This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text.
Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book
(without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not
illustrated.1832 Excerpt: ... Cicero recommends diligence and
parsimony, and refers to the "Economics"of Xenophon, a work, which,
he informs us, he himself had translated into Latin. But though he
speaks of wealth in his "Offices," and classes it among those
things, which are to be understood as conducing to utility, he
regards a knowledge of the functions of capital as the appropriate
business of the practical money dealer, whom he terms, somewhat
ironically, optimus vir. If we examine other Latin moralists, we
find advice, which, like the doctrines of the Cynics, would
perpetuate poverty and barbarism. " If you would become rich," says
Seneca, " do not increase your possessions, but diminish your
desires." If our science was not cultivated among the Greeks and
Romans, we are not to look for any treatises of Political Economy
in the middle ages. The object then seems not to have been to make
advances in knowledge, but rather to forget all that centuries had
effected, and to yield up the world a prey to superstition and the
sword. The feudal system, which generally prevailed, at the dawn of
modern civilization, was peculiarly adapted to a course of
restrictive regulations. Not only were there almost incessant wars
between neighboring kingdoms, but the contests among lords, . owing
a nominal allegiance to the same sovereign, were of a scarcely less
sanguinary character. If we consider the relations, which have
generally subsisted between England and France, from the very
establishment of those monarchies, we may form some idea of the
state of Europe, when almost every two contiguous baronies belonged
to rival chieftains. The oppression of the barons, and the desire
of the kings to create a power in the state, which might be a
counterpoise to that of the nobles, gave rise to walled towns, ...
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