A detailed guide to the biological monitoring of occupational
exposures to selected metals, solvents, pesticides, and other
chemicals. Addressed to occupational health professionals and the
managers of analytical laboratories, the book aims to promote the
use of biological monitoring as an integral part of efforts to
safeguard occupational health and safety. To this end, chapters
draw on the latest scientific knowledge to identify recommended
biomarkers of exposure and provide technical advice on the best
methods of sampling and analysis. Recommended principles and
methods reflect the consensus reached by a large number of experts.
The book opens with a discussion of basic principles governing the
use of biological monitoring to obtain reliable data on exposure
levels and the related risks to health. Topics covered include the
concept of internal dose, three main approaches to monitoring, the
types of data required, and the unique value of biological
monitoring when used in conjunction with ambient monitoring. Advice
on methodological procedures is provided for the implementation of
sampling, analytical methods, and the interpretation of results.
The importance of quality assurance is addressed in the second
chapter, which gives particular attention to common sources of
error in the selection, collection, storage, and transport of
specimens, during the analysis of samples, and in the recording,
reporting, and interpretation of results. Sources of certified
reference materials for use in analytical laboratories are
presented in a table. Against this background, the main part of the
book provides guidelines for the biological monitoring of exposure
to four metals, eight solvents, the organophosphorus pesticides,
and carbon monoxide and fluorides. Individual chemicals were
selected on the basis of criteria pertaining to their frequency of
use, toxicity, routes of absorption, knowledge about human
metabolism, relationship between exposure and established
biomarkers, and the existence of Occupational Biological Reference
Values. Guidelines for each chemical follow a common framework. The
chemical is first introduced in terms of its physical and chemical
properties, possible occupational and non-occupational exposures,
data on toxicokinetics and toxic effects, and a comparison of
currently available biological indicators of exposure. Recommended
biomarkers are then discussed in terms of suggested methods of
sampling and analysis, and guidelines for the interpretation of
test results. The book concludes with a tabular presentation of
monitoring methods and biological limit values, as proposed by
three different agencies, for some 60 commonly used industrial
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