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This book will be important for scientists involved in environmental research particularly in filling data gaps for risk assessment. It also will highlight key methods used in studying biological targets both from a toxicity standpoint and pharmacological activity. It provides a systems pharmacology/toxicology approach to computational toxicology, linking chemical exposures to genes, diseases, and complex biological/disease pathways. It also provides the discussion of new approaches to study chemical such as biological target elucidation and move this into computational models. Overall the book expands the computational focus of chemicals and biological interactions into the field of herbal and traditional medicines. It is noteworthy that the book reaches beyond pharmaceutical toxicology. The book will be a useful academic course book for both graduate and undergraduates studying pharmacology. It applies to areas such as Computational Toxicology; Systems biology; chemical-protein interactions; Interactions between Traditional Chinese Medicines/herbal medicines and Western therapeutics. Cross-promote this book with Big Data in Predictive Toxicology.
Toxicogenomics in Predictive Carcinogenicity describes toxicogenomics methods in predictive carcinogenicity testing, mode of action and safety evaluation, and cancer risk assessment. It illustrates these methods using case studies that have yielded significant new information on compounds and classes of compounds that have proven difficult to evaluate using conventional methods alone. This book additionally covers current and potential toxicogenomic research using stem cells as well as new bioinformatics methods for drug discovery and environmental toxicology.The information is needed because it has not previously been available. With the increasing complexity of research in mode of action investigations it is important to gain a better understand of approaches to data integration and health risk assessment. Furthermore, it is essential to consider how novel test systems and newer methods and approaches may be used in future to gain a better understanding of mechanisms. The proposed publication will provide details of chemical case studies not available in previous volumes and will demonstrate how various data is assembled and integrated to arrive at an informed assessment of chemical safety and human health risk. It will be the most current volume which comprehensively covers the subject. This publication is an indispensable tool for postgraduates, academics and industrialists working in biochemistry, genomics, carcinogenesis, pathology, pharmaceuticals, food technology, bioinformatics, risk assessment and environmental toxicology. Societies: American Association for Cancer Research AACR (http://www.aacr.org/) Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society (http://www.emgs/org) International Association of Environmental Mutagen Societies (http://www.iaems/org) International Union of Toxicology (http://www.iutox.org/) Society of Toxicology (http://www.toxicology.org/) Journals for reviews: Cancer Research Mutation Research Toxicology Research Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Toxicology Toxicology Letters Critical Reviews in Toxicology Archives of Toxicology Pharmacology & Toxicology Fundamental and Applied Toxicology Toxicologic Pathology Clinical Toxicology Human and Experimental Toxicology International Journal of Toxicology Toxicology and Industrial Health Drug and Chemical Toxicology Drug safety Journal of Toxicology Toxicological Sciences Websites: American Association for Cancer Research AACR (http://www.aacr.org/) Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society (http://www.emgs/org) International Association of Environmental Mutagen Societies (http://www.iaems/org) International Union of Toxicology (http://www.iutox.org/) Society of Toxicology (http://www.toxicology.org/) Cross-promote with the textbook Fundamental Toxicology
Concerns about the adverse effects of chemicals present in the environment have created a need for better systems to assess their potential consequences on human health. One potential solution is the versatile and state-of-the-art Comet assay. Simple, sensitive, rapid and visual, this modern toxicological method allows quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA damage in single cells. This assay is used in diverse fields ranging from clinical applications, human monitoring and environmental toxicology through to genetic toxicity testing. This updated and revised edition of The Comet Assay in Toxicology provides the latest information on this important tool. It addresses, in-depth, the different protocols, statistical analyses and applications used worldwide. It also includes the guidelines recommended by the Working Group on Comet Assay. The book begins with a review of the genesis of the assay for those new to the technique and goes on to explain procedures followed to assess different types of DNA damage, various applications of the assay, and guidelines for the conduct of the assay in in vitro and in vivo systems. New chapters written for this edition will provide information on the most contemporary approaches and applications, including in silico approaches, on meta-analysis of data and on the application of the Comet Assay in nanotoxicology. This book will serve as both a reference and a guide to students as well as investigators in the biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences fields.
This book addresses a long-standing problem in environmental toxicology and drug development, which new research advances are beginning to address. It will advance the scientific knowledge of toxicologists in a several different application areas, including environmental health sciences, pharmaceutical drug development, and medicine. It is relevant for Academics, Postgraduates, Undergraduates and Industrialists working in the areas of Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tissue Cell Biology and Stem Cell Biology. Competing books include the 2014 Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine, and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology. Cross-promote with Stem Cells: Regenerative Pharmacology, Drug Discovery & Development, edited by Timothy Allsopp and Chris Mason and planned for publication in the Drug Discovery Series in 2016.
Aerobiology is the study of airborne organic particulates in the environment, such as bacteria or fungal spores. These can be either naturally occurring or artificially introduced into the air. Some of the toxicological, pharmacological, and physiological effects of bioaerosols include infections, allergies, and cancer. Research efforts in aerobiology range from remediating household mould to combating bioterrorism. This book focusses on the toxicological aspects of aerobiology, considering the adverse health effects associated with the inhalation of specific bioaerosols, such as anthrax and ricin. Additionally, chapters cover techniques for generating, sampling and characterizing airborne biological materials as well as methods for establishing standards of exposure. Moreover, mitigation of exposure and protection against exposure are described. Bringing together the contemporary status of information in the area, this book will be a valuable reference book for pulmonary specialists, general practitioners of medicine, public health and public safety officers, first responders, military personnel, and students studying toxicology and related disciplines.
Parkinson's Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. In order to find neuroprotective strategies, a clear understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dopaminergic death of cells that progresses the disease is needed. Oxidative stress can be defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive species and the ability to detoxify them and their intermediates or by-products. Oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA has been detected in autopsies from individuals with Parkinson's Disease and so links can be made between oxidative stress and Parkinson's Disease pathogenesis. This book provides a thorough review of the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and redox signalling mediate Parkinson's Disease. Opening chapters bring readers up to speed on basic knowledge regarding oxidative stress and redox signalling, Parkinson's Disease, and neurodegeneration before the latest advances in this field are explored in detail. Topics covered in the following chapters include the role of mitochondria, dopamine metabolism, metal homeostasis, inflammation, DNA-damage and thiol-signalling. The role of genetics and gene-environment interactions are also explored before final chapters discuss the identification of potential biomarkers for diagnosis and disease progression and the future of redox/antioxidant based therapeutics. Written by recognized experts in the field, this book will be a valuable source of information for postgraduate students and academics, clinicians, toxicologists and risk assessment groups. Importantly, it presents the current research that might later lead to redox or antioxidant - based therapeutics for Parkinson's disease.
Hair in Toxicology: An Important Biomonitor is the first book of its kind devoted exclusively to in-depth analysis of the hair shaft as an important tool for a diverse range of scientific investigations. This authoritative book combines contributions from experts in academic, governmental and industrial environments, to provide a unique, comprehensive look at: - Why hair can serve as an invaluable bio-resource in toxicology, with up-to-date reviews on hair growth, hair fibre formation and hair pigmentation - Information (including regulatory details) on the exposure of hair (and by extension the body) to drug and non-drug chemicals and pollutants - Toxicological issues relevant to the use of hair products (including colourants, shampoos and depilatories) - The ability of hair to capture information on personal identity, chemical exposure, and environmental interactions - How hair can provide an understanding of human life from archaeological and historical perspectives - Future direction in the use of hair in toxicology Hair in Toxicology: An Important Biomonitor is ideal as a reference and guide to investigations in the biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences at the graduate and post graduate level.
Genotoxic carcinogens can lead to DNA mutations with the potential to cause cancer. Typically, a series of mutation events are needed before malignancy occurs so a single, small exposure may not result in disease. Also, cells have an armoury of defence mechanisms which, to a degree, counter the effects of mutagens. Distinguishing the point at which exposure to a carcinogen increases mutation rates beyond the background level is challenging. In fact, there is now general agreement that, for genotoxic carcinogens, no specific threshold can be identified. However, NOAELs (No Observed Adverse Effect Levels) may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship. These denote the level of exposure at which there is no significant increase in adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to an appropriate control. Such a scientifically defendable threshold allows us to propose health based exposure limits for genotoxic carcinogens. This book describes the various cellular defence mechanisms individually and explains how they are regulated. The processes covered include metabolic inactivation, epigenetic regulation, scavenging mechanisms, DNA-repair and apoptosis. It also considers dose-dependent threshold mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the rate limiting parameters. Aimed at graduate level and above, the book discusses the consequences of genotoxic evaluation and urges readers to question the idea that even low exposures present a cancer risk.
The world's aging populations, with age-related disorders affecting every organ system, are generating medical care costs rising at an unsustainable rate. Although such disorders are expected, we are now beginning to ask whether exposures to toxic environmental chemicals hasten or account for their onset. This book provides a detailed review of current knowledge about the possible associations between a variety of chemical contaminants and adverse effects later in life. It will serve as a guide to policy decisions about protecting us from chemical exposures that distort the aging process. It provides a guide to current understanding of how our contaminated environment may be influencing the aging process and contains examples of approaches that will help us undertake further research on this topic. It will help alert policy makers to the implications of chemical pollution for aging populations and will help formulate initiatives for environmental protection. The book provides a comprehensive view of how environmental exposures may alter the health of our aging population. For readers engaged in environmental research, or aging research, it will highlight a number of questions that need more attention For other readers, they will learn something about the kind of exposures they should avoid or that they should prompt policy makers to reduce or eliminate.
The potential impact of anthropogenic pollutants such as agrochemicals on the environment is of global concern. Increasing use of certain compounds can result in contamination of food, water and atmospheric systems and in order to combat this pollution it is important to be able to accurately monitor the short and long term effects. This two-volume set of books describes the latest non-traditional aquatic and terrestrial species models used as indicators of the toxic effects of environmental pollutants. The set enables understanding of the effects of pollutants in non-target species, and therefore enables analysis of the effects on ecosystems. This book will be of interest to anyone interested in developing new biomarker species with high degrees of ecological relevance. It will serve as a useful resource for regulatory and research toxicologists.
In Silico methods to predict toxicity have become increasingly important recently, particularly in light of European legislation such as REACH and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. In assessing the risk that a chemical may pose to human health or to the environment, focus is now being directed towards exploitation of in silico methods to replace in vivo or in vitro techniques. A prediction of potential toxicity requires several stages: 1) Collation and organisation of data available for the compound, or if this is not available, information for related compounds. 2) An assessment of the quality of the data. 3) Generation of additional information about the compound using computational techniques at various levels of complexity - calculation of physico-chemical properties, 2-D, 3-D / MO descriptors and specific receptor modelling / interaction. 4) Use of an appropriate strategy to predict toxicity - ie a statistically valid method which makes best use of all available information (mechanism of action, activity for related compounds, extrapolation across species and endpoints, likely exposure scenario amounts over time etc). 5) Consideration then needs to be given to how this information is used in the real world ie use of expert systems / tools as relevant to assessors (if sufficiently different to previous) - weight of evidence approaches. 6) Finally evidence should be presented from case studies within this area. No other publication brings together information on all of these areas in one book and this publication is unique in that it provides a logical progression through every one of these key stages and defines the use of computational approaches to predict the environmental toxicity and human health effects of organic chemicals. The volume is aimed at the developers and users of in silico toxicology and provides an analysis of all aspects required for in silico prediction of toxicology, including data collation, quality assessment and computational approaches. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book provides a very useful single source reference for people working in this area including academics, professionals, under- and post-graduate students as well as Governmental Regulatory Scientists involved in chemical risk assessment and REACH.
The vast number of chemicals existing or being added into the environment, have globally aroused great concern regarding their adverse effects in human population. Development and validation of sensitive and better test systems which can assess the adverse effects of chemicals at an early stage for intervention strategies to be implemented in time is currently in progress. This book documents the latest research and showcases the versatile, state-of-the-art technique - the Comet assay - in the field of modern toxicology. The assay is a simple, sensitive rapid and visual technique for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA damage in single cells. The Comet Assay in Toxicology is the first book of its kind to be devoted exclusively to the Comet assay and its applications as an important tool in modern toxicology. This multi-author book will serve as both a reference and a guide to investigations in the biomedical, biochemical and pharmaceutical sciences. Written by investigators from the fields of genetic toxicology and human epidemiology, the authors have first-hand knowledge from their chosen sub-specialities and are active contributors to the peer-reviewed scientific literature. The book is divided into five major sections, reflecting the range of interest in the exploitation of this assay. The book's scope begins with an introduction section reviewing its genesis for those new to the technique and the current knowledge of the various fields in which it finds wide acceptance. This section sets the scene by explaining why the assay has become the most sensitive and sought after assay in modern toxicology. Next is a whole section that considers various procedures being followed to assess different types of DNA damage in various cell types and is contributed by experts in the respective fields. The third section puts together the specific applications of the assay in the diverse fields ranging from genetic toxicity testing to human monitoring, and environmental toxicology. The fourth section consists of the guidelines and recommendations for the conduct of the assay in in vitro and in vivo systems, based on the recommendations of the International Workgroups on genotoxicity test procedures. Finally, the book draws to a close with an assessment of the statistics used for the understanding of the data generated by the assay. This is a unique reference book as it provides the scientific community with the advances in Comet assay as well as its applications. It also incorporates a detailed section with instant and comprehensive information on the procedure of the assay and the latest protocols being used worldwide as well as statistical analyses to be followed. The book is aimed at students as well as scientists in the area of molecular epidemiology and genetic toxicology.
Bile acids are increasingly being seen as extremely important carcinogenic agents in cancers of the bile duct, liver, colon, rectum, and oesophagus. They are essential agents involved in lipid digestion and absorption in mammals, however, they also play wide-ranging roles in a variety of disease states ranging from diabetes to cancer. They have evolved exquisite mechanisms for controlling their own synthesis and to ensure that they are produced at correct concentrations and also kept in the correct anatomical environment. It is only when these fine levels of controls are breached that Bile acids become associated with disease. This breaching of control mechanisms can occur through dietary means (e.g. in obesity) whereby excessive levels of Bile acids are produced and converted (via the bacterial flora) to damaging secondary Bile acids. Furthermore, lack of re-absorption of Bile acids can lead to liver pathologies. The atypical movement of Bile acids into the oesophagus, stimulated by episodes of reflux, is linked to oesophageal cancer. In recent years there have been tremendous advances in the understanding of the mechanisms behind the toxicity and bioactivity of different Bile acids and these are covered at length in this book. Prior to the publication of this book there was no single source of information on the toxicology and bioactivity properties of Bile acids. The book also uniquely collects all the relevant information together regarding the role of Bile acids in human disease and the mechanisms underlying Bile acid induced pathology. Additionally, as Bile acids are synthesised from cholesterol, there is wide recognition of the role for Bile acids in obesity linked diseases and this is also covered in this new publication. The book is edited by two experts in the field who have been involved in Bile acid research for several years and who are closely involved with major research groups in the UK, Europe and the US actively engaged in Bile acid research. The Editors have brought together world experts in their own fields to discuss the contribution of Bile acids to various disease pathologies, as well as discussing the mechanisms behind their activity. The book details the plethora of biological activities of this fascinating group of naturally occurring chemicals and provides a one-stop reference for scientists wishing to gain a fuller understanding of Bile acid activity and function.
The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutations are thought to be becoming more prevalent as a result of: exposure to chemicals in the environment, anti cancer regimes that use genotoxic agents and assisted conception techniques. In addition to the increasing frequency of mutations in the general population, attention is also being given to the effects of epigenetic events on future generations. Male-mediated Developmental Toxicity discusses these issues comprehensively and includes further analysis on the fundamental mechanisms of mutations. With both clinical and experimental sections, written by leading experts in the field, this book will appeal to both medical practitioners and researchers.
The potential impact of anthropogenic pollutants such as agrochemicals on the environment is of global concern. Increasing use of certain compounds can result in contamination of food, water and atmospheric systems and in order to combat this pollution it is important to be able to accurately monitor the short and long term effects. This book describes the latest aquatic species models used as indicators of the toxic effects of environmental pollutants, including models that have not routinely been used. The book enables understanding of the effects of pollutants in non-target species, and therefore enables analysis of the effects on ecosystems. This book will be of interest to anyone interested in developing new biomarker species with high degrees of ecological relevance. It will serve as a useful resource for regulatory and research toxicologists, particularly those studying freshwater, marine water and sediment environments.
The potential impact of anthropogenic pollutants such as agrochemicals on the environment is of global concern. Increasing use of certain compounds can result in contamination of food, water and atmospheric systems and in order to combat this pollution it is important to be able to accurately monitor the short and long term effects. This book describes the latest non-traditional terrestrial species models used as indicators of the toxic effects of environmental pollutants. The book enables understanding of the effects of pollutants in non-target species, and therefore enables analysis of the effects on ecosystems. This book will be of interest to anyone interested in developing new biomarker species with high degrees of ecological relevance. It will serve as a useful resource for regulatory and research toxicologists, particularly those interested in soil screening and the effects of pollutants on wildlife and insects and their use as biological indicators.
Advances in Dermatological Sciences collates major scientific research achievements over the last two years in a diverse range of dermatological research fields. Examples of key topics covered include experimental models, toxicology, regulatory, exposure assessment, therapeutics, cosmetics and decontamination. A unique feature of the book is the introductory chapter to each section that is written by an internationally-recognised expert summarising work to date, and explaining how new research contributes to our overall understanding of the skin and where the next major developments are likely to be focussed in the future. Each section contains several experimental research chapters that present contemporary research on 'hot topics' or major advances relevant to the dermatological sciences. The book incorporates a broad range of specialist topics rather than focussing on one single aspect so as to appeal to a broader audience. Thus, the proposed book will distil cutting-edge advances across all of the dermatological sciences into one major work and so provide a one-stop portal for accessing the current state of knowledge that will communicate both a readily accessible overview (in the form of introductory chapters) and also detailed, expert contributions. The text will be essential reading for interdisciplinary scientists working in dermal pharmacology, dermatological and dermatotoxicological sciences.
The aim of this book is to provide the scientific background to using the formation of chemical categories, or groups, of molecules to allow for read-across i.e. the prediction of toxicity from chemical structure. It covers the scientific basis for this approach to toxicity prediction including the methods to group compounds (structural analogues and / or similarity, mechanism of action) and the tools to achieve this. The approaches to perform read-across within a chemical category are also described. The book will provide concise practical guidance for those wishing to apply these methods (in risk / hazard assessment) and will be illustrated with case studies. Chemical Toxicity Prediction is the first book that addresses the concept of category formation and read-across for toxicity prediction specifically. This topic has really taken off in the past few years due to concerns over dealing with the REACH legislation and also due to the availability of the OECD (Q)SAR Toolbox. Much (lengthy and complex) guidance is available on category formation e.g. from the OECD and, to a lesser extent, the European Chemicals Agency but there is no one single source of information that covers all techniques in a concise user-friendly format. There is a real need for this information as in silico toxicology has come to the fore in recent years, primarily as a result of the EU REACH legislation, but also due to many other drivers e.g. reduction of animal testing, Cosmetics regulation. Category formation is seen as the only practical approach to make rational and transparent predictions for complex (human) toxicological endpoints. The book covers all the areas required to create a robust category and perform read-across.
The latest attack on Thera Logan's life wasn't the first one and won't be the last. Someone wants her dead, but until she realizes that these attacks aren't just random acts of violence or mere coincidences, she leaves herself wide-open. After her divorce from Nolan Logan, she decides to move from Seattle, Washington back to her hometown of Tahlequah, Oklahoma to live with her father and try to start a new life. She is surprised to find her old childhood sweetheart, Caleb Sutherland, has moved back home too. Old sparks fly until Caleb starts asking too many questions, and then the mystery surrounding Caleb's return coinciding with hers draws her suspicion. Caleb is determined to get answers to pertinent questions that he feels only Thera can answer, and he'll go to any length to get them . . . even deception. He's not the only one asking too many questions. Her ex-husband pops in for unexpected visits, wants to reconcile, and is being far too inquisitive. Confusion fogs Thera's world. What does Caleb really want? Why the sudden interest from Nolan? And who is stalking her? What does she possess that is more important to someone than her own life? Her fears and suspicions of Caleb and Nolan's annoying persistence to reconcile put her into flight mode, but fleeing will only set into motion a deadly rollercoaster ride leading up to an event that leaves her totally helpless. Her only way back is to remember when.
You spend a lot of time in your home and office. These environments surround you with electronic frequencies that could be out of harmony with nature and your natural biorhythms. It has only been in the last one hundred years that human bodies have been subjected to new and constantly changing frequencies that were absent in most of our evolution. The imbalance of your indoor environment can deplete your energy, make you fatigued or even sick. You have the ability to center yourself within any environment and even bring a balanced vibration to your indoor living space. The answers to a healthier indoor setting are within this book. Using this metaphysical guide to ground yourself and your environment, you can have the energy and health you desire to feel more alive. Diana learned at an early age the power of intuition and her sensitivities to the unseen world. Though touch she was able to feel the physical pain of others beginning at age seventeen. Through extensive research and training, she has honed her intuitive skills and uses them to heal herself and others.
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