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Pages: 35. Chapters: Oswald Avery, Barbara McClintock, Hans Adolf
Krebs, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Karl
Friedrich Meyer, Michael Heidelberger, George Wald, Selman Waksman,
Carl Ferdinand Cori, Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr., Alfred Hershey,
Rene Dubos, George Wells Beadle, Thomas Francis, Jr., Francis
Peyton Rous, John Franklin Enders, Susumu Tonegawa, Bernard Brodie,
Vincent du Vigneaud, Karl Paul Link, Andre Frederic Cournand, Ralph
M. Steinman, Jack L. Strominger, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, Theodore
Puck, Yoshio Masui, Homer Smith, Clay Armstrong, Edwin B. Astwood.
Excerpt: Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, (3 September 1899 - 31 August
1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian
virologist best known for his contributions to immunology. Burnet
received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of
Melbourne in 1924, and his PhD from the University of London in
1928. He went on to conduct pioneering research on bacteriophages
and viruses at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Melbourne, and
served as director of the Institute from 1944 to 1965, having been
groomed for a leadership role by his predecessor Charles Kellaway.
His virology research resulted in significant discoveries
concerning the nature and replication of viruses and their
interaction with the immune system, although his attempt to create
a live influenza vaccine during World War II was not successful.
From the mid-1950s, he worked extensively in immunology and was a
major contributor to the theory of clonal selection, which explains
how lymphocytes target antigens for destruction. Burnet and Peter
Medawar were co-recipients of the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine for demonstrating acquired immune tolerance. This research
provided the experimental basis for inducing immune tolerance, the
platform for developing ubiquito...
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