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This book provides a comprehensive overview of nucleophilic aromatic substitutions, focusing on the mechanistic and synthetic features that govern these reactions. The first chapter presents a detailed mechanistic analysis of the factors determining the feasibility of SNAr substitutions, providing decisive information to predict regioselectivity of many reactions and to define the conditions for concerted SNAr processes. Reflecting the key role played by these species as intermediates in most SNAr reactions, chapter 2 then discusses the chemistry of anionic sigma-complexes. Chapter 3 describes the concept of superelectrophilicity in SNAr substitutions, as it has recently emerged from the reactivity of strongly electron-deficient aromatic and heteroaromatic structures. The numerous synthetic applications are considered in depth in the chapters 4 and 5 that follow on intermolecular and intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitutions. Then, chapter 6 focuses on substitutions proceeding formally through displacement of a hydride ion, a hot topic in the field. The final chapter brings together concise yet comprehensive discussions surrounding SNAr photosubstitutions, radical substitutions, and ANRORC substitutions. Authored by a highly respected chemist who has contributed greatly to the field over the past two decades, this is a valuable information source for all organic chemists working in academia or the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries.
The 2010 European Conference on Modelling Foundations and Applications (ECMFA 2010) was dedicated to assessing the state of the art and the state of the practice in model-based engineering. It was the sixth edition in the - ries of conferences previously known under the title "European Conference on Model-DrivenArchitecture-FoundationsandApplications(ECMDA-FA)."The name changere?ects the de facto broadening of the conference scope beyondthe R R MDA initiative of the Object Management Group to cover all major advances related to model-based engineering approaches. These proceedings, like the ones from previous editions in the conference series, will undoubtedly serve as a reference to all who follow model-based engineering theory and practice. The included papers document the steady e- lution of model-based development methods into a mature discipline, with we- established standards, industrial-strength tools, and emerging theoretical fo- dations. They also serve to illustrate that model-based approaches are capable of signi?cantproductivity andquality improvementsrelativeto moretraditional development methods.
The advent of spiral CT has brought about a major breakthrough in abdominal imaging. This volume, written by US and European experts in the field, is designed to provide detailed information on all pertinent aspects of the technique. Introductory chapters examine image acquisition and processing, but the main focus is on clinical applications. The key pathologies of each abdominal organ system in which spiral CT has resulted in a major diagnostic improvement are discussed in depth and richly illustrated. Attention is paid to the choice of the parameters for imaging and automated contrast material injection, tailored to each specific organ and to the most common clinical conditions. The advantages and drawbacks of spiral CT are carefully appraised relative to other imaging modalities, particularly Doppler sonography and MRI. The concluding chapters are devoted to topics such as abdominal trauma, spiral CT in children, and CT-guided interventional procedures.
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