High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles The Treaty of Berwick
(also known as the Peace of Berwick or the Pacification of Berwick)
was signed on 18 June 1639 between England and Scotland. Archibald
Johnston was involved in the negotiations before King Charles was
forced to sign the treaty. The agreement, overall, officially ended
the First Bishops' War even though both sides saw it only as a
temporary truce. After the treaty was signed, King Charles
immediately began to gather the resources he needed in order to
strengthen his armies. At the beginning of the Second Bishops' War,
the agreement was broken. After a disastrous skirmish at Kelso
between the English advance guard and the Scottish Covenanter Army,
the Earl of Holland fled back to the king's headquarters at
Berwick-upon-Tweed. The Earl of Antrim failed to establish
negotiations in order to bring the Irish army over. This, along
with the unsuccessful English naval campaign at Hamilton, meant
that Charles was forced to sign a truce. He conceded to the Scots
the right to a free church assembly and a free parliament.
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