions, just as we do; but can they grieve, too? David Alderton - award-winning, multi-million specialist animal author - contends that emotions - including grief - can potentially have a survival value for a species. The authoritative, rational text is superbly supported by interesting, sensitive photographs carefully chosen to be reflective of the subject matter. Unique subject matter, drawing on the latest research - Covers both domestic and wild animals - A subject that has intrigued pet owners for many years - Fascinating insights into the natural world - Insights into how grieving may help wild animals to survive - How this could affect conservation planning - Sensitive, rational approach to the subject - The impact on pet owners and their animals - Written by an award-winning, multi-million selling specialist animal author - A book with widespread appeal for anyone with an interest in the natural world
In this book, Krish Seetah uses butchery as a point of departure for exploring the changing historical relationships between animal utility, symbolism, and meat consumption. Seetah brings together several bodies of literature - on meat, cut marks, craftspeople, and the role of craft in production - that have heretofore been considered in isolation from one another. Focusing on the activity inherent in butcher, he describes the history of knowledge that typifies the craft. He also provides anthropological and archaeological case studies which showcase examples of butchery practices in varied contexts that are seldom identified with zooarchaeological research. Situating the relationship between practice, practitioner, material and commodity, this imaginative study offers new insights into food production, consumption, and the craft of cuisine.
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in grain-based fuel ethanol production in North America and around the world. Whether such production will result in a net energy gain or whether this is sustainable in the long term is under debate, but undoubtedly millions of tons of non-fermented residues are now produced annually for global trade in the form of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Consequently, in a short period of time a tremendous amount of research has been conducted to determine the suitability of ethanol coproducts for various end uses. Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization is the first book of its kind to provide in-depth, and up-to-date coverage of Historical and current status of the fuel ethanol industry in the U.S. Processing methods, scientific principles, and innovations for making fuel ethanol using grains as feedstock Physical and chemical properties of DDGS, assay methodologies for compositional analyses, and mycotoxin occurrence in DDGS Changes during processing (from grains to DDGS) and analysis of factors causing variations in compositional, nutritional, and physical values Various traditional, new, and emerging uses for DDGS (including feed for cattle, swine, poultry, fish, and other animals, feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and other bioenergy production, and substrates for food and industrial uses) Appealing to all who have an interest in fuel ethanol production, distillers grains, and their uses, this comprehensive reference sharpens the readers' understanding of distillers grains and will promote better utilization of ethanol coproducts. Animal and food scientists, feed and food technologists, ethanol plant managers and technicians, nutritionists, academic and governmental professionals, and college students will find the book most useful.
Winner of the Wildlife Society Outstanding Edited Book Award for 2013! Winner of the Texas Chapter of The Wildlife Society Outstanding Book Award for 2011! Winner of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Award for 2011! Biology and Management of White-tailed Deer organizes and presents information on the most studied large mammal species in the world. The book covers the evolutionary history of the species, its anatomy, physiology, and nutrition, population dynamics, and ecology across its vast range (from central Canada through northern South America). The book then discusses the history of management of white-tailed deer, beginning with early Native Americans and progressing through management by Europeans and examining population lows in the early 1900s, restocking efforts through the mid 1900s, and recent, overabundant populations that are becoming difficult to manage in many areas. Features: Co-published with the Quality Deer Management Association Compiles valuable information for white-tailed deer enthusiasts, managers, and biologists Written by an authoritative author team from diverse backgrounds Integrates white-tailed deer biology and management into a single volume Provides a thorough treatment of white-tailed deer antler biology Includes a CD-ROM with color images The backbone of many state wildlife management agencies' policies and a featured hunting species through much of their range, white-tailed deer are an important species ecologically, socially, and scientifically in most areas of North America. Highly adaptable and now living in close proximity to humans in many areas, white-tailed deer are both the face of nature and the source of conflict with motorists, home-owners, and agricultural producers. Capturing the diverse aspects of white-tailed deer research, Biology and Management of White-tailed Deer is a reflection of the resources invested in the study of the species' effects on ecosystems, predator-prey dynamics, population regulation, foraging behavior, and browser physiology.
A rare invitation into the mysterious lives of owls around the world, with spectacularly revealing photographs and fascinating details Perhaps no other creature has so compelling a gaze as the owl. Its unblinking stare mesmerizes; its nocturnal lifestyle suggests secrets and mystery. This lavishly illustrated book celebrates owls from every corner of the world and offers abundant details on fifty-three of the most striking and interesting species, from the tiny Elf Owl of southwestern American deserts to the formidable Blakiston's Fish Owl, the largest of all owls. Mike Unwin has long studied and admired these remarkable birds from cold northern forests to tropical rivers and beyond. He explains how owls evolved into the supreme feathered predators of the night, and he examines their breeding and hunting behaviors, unusual calls, and the cultural myths and superstitions that surround different species. More than two hundred dramatic color photographs in the wild, taken or selected by David Tipling, capture the wondrous beauty of each owl and the drama of life in its own home region.
This is a lightweight and portable guide, partly adapted from the popular and highly acclaimed A Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa by the same authors. Covering the most prominent 150 reptiles and 80 amphibians found in the region (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi), with concise text, photograph and map for each, this is a convenient and attractive pocket guide for a diverse and often conspicuous and attractive group of animals.
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