The growth and development is a continuous process of every dynamic
society. The population grows, the standard of living increases and
so rises the expectations. The rural masses often tend to be
influenced by the economic 'demonstration effect' and shift to
urban areas while the lower middle class or the middle class
expands usually on the outer peripheral of the city /town areas.
This is a continuous process leading to creation /expansion of
newer urban areas. This expansion should be ideally planned,
equipped with basic civic/economic amenities namely drainage,
sewage, road, market and parks etc. The planned and unplanned areas
have different effects on the Cost-Benefit model. The positive
effects of planning an area are manifold while leaving an area
unplanned or not investing in an area has enormous negative
impacts. Interestingly, findings for Indian cities can be
replicable in other South Asian Nations namely Pakistan and
Bangladesh (due to geographic, demographic and sociological
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