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'Peter Wohlleben doesn't merely look, he sees. Let's all learn as much from him as we can, and quickly.' Rosamund Young, author of THE SECRET LIFE OF COWS Did you know that trees can influence the rotation of the earth? Or that wolves can alter the course of a river? Or that earthworms control wild boar populations? The natural world is a web of intricate connections, many of which go unnoticed by humans. But it is these connections that maintain nature's finely balanced equilibrium. Drawing on the latest scientific discoveries and decades of experience as a forester and bestselling author, Peter Wohlleben shows us how different animals, plants, rivers, rocks and weather systems cooperate, and what's at stake when these delicate systems are unbalanced. The earth's ecosystems are too complex for us to compartmentalise and draw up simple rules of cause and effect; but The Secret Network of Nature gives us a chance to marvel at the inner workings and unlikely partnerships of the natural world, where every entity has its own distinct purpose. And the more light that is shed on relationships between species, the more fascinating nature's web becomes.
Primates communicate with each other using a wide range of signals: olfactory signals to mark territories, screams to recruit help while fighting, gestures to request food and facial expressions to initiate play. Primate Communication brings together research on all forms of interchange and discusses what we know about primate communication via vocal, gestural, facial, olfactory and integrated multimodal signals in relation to a number of central topics. It explores the morphological, neural and cognitive foundations of primate communication through discussion of cutting-edge research. By considering signals from multiple modalities and taking a unified multimodal approach, the authors offer a uniquely holistic overview of primate communication, discussing what we know, what we don't know and what we may currently misunderstand about communication across these different forms. It is essential reading for researchers interested in primate behaviour, communication and cognition, as well as students of primatology, psychology, anthropology and cognitive sciences.
This volume provides a primarily nontechnical summary of
experimental and theoretical work conducted over the course of 35
years which resulted in a developmental framework capable of
integrating causal influences at the genetic, neural, behavioral,
and ecological levels of analysis. It describes novel solutions to
the nature-nurture problem at both the empirical and theoretical
levels. Following field observations, laboratory experiments led to
the discovery of the nonobvious prenatal experiential basis of
instinctive behavior in two species--ground-nesting mallard
ducklings and hole-nesting wood ducklings. This work also describes
the experiences that lead to the rigid canalization of behavioral
development as well as the social and sensory experiences that
favor the continuance of flexibility. The author also describes in
detail a developmental psychobiological systems view that supports
a behaviorally and psychologically mediated pathway to evolutionary
change in humans and other species. Written in a way that is
readable to even the nonspecialist, the text is accompanied by
numerous photographs that illuminate and add personal meaning to
the written words. Readers will be engaged by the emphasis on the
human aspect of the scientific enterprise.
Emphasis is placed on the elaborate cuticular matrices in insects and crustaceans, spider and insect silks, sialomes of phytophagous and blood-feeding arthropods as well as on secretions of male and female accessory glands. Focus is placed largely on insects, due to the extensive body of published research that in part is the result of available whole genome sequences of several model species (in particular Drosophila melanogaster) and accessible ESTs for other species. Such advances have facilitated fundamental insights into genomic, proteomic and molecular biology-based physiology. This new volume contains comprehensive contributions on extracellular composite matrices in arthropods. The building blocks of such matrices are formed in and secreted by single layered epithelial cells into exterior domains where their final assembly takes place.Additionally, the unique mechanical properties of natural biocomposites like chitin/chitosan, the crustacean mineralized exoskeleton, the pliant protein resilin or insect and spider silks, have inspired basic and applied research that yield sophistical biomimetics and structural biocomposite hybrids important for future industrial and biomedical use. In summary, this book provides an invaluable vast source of basic and applied information for a plethora of scientists as well as textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students.
No novel better epitomizes the love between a child and a pet than The Yearling. Young Jody adopts an orphaned fawn he calls Flag and makes it a part of his family and his best friend. But life in the Florida backwoods is harsh, and so, as his family fights off wolves, bears, and even alligators, and faces failure in their tenuous subsistence farming, Jody must finally part with his dear animal friend. There has been a film and even a musical based on this moving story, a fine work of great American literature.
First Published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
All biological systems with vision move about their environments
and successfully perform many tasks. The same capabilities are
needed in the world of robots. To that end, recent results in
empirical fields that study insects and primates, as well as in
theoretical and applied disciplines that design robots, have
uncovered a number of the principles of navigation. To offer a
unifying approach to the situation, this book brings together ideas
from zoology, psychology, neurobiology, mathematics, geometry,
computer science, and engineering. It contains theoretical
developments that will be essential in future research on the topic
-- especially new representations of space with less complexity
than Euclidean representations possess. These representations allow
biological and artificial systems to compute from images in order
to successfully deal with their environments.
Nutrient management is an important aspect of feeding livestock and poultry. Today, there is more attention directed toward this issue in animal production than ever before. The heightened awareness of the environmental impacts associated with animal production has caused animal nutritionists to refocus their thoughts, practices, and expectations regarding how nutrients are supplied to animals. In addition, the increase in the size and intensity of modern production units demands new technologies for enhancing nutrient utilization and for reducing the amount of nutrients excreted. Covering these issues and more, Nutrient Management of Food Animals to Enhance and Protect the Environment is a reference tool for agricultural industry leaders, private practitioners, government agencies, and researchers.
By presenting background information on the selection and application of biochemical tests in safety assessment studies, this text seeks to provide a basis for improving the knowledge required to interpret data from toxicological studies. In addition to chapters which discuss the assessment of specific organ toxicity (such as the liver, kidney and thyroid), the book also covers pre-analytical variables, regulatory requirements and statistical approaches, and highlights some of the major differences between man and different laboratory animals. The editor and contributor are all members of the Animal Clinical Chemistry Association, a group formed to advance the science of animal clinical chemistry in safety evaluation, toxicology and veterinary science.
Hunting with falcons for houbara bustards was an integral part of traditional life in the desert. Over the last few decades, this magnificent bird - so well adapted to the desert environment - has become an endangered species, due both to continued hunting and to the degradation of its habitat by domestic livestock. This book highlights the achievements of the National Wildlife Research Center of Saudi Arabia in securing the survival of the species through captive breeding, with the aim of reintroducing the houbara to the wild. The breeding programme has proved to be the greatest source of information yet available on the bird, yielding important data not obtainable from wild houbaras. Propagation of the Houbara Bustard is a practical 'how-to' manual for breeding the bird in captivity. It also presents and summarises the background data on houbara diet, behaviour, physiology, reproductive biology and veterinary care that have enabled the breeding programme to succeed in the short span of eight years. It will be of interest not only to breeders of houbara and other bustard species, but to all those who are studying or managing wild populations.
Comparative Cardiovascular Dynamics of Mammals offers never-before-published data on the structure and function of the circulatory systems of the different mammalian species. This text explores classic allometry, dimensional analysis, and modern hemodynamics to establish similarity principles that provide a necessary and important step in understanding the natural common design and functional features of the cardiovascular systems of different mammals. Fluid and blood vessel mechanics, pulse transmission characteristics, cardiac energetics and mechanics, as well as heart-arterial system interaction are included in this essential reference. The sensitivity of parameters and similarity of principles in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases are also addressed. This book also describes the natural processes involved in the functional development of the mammalian cardiovascular system. By using modern methods to present recent findings on the similarities and differences of the mammalian cardiovascular system, the author provides an easily understood approach to this dynamic field of study.
This book provides a concise synthesis of how toxic chemical
pollutants affect physiological processes in teleost fish. This
Second Edition of the well-received Water Pollution and Fish
Physiology has been completely updated, and chapters have been
added on immunology and acid toxicity. The emphasis, as in the
first edition, is on understanding mechanisms of sublethal effects
on fish and their responses to these environmental stressors.
The first comprehensive field guide to the birds of Central America Birds of Central America is the first comprehensive field guide to the avifauna of the entire region, including Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Handy and compact, the book presents text and illustrations for nearly 1,200 resident and migrant species, and information on all rare vagrants. Two hundred sixty detailed plates on convenient facing-page spreads depict differing ages and sexes for each species, with a special focus on geographic variation. The guide also contains up-to-date range maps and concise notes on distribution, habitat, behavior, and voice. An introduction provides a brief overview of the region's landscape, climate, and biogeography. The culmination of more than a decade of research and field experience, Birds of Central America is an indispensable resource for all those interested in the bird life of this part of the world. Detailed information on the entire avifauna of Central America 260 beautiful color plates Range maps, text, and illustrations presented on convenient facing-page spreads Up-to-date notes on distribution supported by an extensive bibliography Special focus on geographic variation of bird species
Advance praise for "Flies"
Meticulously researched and illustrated with more than 2000 color photographs taken by the author, Flies is a landmark reference book that will be indispensable to any naturalist, biologist or entomologist. Most photographs in this encyclopedic reference were taken in the field and show the insects in their natural environment. All of the world's fly families are included, with photographic coverage spanning the range from common deer flies and fruit flies through to deadly tsetse flies and malaria mosquitoes, with thousands of spectacular species such as exotic stalk eyed flies, giant robber flies and hedgehog flies in between.
"Flies" is broken up into three parts: Life Histories, Habits and Habitats of Flies; Diversity; and Identifying and Studying Flies. The 20 pages of profusely illustrated keys linked to the unprecedented photographic coverage of the world's fly families and subfamilies enable the reader to identify most flies quickly and accurately, and to readily access information about each family as well as hundreds of distinctive genera and species.
Part 1: Life Histories, Habits and Habitats of Flies
Part 2: Diversity
Part 3: Identifying and Studying Flies
This textbook covers aspects of animal behaviour featured in both A-Level Psychology and Social Biology courses. It includes accounts and discussions of imprinting, maternal behaviour, courtship and territoriality, social organization, and animal communication. Throughout the book the principle of behavioural diversity is built upon to show the complexities of animal behaviour and its relationship with the social and physical environment. The issues and perspectives arising from evolutionary theory are explored, and the need to utilize multiple levels of analysis in the understanding of animal (and human) behaviour is emphasized.
Echinoderms are now considered as a biological and geological model that underlies researches of primary importance. The extent of the contributions made by the International Echinoderm Conferences to various fields of research is attested by the scope covered by presentation at the international conferences. These proceedings contain the complete papers or abstracts of all the presentations and posters presented at the eighth International Echinoderm Conference, held in Dijon, France in September, 1994. Coverage includes: general; extinct classes; crinoids; asteroids; ophiuroids; holothuroids; and echinoids.
This book presents an overview of the entire field of cadherin research and provides the current basic concept of cadherins. Cadherins have been widely accepted as key regulators of animal development and physiological functions, and it also has become clear that they play essential roles in various human diseases. With contributions by leading scientists, the book covers various aspects of the cadherin superfamily including the history of cadherin research, basic properties of classical cadherins as well as non-classical cadherins, cadherin-associated proteins, and the roles of cadherins in health and diseases. In addition, the book presents some contradictory results and important unanswered questions, and the authors propose their working hypotheses or future directions, to inspire future studies. This volume enables graduate students and young researchers to learn the basics and gain a comprehensive image of the cadherin superfamily, and experts in the field will easily find various topics of interest in relevant areas of study. Additionally, a list of cadherin-related diseases is included for quick reference to cadherins in human diseases.
Prepared as a tribute to Donald A. Riley, the essays that appear
here are representative of a research area that has loosely been
classified as animal cognition -- a categorization that reflects a
functionalist philosophy that was prevalent in Riley's laboratory
and that many of his students absorbed. According to this
philosophy, it is acceptable to hypothesize that an animal might
engage in complex processing of information, as long as one can
operationalize evidence for such a process and the hypothesis can
be presented in the context of testable predictions that can
differentiate it from other mechanisms. The contributions to this
volume represent the three most important areas of research in
animal cognition -- stimulus representation, memory processes, and
perceptual processes -- although current research has considerably
blurred these distinctions.
The papers in this volume take several forms, from strict chronologies to detailed historical analyses. Topics covered include: towards the history of pre-Linnean carcinology in Brazil; the beginning of Portugese carcinology; from Oviedo to Rathbun; the development of brachturan crab tascononry in the Neotropics (1535-1937); studies on decapod crustaceans of the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada; women's contributions to carcinology; reflections on crab research in North America since 1758; carcinology in classical Japanese work.
In this book, Krish Seetah uses butchery as a point of departure for exploring the changing historical relationships between animal utility, symbolism, and meat consumption. Seetah brings together several bodies of literature - on meat, cut marks, craftspeople, and the role of craft in production - that have heretofore been considered in isolation from one another. Focusing on the activity inherent in butcher, he describes the history of knowledge that typifies the craft. He also provides anthropological and archaeological case studies which showcase examples of butchery practices in varied contexts that are seldom identified with zooarchaeological research. Situating the relationship between practice, practitioner, material and commodity, this imaginative study offers new insights into food production, consumption, and the craft of cuisine.
Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology: Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Population Health provides tactics on how to develop a comprehensive methodology for the study of existing threats to marine mammals. By presenting a conservation-biology approach and new and emerging technologies, this work helps provide crucial knowledge on the status of marine mammal populations that not only helps readers understand the ecosystem's health, but also instigate mitigation measures. This volume provides information that helps investigators unravel the relationships between exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., climate change, pollutants, marine litter, pathogens and biotoxins) and a range of endpoints in marine mammal species. The application of robust examination procedures and biochemical, immunological, and molecular techniques, combined with pathological examination and feeding ecology, has led to the development of health assessment methods at the individual and population levels in wild marine mammals.
Large terrestrial mammalian herbivores play critical roles in ecosystems by acting as regulators of energy and nutrient cycles, modulators of plant community composition and grassland-woodland transitions, agents of seed dispersal, and as prey for large carnivores. Though large herbivores represent a prominent component of mammalian assemblages throughout South and Southeast Asia, little is known about their roles in ecosystems in the region. This volume presents, for the first time, a collection of studies on the ecology of the rich and diverse large herbivore assemblages of South and Southeast Asia. Prepared by experts on herbivores of the region, it covers a comprehensive range of topics, including their evolutionary history, behavioural, nutritional, and population ecology, patterns of diversity across environmental gradients, roles as seed dispersers and regulators of plant growth, community compositions, and their conservation in the face of hunting and global change.
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