FLUID AND PARTICLE MECHANICS by C. E. Lapple With the assistance of
G. E. Alves, O. P. Bergelin, D. F. Boucher, H. L. Bunker, M. G.
Kershaw, M. S. Maleson and R. D. Morse Based on a Graduate Chemical
Engineering Course given at the University of Delaware Published by
University of Delaware Newark, Delaware March, 1951 PREFACE It is
the aim of this publication to provide industrial aryd academic
organizations with a readily usable critical review of recent
developments in the field of Fluid and Particle Jfechanics as they
pertain to applications in the chemical industry. Progress during
the past ten years has been extreme ly rapid. This is evidenced by
the greatly accelerated pace of publication and by the pioneering
of phases which heretofore had received but scant attention.
Progress has indeed been so rapid that the practicing engineer has
not had the time to usefully assimilate the results of the
developments, because of. their diversity and scatter in the
literature. In order to provide students and engineers in the
Wilmington-Philadelphia area with a co-ordinated review of these
developments and to stimulate their application in practice, the
University of Delaware sponsored an extension course in Fluid
Mechanics in the spring of 1948. The lectures were prepared and
given by specialists from local industry, who were chosen for their
experience and intimate famil iarity with specific aspects of fluid
and particle mr-chanics in the chemical industry. The course dealt
with special topics, which are of great or growing importance in
the chemical industry and which are not adequately covered
elsewhere. Although fundamental and theoretical background
information was presented, this wasdone only to the extent deemed
necessary for a thorough understanding of the methods and
limitations of application. Insofar as possible, the emphasis was
on the presentation of a clear, concise, and critical review of
available knowledge that could be utilized directly in industrial
applications. Because of the vastness of the field and the limited
time available, the entire field could not receive coverage. The
topics included were determined by their relative industrial
importance, as well as by the availability of qualified lecturers.
In order to provide those taking the course with a permanent record
for reference, detailed mimeographed notes were prepared and
distributed by each lecturer. These were prepared as a
comprehensive but concise summary of available information, with
sufficient selected reference material to permit an individual to
conduct an extensive study of a given topic should the need arise.
Because of the excellent reception of the course and the large
number of requests for additional copies of the lecture notes, the
University of Delaware has issued this Bulletin in order to make
the information presented in the lectures more generally available.
While the material represents a review of published material to a
great extent, the co-ordination and interpretation of the results
is in many cases novel, reflecting intuitive insight that comes
with many years of specialized background and ex perience and with
knowledge of unpublished information. It is our sincere hope that
this publication will serve its immediate function as an aid to
industry in summarizing recent developments in a usable form and
that it will act as a guide and stimulus for further work
inacademic and industrial research organizations. It is also our
hope that this publica tion will find extensive use in graduate
courses as a means for bridging the proverbial academic industrial
gap and thereby further one of the ends of professional education.
To facilitate its classroom function in this respect, problems
typical of those encountered in practice have been addended to each
chapter. Wilmington, Delaware C. E. Lapple June, 1950 iii TABLE OF
CONTENTS Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5.
Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Chapter 9...
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