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Once Can Be Enough - Decisive Experiments, No Replication Required (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2021): Allan Franklin, Ronald Laymon Once Can Be Enough - Decisive Experiments, No Replication Required (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2021)
Allan Franklin, Ronald Laymon
R2,329 Discovery Miles 23 290 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

There has recently been considerable discussion of a "replication crisis" in some areas of science. In this book, the authors argue that replication is not a necessary criterion for the validation of a scientific experiment. Five episodes from physics and genetics are used to substantiate this thesis: the Meselson-Stahl experiment on DNA replication, the discoveries of the positron and the omega minus hyperon, Mendel's plant experiments, and the discovery of parity nonconservation. Two cases in which once wasn't enough are also discussed, the nondiscovery of parity nonconservation and the search for magnetic monopoles. Reasons why once wasn't enough are also discussed.

Measuring Nothing, Repeatedly - Null Experiments in Physics (Hardcover): Allan Franklin, Ronald Laymon Measuring Nothing, Repeatedly - Null Experiments in Physics (Hardcover)
Allan Franklin, Ronald Laymon
R1,947 Discovery Miles 19 470 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

There have been many recent discussions of the 'replication crisis' in psychology and other social sciences.This has been attributed, in part, to the fact that researchers hesitate to submit null results and journals fail to publish such results. In this book Allan Franklin and Ronald Laymon analyze what constitutes a null result and present evidence, covering a 400-year history, that null results play significant roles in physics.

Measuring Nothing, Repeatedly - Null Experiments in Physics (Paperback): Allan Franklin, Ronald Laymon Measuring Nothing, Repeatedly - Null Experiments in Physics (Paperback)
Allan Franklin, Ronald Laymon
R1,537 Discovery Miles 15 370 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

There have been many recent discussions of the 'replication crisis' in psychology and other social sciences.This has been attributed, in part, to the fact that researchers hesitate to submit null results and journals fail to publish such results. In this book Allan Franklin and Ronald Laymon analyze what constitutes a null result and present evidence, covering a 400-year history, that null results play significant roles in physics.

Is It the 'Same' Result - Replication in Physics (Paperback): Allan Franklin Is It the 'Same' Result - Replication in Physics (Paperback)
Allan Franklin
R1,427 Discovery Miles 14 270 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Replication, the independent confirmation of experimental results and conclusions, is regarded as the ""gold standard"" in science. This book examines the question of successful or failed replications and demonstrates that that question is not always easy to answer. It presents clear examples of successful replications, the discoveries of the Higgs boson and of gravity waves. Failed replications include early experiments on the Fifth Force, a proposed modification of Newton's Law of universal gravitation, and the measurements of ""G,"" the constant in that law. Other case studies illustrate some of the difficulties and complexities in deciding whether a replication is successful or failed. It also discusses how that question has been answered. These studies include the ""discovery"" of the pentaquark in the early 2000s and the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay. It argues that although successful replication is the goal of scientific experimentation, it is not always easily achieved.

Is It the 'Same' Result - Replication in Physics (Hardcover): Allan Franklin Is It the 'Same' Result - Replication in Physics (Hardcover)
Allan Franklin
R1,837 Discovery Miles 18 370 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Replication, the independent confirmation of experimental results and conclusions, is regarded as the ""gold standard"" in science. This book examines the question of successful or failed replications and demonstrates that that question is not always easy to answer. It presents clear examples of successful replications, the discoveries of the Higgs boson and of gravity waves. Failed replications include early experiments on the Fifth Force, a proposed modification of Newton's Law of universal gravitation, and the measurements of ""G,"" the constant in that law. Other case studies illustrate some of the difficulties and complexities in deciding whether a replication is successful or failed. It also discusses how that question has been answered. These studies include the ""discovery"" of the pentaquark in the early 2000s and the continuing search for neutrinoless double beta decay. It argues that although successful replication is the goal of scientific experimentation, it is not always easily achieved.

The Rise and Fall of the Fifth Force - Discovery, Pursuit, and Justification in Modern Physics (Hardcover, 2nd ed. 2016): Allan... The Rise and Fall of the Fifth Force - Discovery, Pursuit, and Justification in Modern Physics (Hardcover, 2nd ed. 2016)
Allan Franklin, Ephraim Fischbach
R3,158 Discovery Miles 31 580 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This book provides the reader with a detailed and captivating account of the story where, for the first time, physicists ventured into proposing a new force of nature beyond the four known ones - the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces, and gravitation - based entirely on the reanalysis of existing experimental data. Back in 1986, Ephraim Fischbach, Sam Aronson, Carrick Talmadge and their collaborators proposed a modification of Newton's Law of universal gravitation. Underlying this proposal were three tantalizing pieces of evidence: 1) an energy dependence of the CP (particle-antiparticle and reflection symmetry) parameters, 2) differences between the measurements of G, the universal gravitational constant, in laboratories and in mineshafts, and 3) a reanalysis of the Eoetvos experiment, which had previously been used to show that the gravitational mass of an object and its inertia mass were equal to approximately one part in a billion. The reanalysis revealed that, contrary to Galileo's position, the force of gravity was in fact very slightly different for different substances. The resulting Fifth Force hypothesis included this composition dependence and also added a small distance dependence to the inverse-square gravitational force. Over the next four years numerous experiments were performed to test the hypothesis. By 1990 there was overwhelming evidence that the Fifth Force, as initially proposed, did not exist. This book discusses how the Fifth Force hypothesis came to be proposed and how it went on to become a showcase of discovery, pursuit and justification in modern physics, prior to its demise. In this new and significantly expanded edition, the material from the first edition is complemented by two essays, one containing Fischbach's personal reminiscences of the proposal, and a second on the ongoing history and impact of the Fifth Force hypothesis from 1990 to the present.

Experiment, Right or Wrong (Paperback): Allan Franklin Experiment, Right or Wrong (Paperback)
Allan Franklin
R910 Discovery Miles 9 100 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the social constructivists.

No Easy Answers - Science and the Pursuit of Knowledge (Paperback, New edition): Allan Franklin No Easy Answers - Science and the Pursuit of Knowledge (Paperback, New edition)
Allan Franklin
R977 R626 Discovery Miles 6 260 Save R351 (36%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

In No Easy Answers, Allan Franklin offers an accurate picture of science to both a general reader and to scholars in the humanities and social sciences who may not have any background in physics. Through the examination of nontechnical case studies, he illustrates the various roles that experiment plays in science. He uses examples of unquestioned success, such as the discoveries of the electron and of three types of neutrino, as well as studies that were dead ends, wrong turns, or just plain mistakes, such as the \u201cfifth force,\u201d a proposed modification of Newton's law of gravity. Franklin argues that science is a reasonable enterprise that provides us with knowledge of the natural world based on valid experimental evidence and reasoned and critical discussion, and he makes clear that it behooves all of us to understand how it works.

Experiment, Right or Wrong (Hardcover, New): Allan Franklin Experiment, Right or Wrong (Hardcover, New)
Allan Franklin
R1,849 Discovery Miles 18 490 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the social constructivists.

The Neglect of Experiment (Paperback, Revised): Allan Franklin The Neglect of Experiment (Paperback, Revised)
Allan Franklin
R1,321 Discovery Miles 13 210 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

What role have experiments played, and should they play, in physics? How does one come to believe rationally in experimental results? The Neglect of Experiment attempts to provide answers to both of these questions. Professor Franklin's approach combines the detailed study of four episodes in the history of twentieth century physics with an examination of some of the philosophical issues involved. The episodes are the discovery of parity nonconservation ( or the violation of mirror symmetry) in the 1950s; the nondiscovery of parity nonconservation in the 1930s, when the results of experiments indicated, at least in retrospect, the symmetry violation, but the significance of those results was not realized; the discovery and acceptance of CP ( combined parity-charge conjugations, paricle-antiparticle) symmetry; and Millikan's oil-drop experiment. Franklin examines the various roles that experiment plays, including its role in deciding between competing theories, confirming theories, and calling fo new theories. The author argues that one can provide a philosophical justification for these roles. He contends that if experiment plays such important roles, then one must have good reason to believe in experimental results. He then deals with deveral problems concerning such reslults, including the epistemology of experiment, how one comes to believe rationally in experimental results, the question of the influence of theoretical presuppositions on results, and the problem of scientific fruad. This original and important contribution to the study of the philosophy of experimental science is an outgrowth of many years of research. Franklin brings to this work more than a decade of experience as an experimental high-energy physicist, along with his significant contributions to the history and philosophy of science.

Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy (Paperback): Allan Franklin, A.W.F. Edwards, Daniel J Fairbanks, Daniel L. Hartl, Teddy... Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy (Paperback)
Allan Franklin, A.W.F. Edwards, Daniel J Fairbanks, Daniel L. Hartl, Teddy Seidenfeld
R878 Discovery Miles 8 780 Out of stock

In 1865, Gregor Mendel presented ""Experiments in Plant-Hybridization,"" the results of his eight-year study of the principles of inheritance through experimentation with pea plants. Overlooked in its day, Mendel's work would later become the foundation of modern genetics. Did his pioneering research follow the rigors of real scientific inquiry, or was Mendel's data too good to be true - the product of doctored statistics?In ""Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy"", leading experts present their conclusions on the legendary controversy surrounding the challenge to Mendel's findings by British statistician and biologist R. A. Fisher. In his 1936 paper, ""Has Mendel's Work Been Rediscovered?"" Fisher suggested that Mendel's data could have been falsified in order to support his expectations. Fisher attributed the falsification to an unknown assistant of Mendel's. At the time, Fisher's criticism did not receive wide attention. Yet beginning in 1964, about the time of the centenary of Mendel's paper, scholars began to publicly discuss whether Fisher had successfully proven that Mendel's data was falsified. Since that time, numerous articles, letters, and comments have been published on the controversy.This self-contained volume includes everything the reader will need to know about the subject: an overview of the controversy; the original papers of Mendel and Fisher; four of the most important papers on the debate; and, new updates, by the authors, of the latter four papers. Taken together, the authors contend, these voices argue for an end to the controversy - making this book the definitive last word on the subject.

Feedback Loops - Pragmatism about Science and Technology (Hardcover): Andrew Wells Garnar, Ashley Shew Feedback Loops - Pragmatism about Science and Technology (Hardcover)
Andrew Wells Garnar, Ashley Shew; Contributions by Anne C. Fitzpatrick, Ronald Laymon, Nicholas Rescher, …
R1,929 R1,827 Discovery Miles 18 270 Save R102 (5%) Out of stock

In a world of information technologies, genetic engineering, controversies about established science, and the mysteries of quantum physics, it is at once seemingly impossible and absolutely vital to find ways to make sense of how science, technology, and society connect. In Feedback Loops: Pragmatism about Science & Technology, editors Andrew Wells Garnar and Ashley Shew bring together original writing from philosophers and science and technology studies scholars to provide novel ways of rethinking the relationships between science, technology, education, and society. Through critiquing and exploring the work of philosopher of science and technology Joseph C. Pitt, the authors featured in this volume explore the complexities of contemporary technoscience, writing on topics ranging from super-computing to pedagogy, engineering to biotechnology patents, and scientific instruments to disability studies. Taken together, these chapters develop an argument about the necessity of using pragmatism to foster a more productive relationship between science, technology and society.

The Rise and Fall of the Fifth Force - Discovery, Pursuit, and Justification in Modern Physics (Paperback, Softcover reprint of... The Rise and Fall of the Fifth Force - Discovery, Pursuit, and Justification in Modern Physics (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 2nd ed. 2016)
Allan Franklin, Ephraim Fischbach
R2,128 Discovery Miles 21 280 Out of stock

This book provides the reader with a detailed and captivating account of the story where, for the first time, physicists ventured into proposing a new force of nature beyond the four known ones - the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces, and gravitation - based entirely on the reanalysis of existing experimental data. Back in 1986, Ephraim Fischbach, Sam Aronson, Carrick Talmadge and their collaborators proposed a modification of Newton's Law of universal gravitation. Underlying this proposal were three tantalizing pieces of evidence: 1) an energy dependence of the CP (particle-antiparticle and reflection symmetry) parameters, 2) differences between the measurements of G, the universal gravitational constant, in laboratories and in mineshafts, and 3) a reanalysis of the Eoetvos experiment, which had previously been used to show that the gravitational mass of an object and its inertia mass were equal to approximately one part in a billion. The reanalysis revealed that, contrary to Galileo's position, the force of gravity was in fact very slightly different for different substances. The resulting Fifth Force hypothesis included this composition dependence and also added a small distance dependence to the inverse-square gravitational force. Over the next four years numerous experiments were performed to test the hypothesis. By 1990 there was overwhelming evidence that the Fifth Force, as initially proposed, did not exist. This book discusses how the Fifth Force hypothesis came to be proposed and how it went on to become a showcase of discovery, pursuit and justification in modern physics, prior to its demise. In this new and significantly expanded edition, the material from the first edition is complemented by two essays, one containing Fischbach's personal reminiscences of the proposal, and a second on the ongoing history and impact of the Fifth Force hypothesis from 1990 to the present.

Shifting Standards - Experiments in Particle Physics in the Twentieth Century (Hardcover): Allan Franklin Shifting Standards - Experiments in Particle Physics in the Twentieth Century (Hardcover)
Allan Franklin
R1,233 Discovery Miles 12 330 Out of stock

In "Shifting Standards, " Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in "Physical Review, " the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.
Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.
From Millikan's tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and employing over 2,000 authors, Franklin's study follows the decade-by-decade evolution of scale and standards in particle physics experimentation. As he shows, where once there were only one or two collaborators, now it literally takes a village. Similar changes are seen in data collection: in 1909 Millikan's data set took 175 oil drops, of which he used 23 to determine the value of e, the charge of the electron; in contrast, the 1988-1992 E791 experiment using the Collider Detector at Fermilab, investigating the hadroproduction of charm quarks, recorded 20 billion events. As we also see, data collection took a quantum leap in the 1950s with the use of computers. Events are now recorded at rates as of a few hundred per second, and analysis rates have progressed similarly.
Employing his epistemology of experimentation, Franklin deconstructs each example to view the arguments offered and the correctness of the results. Overall, he finds that despite the metamorphosis of the process, the role of experimentation has remained remarkably consistent through the years: to test theories and provide factual basis for scientific knowledge, to encourage new theories, and to reveal new phenomenon.

What Makes a Good Experiment? - Reasons and Roles in Science (Hardcover): Allan Franklin What Makes a Good Experiment? - Reasons and Roles in Science (Hardcover)
Allan Franklin
R1,366 Discovery Miles 13 660 Out of stock

What Makes a Good Experiment? revisits the important question Franklin posed in his 1981 article of the same title in BJPS, when it was generally believed that the only significant role of experiment in science was to test theories. But experiments can actually play a lot of different roles in science, as he explains--they can, for example, investigate a subject for which a theory does not exist, help to articulate an existing theory, call for a new theory, or correct incorrect or misinterpreted results. This book provides details of good experiments, with examples from physics and biology, illustrating the various ways they can be good and the different roles they can play.

Are There Really Neutrinos? (Hardcover, illustrated edition): Allan Franklin Are There Really Neutrinos? (Hardcover, illustrated edition)
Allan Franklin
R780 R602 Discovery Miles 6 020 Save R178 (23%) Out of stock

In this intriguing and accessible book, Allan Franklin argues that science is a reasonable enterprise that produces knowledge of the physical world based on valid experimental evidence and critical discussion. He does this by looking at the history of the neutrino, which he traces from the discovery of radioactivity to recent experiments on neutrino oscillations. He argues that this history has given us good reason to believe in the existence of the neutrino, a particle that interacts so weakly with matter that its interaction length is measured in light years of lead. If science can provide evidence for the reality of such an elusive particle then we can reasonably conclude that it provides us with knowledge.

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