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Where We Stand Field workers-scientists of animal (including human!) behavior in nature-have long been fascinated by wild chimpanzees. A person who once has studied wild chimpanzees will be eager to observe them again. A person who has studied them twice will make every effort to continue the study, unless prevented from doing so. In short, behavioral primatology is addictive! Many people, among them Jane Goodall, Richard Wrangham, and I, do not regret that they have dedicated their whole lives to the study of wild chimpanzees. This is because the apes' behavior is always challenging: chimpanzees are cheerful, charming, playful, curious, beautiful, easygoing, generous, tolerant, and trustw- thy most of the time, but also are cautious, cunning, ugly, violent, ferocious, blo- thirsty, greedy, and disloyal at other times. We human beings share both the light and dark sides with our closest living relatives. For decades, we have documented huge across-population variation in behavior, as well as within-population variation. Cultural biology (now called cultural pri- tology), as proposed 60 years ago by Kinji Imanishi, recently has flourished.
The new Multilingual Illustrated Guide to the World's Commercail Warmwater Fish, the second in the series of Multilingual Illustrated Guides, follows a similar format to the first, and is, once more, published to the highest production standards achievable. Over 150 species are covered and all essential information is conveyed by means of tables and diagrams with descriptive text kept to a minimum. Each species entry gives the species name, the scientific name, and the family name. Common names are then listed in German, Japanese, Spanish, French, English, Italian, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Portugese, Russian swedish and Turksih. Local names are given in the language appropraite to each species. Average size (cm) and weight (kg) is also given. A superb full-colour illustration is followed by a brief description of the species with an overview of the development of its economic importance to the present day. Full nutritional data per 100g edible weight is also listed. Each individual guide consolidates a wealth of information which should be readily available for all who are internationally active in the commercial fishing and related industries
This volume explores the various facets of planaria as a biomedical model system and discusses techniques used to study the fascinating biology of these animals. The chapters in this book are divided into two parts: Part One looks at the biodiversity of planarian species, the molecular orchestration of regeneration, ecology of planarians in their natural habitats and their history as lab models. Part Two talks about experimental protocols for studying planarians, ranging from the establishment of a planarian research colony, to RNA and DNA extraction techniques, all the way to single stem cell transplantations or metabolomics analysis. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Planarian Regeneration: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for both newcomers to the field and experts within established planarian laboratories.
For the first time in limnofaunistic bibliography, the present taxonomic knowledge about the different clades of chelicerata having adapted to an aquatic or amphibious lifestyle along various evolutionary pathways is brought together in an overview for the Central-European fauna. A total number of 746 taxa is covered, over 99 % of these at species level. In Volume 7/2-1 altogether 211 species are treated - 70 species of spiders, 7 species of Astigmata (3 of which to be identified only at family, genus, resp. species group level), 17 species of Oribatida, 27 species and one subspecies of Halacaridae, 45 species of terrestrial Parasitengona (4 of which to be identified only at genus level) and 45 species of Hydrachnidia (4 Stygothrombioidea, 3 Hydrovolzioidea, 16 Hydrachnoidea and 22 Eylaoidea). Volume 7/2-2 deals with 179 species of Hydrachnidia (58 Hydryphantoidea and 121 Lebertioidea). This third volume (Volume 7/2-3) includes taxonomic keys and ecological information for 355 species of the two highly diverse Hydrachnidia superfamilies Hygrobatoidea (241 species and one subspecies) and Arrenuroidea (113 species). The chelicerata volumes of this series are a basic tool for all limnologists interested in diversity and ecology - in particular for biologists investigating the ecotones between ground and surface water, between bottom substrata and open water, and between water and land.
This comprehensive handbook, acclaimed when it was first published in 1976 as "one of the most useful reference manuals on diagnostic entomology yet produced," has now been completely revised and expanded to reflect recent advances in technology and the wealth of new information affecting the "Green Industry."Augmented by 241 full-color plates, it gives the essential facts about more than 900 species of insects, mites, and other animals that injure woody ornamental plants in the United States and Canada, and provides means of quick visual identification of both the pests and the damage they cause.
Wolves are some of the world's most charismatic and controversial animals, capturing the imaginations of their friends and foes alike. Highly intelligent and adaptable, they hunt and play together in close-knit packs, sometimes roaming over hundreds of square miles in search of food. Once teetering on the brink of extinction across much of the United States and Europe, wolves have made a tremendous comeback in recent years, thanks to legal protection, changing human attitudes, and efforts to reintroduce them to suitable habitats in North America. As wolf populations have rebounded, scientific studies of them have also flourished. But there hasn't been a systematic, comprehensive overview of wolf biology since 1970. In Wolves, many of the world's leading wolf experts provide state-of-the-art coverage of just about everything you could want to know about these fascinating creatures. Individual chapters cover wolf social ecology, behavior, communication, feeding habits and hunting techniques, population dynamics, physiology and pathology, molecular genetics, evolution and taxonomy, interactions with nonhuman animals such as bears and coyotes, reintroduction, interactions with humans, and conservation and recovery efforts. The book discusses both gray and red wolves in detail and includes information about wolves around the world, from the United States and Canada to Italy, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Israel, India, and Mongolia. Wolves is also extensively illustrated with black and white photos, line drawings, maps, and fifty color plates. Unrivalled in scope and comprehensiveness, Wolves will become the definitive resource on these extraordinary animals for scientists and amateurs alike. "An excellent compilation of current knowledge, with contributions from all the main players in wolf research. . . . It is designed for a wide readership, and certainly the language and style will appeal to both scientists and lucophiles alike. . . . This is an excellent summary of current knowledge and will remain the standard reference work for a long time to come."--Stephen Harris, New Scientist "This is the place to find almost any fact you want about wolves."--Stephen Mills, BBC Wildlife Magazine
Authoritative yet easy to use, Handbook of Mammals of the South-Central States will be a close companion of field biologists and a ready reference for the naturally curious. Containing a wealth of information about mammalian wildlife in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee, the book describes in detail ninety-five native mammals and eight introduced species that live in that region.
The south-central United States is both diverse and complex ecologically, including within its range coastal and inland swamps, mountain peaks, forests, grasslands, sand dunes, and rich agricultural lands. In the books' introduction, the authors describe those environments--their physiography, drainage patterns, climates, soils and vegetation--and explain how they determine which species can exist there. They also discuss other facts--such as geographical history, competition between species, and the effects of man--that determine which species actually do occur in a particular area.
The authors furnish a checklist of the 103 mammals, arranged in phylogenetic sequence, with keys to identifying the orders, families, and species. An up-to-date account of each species follows, supplying details about the animal's distribution throughout the seven states; its physical description, including seize, color pattern, and features distinguishing it from related species; and its natural history, including preferred habitat, diet, activity patterns, resting or nesting sites, reproduction, and population densities. A photograph, distribution map, and list of selected references complete each account.
Handbook of Mammals of the South-Central States is the first comprehensive guide to focus on this region's mammalian fauna. Students will appreciate its accessible format, glossary of terms, index to scientific and vernacular names of the mammals, and selected bibliography. Amateurs and professional naturalists alike will rely on it to identify mammals in the field, laboratory, and classroom.
Australia is home to a spectacular diversity of birdlife, from parrots and penguins to emus and vibrant passerines. "Birds of Australia" covers all 714 species of resident birds and regularly occurring migrants and features more than 1,100 stunning color photographs, including many photos of subspecies and plumage variations never before seen in a field guide. Detailed facing-page species accounts describe key identification features such as size, plumage, distribution, behavior, and voice. This one-of-a-kind guide also provides extensive habitat descriptions with a large number of accompanying photos. The text relies on the very latest IOC taxonomy and the distribution maps incorporate the most current mapping data, making this the most up-to-date guide to Australian birds.Covers all 714 species of resident birds and regularly occurring migrantsFeatures more than 1,100 stunning color photosIncludes facing-page species accounts, habitat descriptions, and distribution mapsThe ideal photographic guide for beginners and seasoned birders alike
Costa Rica is a remarkable place for amphibians and reptiles. Known for its biological diversity, conservation priorities, and extensive protected lands, this small country contains 418 herpetological species including the dangerous Fer-de-Lance and Black-headed Bushmaster, the beloved sea turtles, and numerous dink, foam, glass, and rain frogs. Additional species are thought to be nearing extinction while others have been introduced only recently.
Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica is the perfect introductory guide to this diverse herpetofauna in a format that makes it easy to carry into the field. The focus is on identification with entries for all species in the country, including scientific and English common names, as well as the older names for the many species that have been recently reclassified. Key ID marks are noted as well as adult sizes. Range maps identify the region(s) where species are known to be present. Color photographs and drawings are provided for over 80 percent of the species, representing those that are most likely to be encountered. Designed with ease of use in mind, this guide will be a great aid to the observer in identifying the specimen at hand.
Wolves excitedly greet each other as members of the pack come together; a bumble bee uses its long tongue to reach the nectar at the base of a foxglove flower; a mongoose swiftly and deftly bites its prey to death; young cheetahs rest quietly together, very close to sleep. Now in full colour, this revised and updated edition of Manning and Dawkins' classic text provides a beautifully written introduction to the fundamentals of animal behaviour. Tinbergen's four questions of causation, evolution, development and function form the fundamental framework of the text, illustrated with fascinating examples of complex behavioural mechanisms. The authors provide accounts of all levels of behaviour from the nerve cell to that of the population. The strengths of An Introduction to Animal Behaviour as a textbook include its clear explanations and concise, readable text and the enthusiasm of the authors for their subject.
Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes is the first integrated review of the reproductive biology of the bony fishes, which are the most species-rich and diversified group of vertebrates. Teleosts display remarkable variation in their modes of reproduction, and this volume is intended to provide a framework for understanding the remarkable reproductive diversity of this group. It describes their reproductive biology using, wherever possible, phylogenetic analyses and life-history theory as a means to interpret the information. The book addresses the genetic, physiological, behavioural, ecological, evolutionary and applied aspects of teleost reproduction in a comparative framework that emphasises the adaptive basis of reproductive diversity. Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes provides a comprehensive synthesis of fish reproduction that will be of great interest to life scientists, particularly ecologists, evolutionary biologists, physiologists and advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and research workers requiring a comprehensive overview of fish reproduction. The book is suitable for courses in fish biology and ecology, reproductive physiology and reproductive genetics. It also addresses applied questions and will be of value for courses on fisheries science and aquaculture. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, fisheries science and aquaculture are studied and taught should have several copies of this important book on their shelves.
Numbering 92 species worldwide, members of the order Lagomorpha are familiar to people throughout the world, and yet their remarkable diversity and ecological importance are often underappreciated. In this book, Andrew T. Smith and his colleagues bring together the world's lagomorph experts to produce the most comprehensive reference on the order ever published, featuring detailed species accounts, stunning color photos, and up-to-date range maps. Contributors highlight the key ecological roles that lagomorphs play and explain in depth how scientists around the globe are working to save vulnerable populations. Thematic introductory chapters cover a broad spectrum of information about pikas, rabbits, and hares, from evolution and systematics to diseases and conservation. Each animal account begins with the complete scientific and common names for the species, followed by a detailed description of appearance and unique morphological characteristics, including a range of standard measurements of adult specimens. Subsequent sections discuss known paleontological data concerning the species, the current state of its taxonomy, and geographic variation. Each account also includes dedicated sectioins on habitat and diet, reproduction and development, ecology, behavior, and management. The definitive work on lagomorphs, this book is an invaluable reference for naturalists, professional biologists, and students. It will also be beneficial for those conducting biodiversity surveys and conservation throughout the world.
This book asserts that the albatross was the reason for the advance of the Japanese into the isolated islands in the Pacific after the abolition of the Japanese "closed-door" policy that had been in effect from the seventeenth century to the latter part of the nineteenth century. The birds' plumage was of high quality and sold at quite a good price in Europe. The Japanese realized the advantage of this global trade, and their desire to capture albatross motivated them to advance into the Pacific. The exploration of the uninhabited islands had become a fast-moving trend, defined by the author as the "Bird Rush". As a consequence, the advance into the Pacific by the Japanese resulted in the expansion of Japanese territory. The author has interpreted this Japanese movement into the Pacific by making use of the framework of three distinct shifts: in the aim of their actions from birds to guano / phosphate ore, in the agents of action from individual speculators to commercial capital and then to monopolistic capital, and from the sea near Japan to the wider Pacific. This concept can be termed "a view of history centered on the albatross".
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