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CHAPTER III URINALYSIS. TESTS OF RENAL FUNCTION URINALYSIS In
nine-tenths of all genito-urinary cases the condition of the urine
gives to the careful observer information of great value. In
obtaining a specimen for the ordinary examination it is enough in
the male simply to have the foreskin retracted, so that the urine
is not contaminated by subpreputial detritus. In the female,
however, a catheter specimen must be obtained; unless this is done,
one cannot be sure that the abnormal cells which may be found are
not from the vagina. I do not remember having seen bladder
infection result from this procedure. One should always observe the
precaution of filling the bladder with an antiseptic after
catheterization. The general characteristics of the urine, which
should be examined soon after it is passed, must be noted. These
are: Odor ammoniacal or not? Color pale or concentrated; bloody or
smoky? Opacity clear and sparkling; hazy; turbid? Contents shreds;
clots; bits of tissue? Reaction to litmus paper? Specific gravity?
Presence of albumin; sugar? Sediment (microscopic examination)?
Albumin. If the urine when passed is hazy, a few drops of acetic
acid may be added to a small portion. If the opacity disappears, it
is due to phosphates. The urine thus cleared is tested for albumin
by nearly filling a test-tube with it, and boiling for a few
seconds the urine near the top of the tube. By holding the tube
against a dark background even a very slight cloud can be detected.
If this cloud does not clear upon the addition of a few drops of
acetic acid it is due to albumin. If a heavy cloud is present, or
if the urine is cloudy with some substance other than phosphates,
the amount of albumin present may be estimated by the nitric acid
test (i0 c.c. urine f...
General Books LLC
|Country of origin:
George Gilbert Smith
||246 x 189 x 4mm (L x W x T)
||Paperback - Trade
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