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Insects and plants, whether or not they coevolved, have intimate interrelationships. This book concisely yet thoroughly describes these phenomena. In one chapter the salient facts known about carnivorous plants are described. In another, ant and plant relationships are summarized as an introduction to this vast subject. Pollination, of great interest to agriculturists and horticulturists, is briefly explained without the complexities detailed in the massive literature on this topic. Many other subjects are discussed, such as the memory of adult butterflies, which enables them to return to their host plants in the case of the polyphagous species. The book is seeded with such thought-provoking discussions as prostitution among the orchids and botanical indigestion in some plants.
The chromosome complement (karyotype) often differs between related mammalian species (including humans vs chimpanzees), such that evolutionary biologists muse whether chromosomal difference is a cause or a consequence of speciation. The common shrew is an excellent model to investigate this problem because of its many geographical races (potential species) differing chromosomally, and its several sibling species (recently speciated forms) that are also chromosomally different. This system is an exceptional opportunity to investigate the role of chromosomes in speciation and this volume reflects detailed research following these approaches. Highlights include the demonstration that chromosomal re-arrangements can be associated with complete loss of gene flow and thus speciation and that selection within species hybrid zones may lead to de-speciation rather than speciation. This book represents an extraordinarily detailed consideration of the role of chromosomes in speciation in one astonishing species, providing insights to those interested in mammalian diversity, chromosomal evolution and speciation.
Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is one of the most complex and urgent issues facing wildlife management and conservation today. Originally focused on the ecology and economics of wildlife damage, the study and mitigation of HWC has gradually expanded its scope to incorporate the human dimensions of the whole spectrum of human-wildlife relationships, from conflict to coexistence. Having the conflict-to-coexistence continuum as its leitmotiv, this book explores a variety of theories and methods currently used to address human-wildlife interactions, illustrated by case studies from around the world. It presents some key concepts in the field, such as values, emotions, social identity and tolerance, and a variety of insights and solutions to turn conflict into coexistence, from individual level to national scales, including conservation marketing, incremental and radical innovation, strategic planning, and socio-ecological systems. This volume will be of interest to a wide range of readers, including academics, researchers, students, practitioners and policy-makers.
Knowledge regarding avian cellular immunity has expanded rapidly within the last few years and new information continues to accumulate. It is now a well-established fact that cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in the defense against neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases in chickens. The principle objective of Avian Cellular Immunology is to compile the latest information available on various aspects of avian cellular immunity. The book contains chapters written by leading experts in the field and covers topics including cell surface markers, T-cell immunity, natural immune functions, the role of macrophages in cellular immune functions, cellular immune suppression and tolerance, cellular immune systems in avian species other than chickens, the role of cellular immunity in neoplastic and non-neoplastic viral diseases, cell-mediated immune mechanisms in bacterial and parasitic infections, and autoimmune disorders.
Fantastic book on the Norwegian killer whale distributed by NHBS.John Stenersen, leading nature photographer, and Tiu Simila, the leading authority in Norway on killer whales, document through stunning colour photography and informative text, killer whale distribution, lifespan, the latest research, and an excellent chapter on identification, be it visual, acoustic or through behavioural studies. Also covered are killer whale migrations, the study of killer whale families and, perhaps most importantly, conservation and the future for the killer whale.
Recent ideas and experimental studies suggest that the relationship between parasitism and host behaviour has been a powerful shaping force in the evolution not only of behaviour patterns themselves but, through them, of morphology and population and community dynamics. This book brings together recent work across the disciplines of parasitology and animal behaviour which is revealing the fundamental role of parasitism in the evolution of behaviour. The aim is to look broadly at the relationship between parasitism and behaviour from pathology and epidemiology to strategies of exploitation and counter exploitation. In doing so the book will traverse the phylogenetic scale from enteric protozoa and nematodes to colouration and courtship of birds and human cultural traditions.
Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology--such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity--with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.
Principles of Animal Behavior has long been considered the most current and engaging introduction to animal behavior. The Third Edition is now also the most comprehensive and balanced in its approach to the theoretical framework behind how biologists study behavior.
Animal Studies is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field devoted to examining, understanding, and critically evaluating the complex relationships between humans and other animals. Scholarship in Animal Studies draws on a variety of methodologies to explore these multi-faceted relationships in order to help us understand the ways in which other animals figure in our lives and we in theirs. Bringing together the work of a group of internationally distinguished scholars, the contribution in Critical Terms for Animal Studies offers distinct voices and diverse perspectives, exploring significant concepts and asking important questions. How do we take non-human animals seriously, not simply as metaphors for human endeavors, but as subjects themselves? What do we mean by anthropocentrism, captivity, empathy, sanctuary, and vulnerability, and what work do these and other critical terms do in Animal Studies? Sure to become an indispensable reference for the field, Critical Terms for Animal Studies not only provides a framework for thinking about animals as subjects of their own experiences, but also serves as a touchstone to help us think differently about our conceptions of what it means to be human, and the impact human activities have on the more than human world.
This title discusses egg formation, release, and development, variations in life history patterns, population, and fisheries aspects regarding crustaceans.
The contributors to this volume present research concerning the
cognitive structures and development of nonhuman primates from a
cognitive psychological perspective. The authors and researchers
come to this project from the study of humans and apply their
knowledge to research on nonhumans. For professional, researchers,
and students in cognitive, developmental, and experimental
'Insight' is not a very popular word in psychology or biology. Popular terms-like "intelligence", "planning", "complexity" or "cognitive"- have a habit of sprawling out to include everyone's favourite interpretation, and end up with such vague meanings that each new writer has to redefine them for use. Insight remains in everyday usage: as a down-to-earth, lay term for a deep, shrewd or discerning kind of understanding. Insight is a good thing to have, so it's important to find out how it evolved, and that's what this book is about. Coming 20 years after publication of Richard Byrne's seminal book The Thinking Ape, Evolving Insight develops a new theory of the evolutionary origins of human abilities to understand the world of objects and other people. Defining mental representation and computation as 'insight', it reviews the evidence for insight in the cognition of animals. The book proposes that the understanding of causality and intentionality evolved twice in human ancestry: the "pretty good" understanding given by behaviour parsing, shared with other apes and related to cerebellar expansion; and the deeper understanding which requires language to model and is unique to humans. However, Ape-type insight may underlie non-verbal tests of intentionality and causal understanding, and much everyday human action. Accessible to those with little background in the topic, Evolving Insight is an important new work for anyone with an interest in psychology and the biological sciences.
Key features: Serves as the first single-source reference with in-depth coverage of techniques appropriate for the laboratory and field study of sharks, skates, and rays Contains chapters on a broad range of methods such as Imaging Technologies, Satellite Tracking, Stationary Underwater Video, and Population Genetic Approaches and Genomics among others Presents technologies that can be used to study other aquatic fish and marine mammals and reptiles Includes chapter authors who were pioneers in developing some of the technologies discussed in the book Concludes with a unique section on Citizen Science and its Application to Studies of Shark Biology Over the last decade, the study of shark biology has benefited from the development, refinement, and rapid expansion of novel techniques and advances in technology. These have given new insight into the fields of shark genetics, feeding, foraging, bioenergetics, imaging, age and growth, movement, migration, habitat preference, and habitat use. This pioneering book, written by experts in shark biology, examines technologies such as autonomous vehicle tracking, underwater video approaches, molecular genetics techniques, and accelerometry, among many others. Each detailed chapter offers new insights and promises for future studies of elasmobranch biology, provides an overview of appropriate uses of each technique, and can be readily extended to other aquatic fish and marine mammals and reptiles.
Free, fearless, independent: These words describe the modern woman. Whether in work, play, or relationships, women today are strutting their stuff, proving wrong age-old myths about women's inferiority and frailty. In this irresistible, humorous book, photographs of female wild animals are matched with quotations about enpowerment, strength, relationships, self-fulfillment, nurturing, growth, and other female-inspired insights. This book will make women laugh, cry, smile, share with others, hug a friend, tease a mate, and feel all the other wonderful emotions that are uniquely and beautifully female.
From a modest beginning in the form of a little shrew-like, nocturnal, insect eating ancestor that lived 200 million years ago, mammals evolved into the huge variety of different kinds of animals we see today. Many species are still small, and follow the lifestyle of the ancestor, but others have adapted to become large grazers and browsers, like the antelopes, cattle, rhinos, and elephants, or the lions, hyaenas, and wolves that prey upon them. Yet others evolved to be specialist termite eaters able to dig into the hardest mounds, or tunnel creating burrowers, and a few took to the skies as gliders and the bats. Many live partly in the water, such as otters, beavers, and hippos, while whales and dugongs remain permanently in the seas, incapable of ever emerging onto land. In this Very Short Introduction T. S. Kemp explains how it is a tenfold increase in metabolic rate - endothermy or "warm-bloodedness" - that lies behind the high levels of activity, and the relatively huge brain associated with complex, adaptable behaviour that epitomizes mammals. He describes the remarkable fossil record, revealing how and when the mammals gained their characteristics, and the tortuous course of their subsequent evolution, during which many bizarre forms such as sabre-toothed cats, and 30-tonne, 6-m high browsers arose and disappeared. Describing the wonderful adaptations that mammals evolved to suit their varied modes of life, he also looks at those of the mainly arboreal primates that culminated ultimately in Homo sapiens. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Menagerie is the story of the panoply of exotic animals that were brought into Britain from time immemorial until the foundation of the London Zoo - a tale replete with the extravagant, the eccentric, and - on occasion - the downright bizarre. From Henry III's elephant at the Tower, to George IV's love affair with Britain's first giraffe and Lady Castlereagh's recalcitrant ostriches, Caroline Grigson's tour through the centuries amounts to an impressively detailed history of exotic animals in Britain. On the way we encounter a host of fascinating and outlandish creatures, including the first peacocks and popinjays, Thomas More's monkey, James I's cassowaries in St James's Park, and Lord Clive's zebra - which refused to mate with a donkey, until the donkey was painted with stripes. But this is not just the story of the animals themselves. It also the story of all those who came into contact with them: the people who owned them, the merchants who bought and sold them, the seamen who carried them to our shores, the naturalists who wrote about them, the artists who painted them, the itinerant showmen who worked with them, the collectors who collected them. And last but not least, it is about all those who simply came to see and wonder at them, from kings, queens, and nobles to ordinary men, women, and children, often impelled by no more than simple curiosity and a craving for novelty.
Ruppert/Barnes' best-selling introduction to the biology of invertebrates is highly regarded for its accuracy and strong research base. This thorough revision provides a survey by animal group, emphasizing evolutionary origins, adaptive morphology and physiology, while covering anatomical ground plans and basic developmental patterns. New co-author Richard Fox brings to the revision his expertise as an ecologist, offering a good balance to Ruppert's background as a functional morphologist. Lavish illustrations and extensive citations make the book extremely valuable as a teaching tool and reference source.
Through a global and interdisciplinary lens, this book discusses, analyzes and summarizes the novel conservation approach of rewilding. The volume introduces key rewilding definitions and initiatives, highlighting their similarities and differences. It reviews matches and mismatches between the current state of ecological knowledge and the stated aims of rewilding projects, and discusses the role of human action in rewilding initiatives. Collating current scholarship, the book also considers the merits and dangers of rewilding approaches, as well as the economic and socio-political realities of using rewilding as a conservation tool. Its interdisciplinary nature will appeal to a broad range of readers, from primary ecologists and conservation biologists to land managers, policy makers and conservation practitioners in NGOs and government departments. Written for a scientifically literate readership of academics, researchers, students, and managers, the book also acts as a key resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses.
Florida is home to a more diverse variety of amphibians and reptiles than any other state due to its wide array of ecosystems?from pine forests to the subtropical Everglades to the tropical Keys?and its large number of established nonnative species. This volume is a comprehensive account of the 219 species known to exist in the state. Chapters are organized into families and species of salamanders, frogs, turtles, crocodilians, lizards, and snakes, including both native and nonindigenous species. A final chapter addresses nonnative species not proven to be established in the state. Each species is presented with one or more color photographs, an up-to-date distribution map, and detailed information about its appearance, current taxonomy, geographic distribution and habitat, reproduction and development, diet, behavior, and conservation status. Many of the photographs highlight the differences between sexes, between juveniles and adults, and between larval stages. This volume also includes a thorough discussion of the environmental impacts that are threatening the herpetofauna of the state. As parts of Florida are experiencing degradation of natural habitats at record rates, particularly large urban areas such as the southeastern Atlantic Coast, species that cannot adapt will disappear. This volume will be a touchstone for future efforts to study and protect the extraordinary biodiversity of Florida's native amphibians and reptiles.
In "Animal Minds," Donald R. Griffin takes us on a guided tour of
the recent explosion of scientific research on animal mentality.
Are animals consciously aware of anything, or are they merely
living machines, incapable of conscious thoughts or emotional
feelings? How can we tell? Such questions have long fascinated
Griffin, who has been a pioneer at the forefront of research in
animal cognition for decades, and is recognized as one of the
leading behavioral ecologists of the twentieth century.
First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
This book introduces readers to intestinal and epidermal barriers, and to toxicity induction of environmental toxicants or stresses in the intestine, epidermis, neurons, muscle, and reproductive organs in Caenorhabditis elegans. In addition, it discusses the protective responses of various organs and nematodes' avoidance behaviour with regard to environmental toxicants or stresses. The intestinal, epidermal, neuronal, and germline signalling pathways required for the regulation of toxicity of environmental toxicants or stresses are also introduced and discussed. As a classic model animal with well-described genetic and developmental backgrounds, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been successfully and widely used in both toxicity assessments and toxicological studies on various environmental toxicants and stresses. Once exposure to certain environmental toxicants has occurred, the toxicants can enter into the primary targeted organs (such as intestinal cells), and even be translocated into secondary targeted organs (such as reproductive organs and neurons). Based on related available data, this book provides a systematic understanding of target organ toxicology in C. elegans.
This book comprehensively describes the transgenesis techniques and applied experimental methods in ascidians including enthusiastically developed original devices in addition to concrete examples of developmental biology studies. Ascidians have been one of the most important model animals in developmental biology for studying molecular and cellular processes underlying formation of the chordate body plan. Transgenic techniques such as microinjection, electropolation, cis-element analysis and application, and TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 have been developed in ascidians for more than 20 years, and now many applied methods, some of which are unique in ascidians, have been accumulated. Those extensive technological innovations, such as cell isolation, cell labeling, germ-line transformation, marker transgenic lines, and the experimental systems for studying notochord formation and nervous system, are exceptional particularly in marine invertebrates. This book is useful for ascidian researchers to quickly access the techniques in which they are interested as well as to compare each technology to become familiar with specialized tips, and for biologists of other organisms to learn the unique techniques and ingenious attempts specific to ascidians. Providing detailed and easily understandable descriptions of techniques, the book will inspire ascidian specialists to improve their techniques, encourage anyone wanting to begin studying ascidians, and enable readers to immediately apply the techniques to the organisms they research.
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