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substances under universal pressure. The apparatus is reinforced by
a jacket pressed on as in gun construction. Table 2. Pressure-tests
of Lead Bodies. Before and after each teat, specific gravities Sp.
Gr., and Sp. Gr., were determined. The bodies were tested when
unconstrained between plane surfaces and when completely enclosed
(Pip. 2. Shape of Test-piece.FinalSpecific Gravity. beX ua siM !l
is S r 5 a t""metric W Section.I-.S1 .-s14 fiH(J Kag"."o S Vj(/)
tf- u"e V 3w fl 3g .E o."1 U a.BodiescrushecwithoutCQ 0i Circle18
restraint. o 84 5178T73 36 0.69 18i. 0881.287! 43 6800.851.1347
1.1360O.OO13.5263 o-9Si. :::::::it iS / Bodies universally
constrained i Circle181.096 1.096i .391! 60 440 i . . - 1 28
4400.06 0.03i . 1048 '1343 I. 1052i . 1040 1.1358 1.1059? O.OOOfi
O.OOI5.5169 .5276 5158 I.Oo and 4. Circle. 5 and 6. " ..81.096 i .
1287 I . 1031o.oi; 0.9518 o.ooo;27. Bodies containing pores (voids)
behave differently from those having a density = i. These can be
compressed by universal, and also sometimes by uni-direc- tional
pressure, the compression being perhaps temporary when the material
is of itself of an elastic nature, or permanent when but slightly
elastic, or so resistant that the pressure of the occluded gaseous
materials cannot rehabilitate the original shape, or when they
might have escaped during test. Such porous elastic bodies can then
be used as springs or buffers when they are completely encased. The
material of which they are composed is in that case, however, not
materially the cause of the developed elasticity. The essential
part is the gaseous component. The effect of the occluded air or
gases on the material containing them is not exhausted by the
phenomena of change of density under pressure. I...
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